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England-The Protestant Bible

1055 place stuff on theology and witchcraft, and verses which had no merit at all. Sir Walter Raleigh had introduced the use of tobacco in England, and King James directed one of his mushy fulminations against the noxious weed. Despite all this, he often displayed glimmerings of broad ability and statesmanship; but had he not been born to the purple, he would have attracted no attention from any one.

While on his way from Scotland to receive the crown, an immense petition was presented to him from the Puritan clergy, asking that they might be permitted to preach without wearing a surplice, to perform the marriage ceremony without using the ring, to baptize without making the sign of the cross on the child's forehead, and to dispense with bishops. The King held a conference at Hampton Court near London, eager for the chance to display his learning. But he distrusted the Puritans. He was an unshakable believer in the divine right of kings to rule, and looked upon this petition of the Puritans as a dangerous step toward the disputing of that right. To all arguments he replied with a wag of the head, and mumbled his pet maxim, "No bishop, no king,' meaning that the two were inseparable. He would not grant any of their prayers; persecutions of the Puritans became so violent that, as you know, many of them left the country, and some crossed the Atlantic to settle in New England.

The most notable result of the Hampton Court Conference was the order of the King for a new translation of the Bible. This was published in 1611, and constituted the Authorized Version, which is still used by the Protestants everywhere. When the King to the Puritans they must conform to the practice of the Episcopal Church, three hundred of their clergymen surrendered their parishes. Parliament was displeased with James' harsh treatment of the Puritans, while the Catholics were angry because he refused to grant the indulgences upon which they had counted.

The King added to his growing unpopularity by the vehemence with which he insisted upon his "divine rule." He maintained that his authority was derived directly from God and was above and beyond the English Constitution, a theory that placed every man's life and liberty completely at his mercy. The people would have laughed but for the danger of the claim, which led James continually to violate the law of the land. He turned out legally elected members of the House of Commons, and thrust in prison those who found fault with his action. This fight lasted throughout the whole twenty-two years of his reign.

Robert Catesby, a prominent Catholic, formed a plot to blow up the Parliament House, on the day the King was to open the session, November 5, 1605. The government having been thus hoisted out of the way, he expected to per

suade the Catholics to rise and proclaim a new sovereign. The plan was to select one of the King's younger children, since it was expected that the eldest would be with his father when the catastrophe occurred.

A cellar under the House of Lords was rented, and barrels of gunpowder were secretly carried thither. Guy Fawkes, a soldier of fortune, of considerable military experience and of dauntless courage, was the most determined of the little knot of conspirators. The plan was for him to fire the explosive and then flee to Flanders on a ship that was waiting in the Thames. The Roman Catholic peers, and others whom the conspirators wished to save, were to be prevented from going to the house by some pretended message on the morning of the fateful day. Where so many were in the plot, it is not surprising that it was revealed to the King and those selected for destruction. On the morning of November 5th, a little after midnight, Guy Fawkes was arrested as he was coming out of the cellar under the Parliament House, dressed as for a long journey. Three matches were found on him, a dark lantern burning in a corner within, and a hogshead of thirty-six barrels of gunpowder. Under torture Fawkes confessed his guilt, but would not betray his associates, though they were traced out and either killed on being captured, or died on the scaffold.

The obstacle to James enforcing his divine right was that he was always in need of money, and Parliament, which was groping back toward its moorings, refused to make the grants without the concession of reforms on his part. In order to get money to support his army in Ireland, James created the title of baronet, which any one could buy for a round price. The people did not seem so anxious for the honor as he expected, so he ordered that every one who had an income of £40 or more a year, derived from landed property, must either buy knighthood or pay a big price for the privilege of not buying it. It was a sort of "Hobson's choice," and honors were plentiful.

You know how the name of Sir Walter Raleigh is identified with the settlement of the southern part of this country. Without the slightest foundation for the charge, he was accused of conspiracy and kept for a number of years in the Tower. Then the avaricious King let him out, to go on an expedition in quest of treasure in a distant part of the world. Raleigh not only failed to get the treasure, but was foolish enough to become embroiled with the Spaniards on the coast of South America. The Spanish king hated Raleigh because of the part he had taken in the destruction of the Spanish Armada, and he demanded of James that the latter should punish his subject for the flurry in South America. The English sovereign was so angry because of Raleigh's failure to secure him the coveted wealth, that he revived the fifteen-year-old charge of conspiracy, and had the once popular favorite beheaded.

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