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so distrustful that he speedily dissolved it. Then the Scottish war broke out more fiercely than ever, and, when an army actually invaded England, he quickly summoned the law-making body once more. This is known in history as the Long Parliament, because it lasted twenty years-longer than the life of the King.

It was composed of three divisions the Independents, the Presbyterians, and the Episcopalians. Strafford was impeached and sentenced to execution. The King passionately refused to sign the death-warrant, but yielded to Strafford's own urgency, the minister bravely offering himself as a sacrifice in order to soothe the dangerously excited people. Then Laud was accused of attempting to overthrow the Protestant religion. Both were sent to prison and afterward executed. The Star Chamber and the High Commission Court were abolished, a bill was passed requiring Parliament to be summoned once every three years, and a law enacted forbidding the dissolution of the Parliament then in session without its own consent. The Grand Remonstrance, which set forth all the shortcomings of the King's government, was printed and circulated throughout the country, and added much to the distrust already felt for the King. Charles was now at bay, and, urged on by his French Queen, did the most foolish thing conceivable. His leading opponents in Parliament were Hampden, Pym, and three others. He determined to arrest them. With an armed force he went to Parliament to drag them from their seats, but when he looked around for them their places were empty. They had received warning, and, slipping out of a side door, were safely sheltered by friends in the city. Charles angrily turned to the speaker and demanded where they were. That officer made obeisance, and, begging the King's pardon, replied he could neither see nor speak except by order of the house.

Baffled and furious, the King determined to make Parliament bend to his will through the use of military force. It must not be supposed that he did not have a large number of friends, and his confidence in his strength would seem to have been warranted. While England had no standing army, every county had a large body of militia, which was legally under the control of the King, and Parliament now insisted that he should resign that control into its hands. He refused, flung his standard to the breeze at Nottingham, August 22, 1642, and the civil war began.

In this lamentable strife the opponents were Royalists and Parliamentarians, or more popularly Cavaliers and Roundheads, the latter name being applied to the Puritans, who, to show their contempt of the prevailing fashion of long hair, wore their own cropped short. They were commanded by an able officer in Robert, Earl of Essex, a son of the favorite whom Elizabeth had caused to be executed. He met the Royalists at Edgehill, in Warwickshire, on the

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England The Civil War

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The commander of the

23d of October, and fought an indecisive battle. Cavaliers was Prince Rupert, son of the Queen of Bohemia, and nephew of the King, a brave, dashing officer, whose practice of looting caused many to look upon his acts with disfavor. The King was well provided with gentleman cavalry, whose horses were much superior to those of the raw levies of the Parliamentarians; but he had insufficient artillery and ammunition. The Queen, who had withdrawn to Holland, sold her own and the crown jewels, and bought considerable ammunition, which she sent to him. She herself returned to England in February, 1643, with four ships, and landed at Bridlington, where the house in which she lodged was bombarded so hotly that she had to run outside and take refuge in a ditch. A few months later the gallant patriot, Hampden, was killed in a skirmish with Prince Rupert.

In this civil war, it may be said that the western half of England stood by the King, while the eastern half with London opposed him. Both sides bent all their energies to the prosecution of the struggle. The Cavaliers melted their silver plate to obtain money for the troops. Parliament, for the people, imposed heavy taxes and for the first time levied a duty on ales, liquors, and domestic products. Every Puritan household was ordered to fast one day in each week and to give the price of a dinner to the support of the cause. An important measure passed was styled the Self-denying Ordinance, which made all officers holding civil or military office, resign, the real purpose of the law being to weed out the incompetent leaders, that their places might be filled by abler and more aggressive men.

Parliament now formed an alliance with the Scots, who, in 1644, sent an army, while Charles made a treaty of peace with the Catholics in Ireland, so as to allow him to bring troops from that country. He then summoned those of the Peers and Commons who were loyal to him to meet in Parliament at Oxford, and they thence directed his cause. It failed because of the transcendent ability of one man.

Oliver Cromwell was born at Huntingdon in 1599, his father being a substantial country gentleman. Little is known of his boyhood, but he left college in 1616 to take the management of the estate of his father, who had died. In 1620, he married the daughter of Sir James Bourchier, thus proving his social position to have been above what his enemies described it. He associated himself with the Puritan party, who respected his earnestness and sagacity. He made his first appearance in Parliament in 1628, but had hardly taken his seat when he and his fellow-commoners were hustled home again by the King. Cromwell devoted the next eleven years to farming, but was sent to Parliament in 1640 as a member for the town of Cambridge. A description of his appearance at that time says: "He was dressed in a plain cloth suit, which seemed to

have been made by an ill country tailor; his linen was plain, and not very clean; and I remember a speck or two of blood upon his little band, which was not much larger than his collar. His hat was without a hat-band; his stature was of good size; his sword stuck close to his side; his countenance swollen and reddish; his voice sharp and untunable, and his eloquence full of fervor." In July, 1642, Cromwell moved in Parliament for permission to raise two companies of volunteers, having first supplied the necessary arms at his own cost. A month later he seized the magazine at Cambridgeshire and prevented the Royalists from carrying off the valuable plate in the university. Now that the opportunity came, Cromwell exhibited astonishing military genius. The troop of cavalry that he formed, his "Ironsides," resisted the battle shock of the fiery Rupert, who hurled his gallant cavaliers in vain against them. As lieutenant-colonel on the bloody field of Marston (July 2, 1644), and in the second battle of Newbury, three months later, Cromwell displayed admirable bravery and skill, but the backwardness of his superiors prevented their reaping the full fruits of victory. Cromwell complained in Parliament, and declared that unless greater vigor was shown a dishonorable peace would be forced upon them. He had already so demonstrated his ability that he was excepted from the provision of the "Self-denying Ordinance." In the new model army which was formed, Lord Fairfax, one of the few noblemen on the Puritan side, was appointed general, with Cromwell as lieutenant-general of the horse. Naseby (June, 1645) Cromwell commanded the right wing of the Parliamentary forces, and the royal army was utterly routed and ruined. After the disorderly flight, the papers of the King were picked up on the battle-field, and proved him more perfidious than even his enemies had suspected. These papers revealed that he meant to betray those who were negotiating with him for peace, and was arranging to bring foreign troops to England.

At

Naseby practically ended the first civil war. The Royalists in the west were soon brought under submission. Bristol was carried by storm, and everywhere the cause of the King rapidly crumbled. In May, 1646, he escaped from Oxford in disguise, and finally, in his extremity, surrendered to the Scotch army, which delivered him to the English Parliament. After remaining a state prisoner for more than four months, he was carried off by a cornet of Fairfax's guard to the army, chiefly Independents, so set against Presbyterianism that it now became the rival of Parliament. Charles thought he could use one party against the other, and began negotiating with each, intending to betray both. The soldiers became so threatening that, believing his life in danger, he escaped from Hampton Court, and, in his bewilderment, flung himself into the custody of Colonel Hammond, governor of the Isle of Wight, who confined him in a castle, from which he tried in vain to escape.

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