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these schools is intensely practical and covers a sufficient scientific background such as these practical studies require in the various fields. These schools are also under the control of the National Government through the department of agriculture.

The schools which provide for the thorough scientific instruction underlying all agricultural occupations are under the control of the national universities of Buenos Aires and La Plata.

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The annual cost of all agricultural schools is about 3,500,000 pesos, including the expenses incurred in the maintenance of experimental stations, the excursions and university extension teaching.


The universities of Argentina maintain the traditional faculties of jurisprudence, belles letters, philosophy, and pure and applied sciences, developing also the newer departments of university work, such as agriculture, pedagogy, etc. The La Plata University has been instrumental in the exchange of professors and has encouraged the visits of public men of note from Europe and the United States of America.

In connection with higher education in Argentina it is a point of interest that the number of university graduates in the city of Buenos Aires is in proportion with the population larger than in other cities of the world. The budget of the three or four foremost important universities of Argentina reaches 8.500,000 pesos a year, and their combined attendance was 9,100 students in 1914.

Several sliding screens testified to a belief in the possibilities for mutual helpfulness between the nations of North and South America, particularly Argentina and the United States, and the important part education might play in such relations.


The Republic of China, with the cooperation of several of the missionary organizations active in Chinese work, had a large exhibit space devoted to products of the manual-training and industrial work in Chinese schools and missions, especially work in carved wood. One large booth was given to Tsing Hua College.

Under “ Elementary Education” and “ Secondary Education" a large amount of embroidery and painting was exhibited. Arts and craft work done by orphans of the Zikawei Catholic Mission of Shanghai formed a large section of the exhibit, special features being a remarkable collection of Chinese pagodas, a facsimile of the Imperial throne of China carved in teak wood, a model of a Chinese military junk, teak-wood sideboards, oriental candelabra and screens.

In describing the exhibit, the Chinese Commissioner General, Hon. Chen Chi, declares:

Up to 1900 China hail adhered in its educational work to the old and famous curriculum as it existed for thousands of years in the Middle Kingdom. China has produced with the old ideal of education a large number of great men, as the history of the Far East shows. But China found out that western education was necessary; the ideal of old-time education would not do for present and future purposes.

The transformation of the educational system went hand in hand with the great changes in the Government of China brought about in 1900. Not only was the old system of education abolished, but also the famous and oldest university of the world, the Hanlin,” became a matter of the past. Kindergartens, primary, elementary, and high-school education took its place. Colleges were founded, universities with western principles were started in the large provincial capitals of the Empire, as well as in Peking, the central capital of the country.

A new step was the foundation of girls' schools all over China. This is so much more of prominence, as in previous times girls were simply educated for home work, and not in the sense of public education. A further step after 1900 was the sending of thousands of students annually abroad.

The exhibit of the Tsing Hua College, of Tsing Hua Yuan, near Peking, emphasized the educational relations between China and the United States. This college, established in 1909 with American


Arts and crafts work by orphans of the Zikawei Catholic Mission, Shanghai, forming part of the Chinese educational exhibit.

cooperation, is supported out of the Chinese indemnity funds returned by the United States. Graduates of the college are selected


Part of the Chinese educational exhibit, showing work of secondary schools.

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P.P.L.E. 1915

The Tsing Hua College booth.

annually for education in the United States. The college has about 600 students.


Cuba's exhibit in the Palace of Education was almost entirely devoted to hygiene and sanitation. The school exhibit proper was in the attractive Cuban pavilion, where an entire room was given to education. A miniature of the model school of Santiago de Cuba was exhibited, the work of pupils of the sloyd class in the city schools. The collection of industrial exhibits from the schools included several notable examples of pillow lacework. A model of a new type of oneroom schoolhouse, designed for rural communities, indicated Cuba's concern with this world-wide problem. Ichart emphasized the rapid development of education in Cuba, particularly since the beginning of the Republic—from an enrollment of 36,306 in 1892 (before the inauguration of the Republic) to 277,013 in 1913–14.


Of special interest in the Japanese education exhibit were charts showing the subsequent careers of graduates of different types of Japanese educational institutions. In the case of the Imperial universities of Tokyo, Kyoto, Iohoku, and Kyuschu 4,067 graduates were public officials, 2,637 teachers or school officers, 2,606 in business, 2,174 hospital physicians or medical men in general practice, 511 were continuing university studies, and 323 were lawyers. Of the remainder, 1,064 are dead and 1,475 were not heard from or were still undecided as to their careers.

Of the 17,489 graduates of the middle schools for the year 1911-12, 388 were Government officials on March 31, 1913; 1,695 were school teachers or officials, 2.278 were in business, 1,220 were studying in higher schools, 3,936 were in special schools and special technical institutes, 502 were in other schools, 799 were in military and naval schools or in the service, and 6,585 were either unknown or undecided as to their occupations. Of the 4,916 graduates of technical schools of secondary grade, 2,773 were in business, 314 were in special technical schools, 191 were in other schools, 317 were in military service, while 574 were Government officials, 553 school teachers or officers, and 364 undecided as to their occupations.

Exhibits of both academic and industrial work were shown, representing the following institutions: Japanese Woman's University; Miss Tsuda's School, Tokyo; Tokyo Higher Normal School; Tokyo Imperial University; College of Agriculture and the Kyuschu Imperial University; the Art and Technical School of Kyoto City; the Fine Art School for Girls; and the technical schools of the Toyama prefecture.

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