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A special publication descriptive of education in Japan treats of primary education, secondary education, technical education, the training of teachers, higher education, education of women, art education, education of the blind and dumb, libraries and miscellaneous educational agencies. The cost of public education in Japan is shown to have increased from 43,000,000 yen in 1903-4 to 80,500,000 yen in 1912-13. Special attention is given to school hygiene. Libraries increased from 93 in 1903-4 to 540 in 1912-13; the number of volumes grew from 1,000,000 to over 3,000,000; and the visitors to the libraries increased from 550,000 to nearly 4,000,000.
The growth of the Imperial universities was as follows: In 1911-12 there were 6,440 students, as compared with 3,370 in 1902-3; there were 1,270 graduates, as compared with 625; the teachers numbered 600, as compared with 308 in 1902-3; and the expenditures increased. from $1,800,000 to $4,550,000.
The following summary table affords a view of the development of educational institutions in Japan between the years 1908 and 1913: Number of students and pupils from 1908-9 to 1912-13.
Institutes for training of technical school-teachers.
184 149, 339
177 145, 122
6,627,110 7,150,470 7,589, 117 7,809, 140 7,893,719
A number of screens indicated the progress of elementary education in Uruguay. The primary enrollment grew from 72,972 in 1904 to 91,882 in 1909, and 113,620 in 1914. Photographic views illustrated the type of primary work. Special attention was given to health care and education.
The National Institute of Agronomy exhibited models showing various forms of vineyard culture, practical and ornamental plans for trimming.
V. EXHIBITS OF INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZA
AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. How libraries are reaching out to do effective work in all communities, however remote, and in many other ways than by simply hoarding books, was told in the exhibit of the American Library Association. The exhibits showed in a direct way what librarians are
Entrance of the American Library Association space; California County library map in the background.
doing to bring books and reading into every home, shop, school, and office.
“ Education need not cease when school is finished,” according to the exhibit. “The library habit learned in youth brings pleasure and inspiration all through life. Books and libraries are a real help in the problems which arise in every person's work.”
Rural library work was featured, with illustrations from Washington County, Md.; Multnomah County, Oreg.; Hood River County, Oreg.; Van Wert County, Ohio; Monterey County, Cal.; Alameda County, Cal.; Yolo County, Cal.; and other localities. 11619°—16
A map indicated what States had and had not State library commissions. “A library commission for every State ” was the demandto lend encouragement to the establishment of libraries; to give expert advice on library problems; to organize public and school libraries; to lend traveling libraries; to publish lists of good books.
The following States have library commissions, according to the exhibit:1 Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ne
, braska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.
Growth in library service was indicated by charts portraying circulation and distribution in several progressive cities. The Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library, for example, has 270,000 borrowers in the main library, 24 branch libraries, 17 school branches, 360 classroom libraries, 57 home libraries, 41 deposit stations in shops, schools, etc., and 55 delivery stations, or a total of 555 separate agencies for distribution.
Special emphasis was laid upon children's libraries, one entire section being given to children's books. Various charts and tables showed how the Cleveland Public Library reaches the children through the following agencies:
1 teacher's and parent's room;
360 classroom libraries (in 65 public schools, 16 parochial schools, and 27 institutions);
57 home libraries.
Good books for all children, only books read and approved by experienced children's librarians, are in the Cleveland Public Library, according to the exhibit. More than 1,000,000 books are read by Cleveland children every year; 20 per cent of all persons of reading age in Cleveland are children under 15 years; 39 per cent of all borrowers are children; 43 per cent of all books read are children's books (more than 1,000,000).
Photographs and book lists showed the widely varying uses of the library in typical cities. Books for business men, for housekeepers, farmers, and artisans are brought to the attention of thousands of
1 Arkansas now has a State library commission.
“Getting books to all the people.” A corner of the American Library Association exhibit, showing
the widening scope of library activity-in art and music, in civics, in work for the blind, and as an aid to industry.
CHILDRENS ROOMS | PUBLIC LIBRA
Children's corner in the American Library Association exhibit.