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Extensive space was given in the exhibit to charts impressing upon mothers simple directions for the care of their children; and a feature of the exhibit was the children's clinic, to which children of all ages, but especially very young children, were brought daily for examination.


Models of an insanitary and a sanitary country school were shown in the United States Public Health Service exhibit in the Liberal Arts Building. The insanitary school, which bore the date "A. D. 1890," was described as follows:

In the erection of this building no attention was paid to proper lighting or sanitary environment. The surface privy pollutes the soil, increasing the danger of infection by hookworm and other intestinal parasites. These breed in the manure in the horse shed and may transmit typhoid fever. The well is so located that surface drainage from the privy and stable may contaminate the water supply. No provision is made for physical exercise. The lack of individual drinking cups favors the transmission of disease.

The sanitary country school, dated “A. D. 1914," was intended to fit the following requirements:

This school building was constructed with a view to proper lighting and ventilation. The privy is of the type known as the L. R. S. privy. The horse shed is kept clean, and the manure is in a covered bin to prevent fly breeding. The water supply is from a driven well, incased with concrete cap, to prevent contamination by surface drainage. There are no roof gutters except over doors, and the surrounding ground is drained so that there may be no breeding places for mosquitoes. A playground and school garden are provided. Each child is required to have an individual drinking cup.


Industrial work was emphasized in the Indian schools' exhibit in the Palace of Liberal Arts. Blankets, basket work, and admirable examples of art furnishings were shown. All the furniture used in the exhibit space was "made by Indian student apprentices while at work in the different shops of the schools." A model, one-seventh size, of the domestic science cottage at the United States Indian school at Mount Pleasant, Mich., indicated the importance assigned to practical domestic science work in the Indian schools. The model was constructed by male students of the institution. Stereomotograph slides depicted life and work in the Government Indian schools.



The California exhibit in the Palace of Education emphasized three points: (1) The extension of public educational activities as shown in motion pictures of certain progressive California communities; (2) school architecture, through models of attractive school buildings from lifferent sections of the State; and (3) the need of

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care and education for atypical children. In the California building the emphasis in the education exhibits was on the practical aspect of manual training

Motion pictures.—The elaborate films presented in the California motion-picture theater in the Palace of Education illustrate the value of this method of presentation of facts for exhibit purposes. Through them many of the activities of the Los Angeles schools, for

1 A separate exhibit, devoted to the Berkeley School for the Blind, showed products of the school and illustrated methods of instruction, the deaf was conducted by Mrs. Trask.

. class in methods of instruction for

example, were shown under as nearly natural conditions as possible. The Los Angeles film contained seven separate reels, each descriptive of a different phase of the educational work of the city. Lectures accompanied the pictures.

Other films shown in the California exhibit are indicated by the accompanying schedule:



Program of motion-picture films from 11.00 a. m. to 5.30 p. m. daily.

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Through these motion pictures it was possible for the visitor to the exposition to carry away a rather complete and accurate picture of actual school conditions in the State of California with considerably less danger of wrong emphasis than if he had tried visiting a few schools in person.

School architecture. The model room of the Santa Clara Grammar School showed an overhead-lighted classroom, producing, it was claimed, an absolutely equal distribution of light; there are no cross-lights; desks may be faced in any direction; there are no reflections on the blackboards, and blackboards may be placed on all sides of the room; the pupils' minds are more concentrated; the direct glaring rays of the sun are avoided.

The model of the Newman Grammar School (Newman, Stanislaus County) showed a building of the mission style, with open court in front, while the Patterson Grammar School (Patterson, Stanislaus

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County) showed another building of the mission style, all one story. Other schools from Stanislaus County shown by models included the high school, Newman; the Lowell School, Turlock; the Hawthorne School, Turlock; the Riverbank Open-Air School, Riverbank; the Union High School, Oakdale; and the new Ceres High School, Ceres. All these models were constructed by the pupils of the Stanislaus County schools.

The city of Sacramento was represented by the model of an openair kindergarten, a temporary school, and the Sacramento Grammar School.

Fresno was represented by a special type of open-air room, the principal features of which are as follows:

1. The general plan is an adaptation of a standard classroom with classroom conveniences, so that it is readily convertible from an ordinary room into an open-air school.

2. Unilateral lighting, glass windows instead of canvas as a source of light; windows that may be closed in cold weather and thrown completely open in milder weather, forming an open-air schoolroom. The free flow of air is obtained by attaching shades to the window sash, so that they may serve as awnings. There are no windows facing playgrounds. Cross ventilation is secured by canvas curtains.

3. An abundance of blackboards seen without looking into a source of light. Blackboards adjustable to different sizes of pupils.

4. A projecting roof serving as a shield against the hot summer sun and as a cover for a walk from room to room.

5. A stove jacketed and provided with a fresh-air intake.

6. A ventilating duct extending from floor to ceiling in the cloakroom.

7. The attic properly ventilated as a hot-weather adaptation.

8. The schoolrooms may be joined end to end without the interference of noise from adjacent rooms, an advantage usually impossible in open-air schools. 9. A building serviceable whether as a temporary building, cheaply moved from site to site, or as a permanent structure. Economical yet substantial, costing, in Fresno, $590 each.

One especially attractive model in the California exhibit was that of the Armijo Union High School, Solano County. Other models. illustrated the attractive white buildings of southern California-a San Diego public school and grounds, Santa Monica High School, and Monrovia High School. The normal schools were represented by models of the buildings and grounds at Chico and Santa Barbara. The arrangement of the grounds was reproduced with special effectiveness in the Santa Barbara model.

Atypical children.-After calling attention to the general statistics of feeble-mindedness in the United States, the exhibit pointed out that there are between 8,000 and 14,000 (estimated) feeble-minded in California; that 1,100 are in Sonoma State Home-300 idiots, 550 imbeciles, and 250 morons; and that 58 of the children have kindergarten work for 35 minutes every day and 66 children have regular school work.

The city of Oakland "takes care of its atypical children," according to this exhibit. Statistics of Oakland school children apparently showed that there were 1,250 cases of exceptional children. Of these, 54 per cent were recorded in the psychological clinic; 20, or 1.6 per cent, have been committed to Sonoma State Home; 38 per cent "should be committed at once"; 985 are morons, border cases, or only backward; and 75 are normal or supernormal. In Oakland there are seven special classes for "border cases." and 100 happy children in these special classes. Other interesting facts

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