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form of a model, and the location of the other institutions of the State was indicated by maps. The units and the institutions selected as representative were as follows: One-room country school (crossroads school, Macon County); consolidated school (Rollo); township high school (La Salle-Peru); normal school (Illinois Normal University); college (Knox College); university (University of Illinois).

The one-room rural schoolhouse, shown complete in a large model, illustrated the high standard of excellence now established for rural schools in Illinois. Nearly 2,000 such schools in the State have already attained this standard. The two models of the consolidated elementary school and the township high school afforded actual examples of the methods whereby country boys and girls have the same educational opportunities as city pupils, retaining the advantage of rural environment. The Knox College model illustrates a type of institution in which Illinois is especially rich, having 17 such colleges enrolling 6,859 students. The central model of the exhibit shows the State university, enrolling over 6,000 students, and ministering to various types of higher education-professional, commercial, and industrial. All the models were faithful reproductions of actual schools, chosen as typical units. Hundreds of other schools were shown in photographs which covered the walls and filled the display cases.



"Rural school consolidation is the theme of the education exhibit of the State of Indiana.” Through contrasting models, photographs, and stereomotograph views, the point was reiterated that consolidation of country schools results in better schools and better teachers, reduced cost of maintenance, improved attendance, and a finer community life.

The following statistics were presented to show the progress of consolidation in Indiana between 1910 and 1914:

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Number of consolidated elementary schools..
Number of consolidated high schools.--
Number of consolidated combined elementary and high



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Total number of consolidated schools.



Number of pupils transported to consolidated schools----
Total cost of transportation.-
Average cost of transportation per pupil transported.--
Number of pupils enrolled in consolidated schools ---
Percentage of the total number of pupils enrolled in all

rural schools in consolidated schools.--. ---per cent..

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Percentage of the enrollment in consolidated schools in the high school ----

--per cent.. Number of schools (not consolidated) abandoned this

year Number of schools (not consolidated) abandoned during

the past five years.--. Total number of abandoned school districts in the State

at the present time----Total number of district schools at the present time_ Average number of pupils per teacher in consolidated

Average number of pupils per teacher in all other rural

Average tuition cost per pupil in consolidated schools
Average tuition cost per pupil in all other rural schools.
Average total cost per pupil in consolidated schools_-
Average total cost in all other rural schools_-
Average daily wage of teachers in consolidated schools
Average daily wage of teachers in all other rural schools.


22 $18. 45 $18.00 $25. 64 $22. 71 $3. 37 $2. 76


Agricultural education as the basis of State prosperity was the keynote of the Iowa exhibit. Various phases of agricultural education were emphasized in turn and illustrated by photographs and legends. Preparing teachers of agriculture was the first topic treated; this was followed by horticulture and forestry, agricultural journalism, dairying, agricultural extension, farm management, farm crops, animal husbandry, and soils.

With regard to agricultural journalism, it was pointed out that the purposes

of the work were(1) To apply to agriculture the news style of writing-unexcelled in clearness, conciseness, interest.

(2) To make of trained agriculturists contributors to the press, thereby multiplying their usefulness.

(3) To give some technical training to students who plan to enter agricultural journalism.

(4) To aid in making country newspapers more prosperous and more efficient agencies in the upbuilding of rural life.

It was pointed out that a country newspaper men's short course held at the college in 1914

(1) Brought an attendance of 110 country publishers for three days.
(2) Gave instruction in agricultural and rural life subjects.
(3) Showed how country newspapers may serve the rural field better.
(4) Suggested ways of increasing business among farmers.
(5) Demonstrated methods for getting better printing results.
(6) Conducted a newspaper make-up and printing contest.
(7) Presented a country newspaper and printing exhibit.

Under dairying it was shown that 113 experienced men, representing 13 States, attended the short course in dairy manufactures in 1914, and 80+ students in the regular course studied dairy subjects at Iowa State College during the past year.

In agricultural extension, a map was presented to show that there were 955 farmers' institutes and meetings during the year 1914, and 41 farm investigation tours. The Iowa boys and girls' club mem

. bership for 1914 totaled 18,000, in corn clubs, garden and canning clubs, domestic science clubs, baby pork clubs, and manual training clubs. Copies of the numerous bulletins of the extension division of the State college were displayed.


Vocational training was the special phase of education presented by the Massachusetts exhibit. By charts, illuminated views, and

models in action, the ex


kind and number of voca

tional schools in MassaSTATE ADMINISTRATION OF chusetts and the methods VOCATIONAL EDUCATION involved. The type of

schools included:

I. (a) Agricultural, inBOARD OF EDUCATION

dustrial, and home-making (Nine Members Appointed by Governor)

schools for boys and girls COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION

from 14 to 25 year's


age. ( Elected by Board)

(1) Evening trade schools


home - making schools for (In Charge of Vocational Education )

women over 17 years of age. Agents

II. Textile schools at

Lowell, New Bedford, and Home making

Fall River for the technical DUTIES

training of students in tex

tile manufacturing. Supervision of State Expenditures for Maintenance In State-Aided Vocational Schools

III. Nautical school

maintained by the State in Definition of Standards of Instruction

the interest of the merchant Approval of Courses, Teacher, Pupils, Advisory Committee marine service. Advise and Assist in the Establishment of New

An illuminated map, Schools of Vocational Types

with an electric flashing

device, showed the number of different types of vocational schools in the State. The arrangement whereby the shop releases workers for work in the shop and





Training of


whereby workers have opportunities for study at night was illustrated by another electric device. Similarly the home-project work in agriculture was visualized. Electric flashing from point to point along the section of country reproduced indicated how the agriculture teacher and State agent went from place to place to inspect the work and give instruction.

An especially valuable series of charts showed the history of vocational schools in Massachusetts. After pointing out that “overwhelming public sentiment shows the need of vocational schools in this country," and that “great national, educational, civic, industrial, and commercial organizations, representing more than 12,000,000 persons are on record as believing that vocational education is absolutely necessary for the future welfare of the nation,” the charts traced the origin of interest in vocational education in Massachusetts as follows:

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I. Conserration of the youth of the Commonwealth.-It is estimated that in 1910 there were, in Massachusetts, 167,000 youths 14 to 17 years of age ; 94,000 (56 per cent) were in school ; 73,000 (44 per cent) were out of school. Of those out of school, 40,000 (54 per cent) were regularly employed ; 33,000 (46 per cent) were semi-idle or unemployed.

II. Conservation of the industrial supremacy of the Commonicealth.-Changing economic conditions due to (1) Scarcity of skilled workers; (2) inadequacy of the apprentice system; (3) application of science to industry; (4) foreign and inter-State competition; (5) movement of population from country to city; (6) immigration of increasing numbers of unskilled workers.

The beginnings of industrial education in Massachusetts are traced from the law of 1872, which authorized the establishment and maintenance of industrial schools by any city or town; through the establishment of textile schools at Lowell (1897), New Bedford (1898), and Fall River (1908); to the commission on industrial and technical education appointed by Gov. William L. Douglas in 1905. Special attention was given in a number of charts to the work of this commission, which was outlined as follows:



I. Membership.Representatives of (1) manufacturing, (2) agricultural, (3) educational, (4) labor interests.

II. Scope of inrestigation.-(1) Needs for education in different grades of skill and responsibility in the various industries of the Commonwealth ; (2) how far these needs are met in existing institutions; (3) what new forms of educational effort may be advisable.


I. Conclusions (in part).-" The productive industries of the State, including agriculture, manufactures, and building, depend mainly upon chance for recruiting their service.

“ The industries of Massachusetts need, in addition to the general intelligence furnished by the public-school system, a broader training in the principles of the trades.

" Whatever may be the cost of such training, the failure to provide it would in the end be more costly.”

II. Recommendation 8.—Legislation for a permanent commission for industrial education. Another chart summed up the work of this commission, which

served from 1906 to 1909, THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS.

continuing its investigations STATE-AIDED VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS.

into industrial training and

school needs; advising and CONDITIONS OF aiding in the introduction STATE APPROVAL of industrial education in

independent schools; inter

esting communities and citiAPPROVED

zens of the Commonwealth LOCAL OR DISTRICT INDEPENDENT

in industrial education; and

establishing a number of inVOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

dustrial schools. Following Must be those Approved by the

the reorganization of the

State board of education in State Board of Education as to

1909, provision was made Organization

for a deputy commissioner Control

in charge of vocational eduLocation

cation, and the State board

of education was-
Courses of Study

authorized and directed to inves

tigate and to aid in the introducQualifications of Teachers

tion of industrial, agricultural, Methods of Instruction

and household arts education ; to Conditions of Admission

initiate and superintend the esEmployment of Pupils

tablishment and maintenance of

schools for the aforesaid forms Expenditures of Money

of education, and to supervise

and approve such schools. Other charts defined the forms of vocational education as constituted by the laws of Massachusetts; listed the types of vocational schools established under Massachusetts law-full-time day schools, full-time cooperative day schools, part-time schools, evening schools, continuation schools; stated the purpose of vocational schools in Mas

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