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sachusetts; and showed the administration of vocational education, the conditions of State approval, and progress in the establishment of State-aided vocational schools in Massachusetts.

The purpose of the vocational schools was summarized as follows:


I. Full-time day school.To help boys and girls 14 to 25 who can remain in school and receive a vocational training.

II. Part-time day school.To help boys and girls 14 to 25 who must earn money and can give only a part of their time to getting a better education.

III. Continuation school.To help boys and girls of 14 to 16 who must spend all their time in earning money and whose employers are willing to give them some time for study.

IV. Erening school.—(A) Trade extension to help boys and girls and men and women over 17 who desire to become more skilled in the industry in which they are engaged.

(B) Homemaking. To help girls and women over 17, employed during the day, who desire to receive training in the household and other practical arts.

The following table shows the number and distribution of Stateaided vocational schools in Massachusetts:

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One chart was devoted to the system of advisory committees for vocational schools in Massachusetts. Each school has an advisory committee made up of men and women experienced in the occupations trained for in the schools, members being selected by representatives of the industries. The function of the advisory committee is to “ consult with and advise local school officials in the management and supervision of schools”; it is not a board of control. The following shows the advisory committees serving in 1913–14:

Adrisory committees.

Kinds of school.



Men on commit


Women on commit


Agricultural school.....
Day and evening vocational school.


89 162

20 78

The exhibit contained numerous views illustrating work in the vocational schools, samples of the product of the vocational schools, and also photographs suggesting educational developments in Massachusetts in other types of schools than those emphasized in the exhibit. The exhibit of the three textile schools-Bradford Durfee Textile School, Lowell Textile School, and New Bedford Textile School-showed the following types of courses: Carding and spinning cotton, preparation of colored warps through dye house, designing and manufacturing of ginghams, plaids, etc., and elementary drawing and designing; wcolen and worsted designing and manufacturing, textile engineering, chemistry, and dyeing; designing and weaving fine cotton goods, seamless hosiery knitting, latch-needle underwear knitting, and machine-shop work.


The Missouri exhibit showed the State's decentralized school system and pointed out some of the advantages and possibilities of this system. The Missouri plan, as illustrated by an electric device, provides an arrangement whereby any pupil in the State can pass from grade to grade, or from one school to any other school of corresponding grade, without taking examinations other than such as are given him by his class teacher as a part of his regular school work. Any pupil completing the elementary school course and receiving the common school diploma is admitted on the presentation of this diploma to any high school in the State. Any pupil who has completed the work in an approved high school receives credit for it toward admission to any of the five State normal schools or to the State university or to any college in the Missouri College Union. Inspection, rather than examination, is the method used by the State in maintaining standards.

Special emphasis was given in the exhibit to the remarkable growth of high schools, which, it is claimed, has been facilitated by the Missouri plan of State inspection and approval. A spot-light map showed a growth in high schools in the State of more than 800 per cent in the past 10 years.

. Special attention was given to the Missouri College Union and to Missouri's "junior colleges.” There were 11 of these junior colleges in 1914, with 150 teachers, annual salaries of $96,429, and 904 students, 120 students completing the college course, 15,790 volumes in libraries, $58,378 worth of equipment for each, and $1,395,000 in grounds and buildings. Each of these junior colleges maintains a standard three-year college course.

The enrollment in Missouri schools was shown to be as follows:

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To show "centralization of supervision, with decentralization of service," was the assigned aim of the New York exhibit. A relief map of the State, 27 by 36 feet in area, was studded with electric



Photo by courtesy of Howell's Microcosm, Washington, D. C.

The New York State exhibit, showing the electric-flashing relief map and the model of the State education building. Different colored lights showed the location of the various schools and libraries in the State.

lights of various colors, each representing some type of educational institution. Thirteen colors were used; 11,642 white lights for the elementary schools, 948 red lights for the high schools and academies, 34 ruby lights for the colleges, technical institutes, and universities, 34 orange lights for the professional schools, 136 green lights for the nurses' training schools, 11 violet rays for the fine arts schools, 10 yellow lights for the normal schools, 7 pink lights for the Indian schools, 136 canary-colored lamps for the training schools, 10 purple lights for the schools for defectives, 21 amber-colored


Photo by courtesy of Howell's Microcosm, Washington, D. C.

A nearer view of the New York State Education Building.

lights for the publicly maintained business schools, and 65 frosted lights for the vocational schools. In addition, there were 513 blue lights by which the location of the public libraries of the State was identified.

A large architectural model (7 by 16 feet) of the State Education Building at Albany, from which the public educational work of the entire State is directed, served to give some impression of the magnitude of the work of caring for education in a State which numbers more than 1,500,000 pupils of school age.

Eight stereomotographs showed types of educational buildings located in various sections of the State, ranging from the great universities to the little schoolhouse of the Adirondacks, and the activities of the State education department in administration and general supervision of the work of the State. Motion pictures also showed the work of various social and educational agencies, including the schools.


Standardization of rural schools and adaptation of the school to the needs of the community were the main topics of the Oregon

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The Oregon education exhibit. The model in the foreground illustrates a "standard” school.

Unusually attractive colored pictures showed typical activities of Oregon rural schools.


exhibit. The central display was a model of a Polk County rural school of the standard type. Grouped about this were unusually attractive colored views illustrating rural-school work.

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