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his toils and labors, of his sorrows and tears, you never hear of his rejoicing but this once, and then it was in his views of divine sovereignty! This glorious subject made him "rejoice in spirit.” It unfolded "the joy that was set before him." For the exercise of sovereignty, he "thanked” his Father, the Lord of heaven and earth. He considered these special displays of sovereignty as exhibiting God worthy of all gratitude, praise and glory. That God should exercise his sovereignty to secure the designs of the atonement against utter failure, the Lord Jesus Christ considered as an honor conferred on his mediatorial undertaking. The clear and ample manifestations which the exercise of sovereignty gives of the entire character of God,—the immense and magnificent accession of happiness which it brings to the universe,--the full consistency of its operations with the honors of infinite justice, surround the CROSS with a halo that is ineffable and "full af glory.”

CHAPTER XII.

ON THE ATONEMENT IN ITS (RELATION TO THE

CHURCH.

SECTION 1.

The designs of the Atonement to be infallibly secured

in certain instances.

The designs of the atonement in reference to mankind have already been secured in numerous instances; and we are informed by the scriptures that there shall be such instances of its success, in every age of the world. The persons, in whom the success of the atonement is instanced, form what is called, the church of Christ. These instances are not matters of chance,they are the result of definite purpose, and of an adjusted plan settled in eternity. God will direct that the workings of the great principles of the atonement shall infallibly issue in the personal salvation of a multitude which no man

can number, so that the faith of God shall not become of none effect."

He is a theologian of no mean temerity who will meet this statement with a negative. It would be, in fact, to say that the designs of the atonement come to pass at random. Hitherto the doctrine of this statement has been combated only by a liberal use of the ample and furnished arguments about the free agency of man; but in the heat of conflict, and the din of battle, it has been forgotten that God is a FREE agent, as well as man. Besides, in the smoke and dust of polemics, these arguments have been brandished as if man would always use his free agency well, if he were left to it; and God could never use his free agency

without

infringing on the rights of man. A theological system founded upon the hypothesis, that if God ever exercise his free agency, He is sure to exercise it wrong; or, if he does what he wills with his own, he is sure to injure some persons-should indeed make its defenders examine more minutely its foundations, and take heed to the towers thereof.

The 'certain instances' in which the designs of the atonement shall be secured, mean, special cases of definite persons. It is meant that personal predestination sliall certainly issue in personal salvation. If the reader would rather have the statement that they who were personally foreknown shall be personally called and glorified, I can have no objection to it, for whom God did foreknow, them he also predestinated, and whom he predestinated them he also called.” To cut off the link of predestination, will not make the links of foreknowledge and calling 6t better into each other, and thus make the chain look fairer or stronger. Suppose the chain ran, “whom he foreknew them he also called," bow is it improved? What did God foreknow about the called? He foreknew that they were enemies to him by wicked works, that this enmity would by no means change itself into love—that they would not make themselves to differ—that they would never listen to his call, unless he would give them his Spirit to take away the heart of stone-and he foreknew that he would give them that Spirit. "Yes" it is rejoined, "but he foreknew it conditionally.This is one of the jargons of systematic theology. 'A definition of "conditional fore-knowledge," is a great desideratum in moral and theological science. Does it mean that God foreknows the meeting between the agent and the condition—but does not see any further,—does not fore. know what the result of the meeting will be? If God does not see the result, it cannot be called foreKNOWLEDGE. The principles of mental philosophy, as well as the revelations of theology know no more of conditional fore-knowledge, than they know of condi

tional past knowledge. A man who, in order to maintain a fond metaphysical conceit, would assert that a certain event in the Roman empire was but conditionally known to historians, must calculate largely on the tender mercies of mankind not to be treated as a dreamer. If there be any prophecies which have come to pass, and which God only foreknew conditionally, the question is decided.

God foreknew with perfect certainty the special instances in which the designs of the atonement should be secured in the personal salvation of particular individuals. I use the phrase, personal or particular salvation, rather than that of particular redemption, for this reason. The phrase, particular redemption, as often used in theological discussion, covers a fallacy which is seldom detected in the heat of argument. If by particular redemption is meant that the ransom price was given only for some particular persons;—if it means that only some particular persons were atoned for, then it is wrong, and directly opposed to the scriptures. If the phrase particular redemption means that only some particular persons shall in the event prove to be actually delivered froni sin to heaven, then it is true, just in the same way as particular providence is true. A particular providence is the operation of the provisions of a general providence, sovereignly directed to bear upon the interest of special particular persons, and particular salvation is the working of a general atonement, made to bear upon the interests of particular persons, with sovereign speciality. The advocates of general atonement never mean by such a phrase, a general actual deliverance of all men from sin and misery in the event; they siinply mean by the word "redemption,” the ransom price, the atonement that was offered up for all, that whosoever believeth, might be saved. The phrase "particular salvation,” then, seems to steer clear of the supposed fallacy:

1. The absolute or perfect certainty of the particular salvation of special persons is not at all inconsistent with

the provisions of a general atonement, intended as the means of salvation to all.

In the whole of this book it has been the writer's end,” to prove the universal extent of the atonement of Christ. The atonement has been exhibited as capable of utter failure. It is now intended to show that it shall not utterly fail, but that it shall infallibly prosper in the actual salvation of special and particular persons. We will, therefore, proceed with calmness and candor, to examine the harmony between the particular salvation of certain persons, and the unlimited extent of an atonement for all.

1. There is the same relation between the atonement and all, as there is between providence and all.

Providence is the means of supplying all men with physical and moral furniture necessary for the ends of their being here. It furnishes all men with capacities, nieans, and opportunities for action and improvement. All men are sufficiently supplied with abilities, means, and opportunities for advancement in wealth, learning, liberty, and civilization. This is the general provision, but the history of six thousand years, tells us, that the advancement of men has not been as general as the provision. The designs of the general provision are fully secured only in special cases, and in all such cases it comes to pass by "ihe BLESSING of God." In the provision there is nothing to exclude any man from wealth, learning, &c. Nevertheless, wealth and learning are only enjoyed in special instances. Take learning as an example. The provision for improvement is general and open to all. The sun, and the moon, and the stars, have always presented the appearances which they did to Newton ar.d his scholars, yet the cases are special and few in which men, like them, tabernacle among the heavens, and take stars and systems for their books. Newton acted freely in availing bimself of the general provision, and every man who is not a Newton, acts freely in disregarding it. It is assuredly, to the glory of God to suppose that He intended to

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