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spiritual Beings, but is found even in inanimate things; which
consists in a mutual consent and agreement of different things
in form, manner, quantity, and visible end or design; called
by the various names of regularity, order, uniformity, sym-
metry, proportion, harmony, &c. Such is the mutual agree-
ment of the various sides of a square, or equilateral triangle,
or of a regular polygon, Such is, as it were, the mutual con-
sent of the different parts of the periphery of a circle, or sur-
face of a sphere, and of the corresponding parts of an ellipsis.
Such is the agreement of the colors, figures, dimensions and
distances of the different spots on a chess board. Such is
the beauty of the figures on a piece of chints, or brocade.....
Such is the beautiful proportion of the various parts of an
human body, or countenance. And such is the sweet mutual
consent and agreement of the various notes of a melodious
tune. This is the same that Mr. Hutcheson, in his treatise
on beauty, expresses by uniformity in the midst of variety.
Which is no other than the consent or agreement of differ-
ent things, in form, quantity, &c. He observes, that the great-
er the variety is, in equal uniformity, the greater the beauty.
Which is no more than to say, the more there are of different
mutually agreeing things, the greater is the beauty. And
the reason of that is, because it is more considerable to have
many things consent one with another, than a few only.


The beauty which consists in the visible fitness of a thing to its use and unity of design, is not a distinct sort of beauty from this. For it is to be observed, that one thing which contributes to the beauty of the agreement and proportion of various things, is their relation one to another; which connects them, and introduces them together into view and consideration, and whereby one suggests the other to the mind, and the mind is led to compare them and so to expect and desire agreement. Thus the uniformity of two or more pillars, as they may happen to be found in different places, is not an equal degree of beauty, as that uniformity in so many pillars in the corresponding parts of the same building. So means and an intended effect are related one to another. The answerableness of a thing to its use is only the proportion,

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fitness, and agreeing of a cause or means to a visibly design ed effect, and so an effect suggested to the mind by the idea of the means. This kind of beauty is not entirely different from that beauty which there is in fitting a mortise to its tenon. Only when the beauty consists in unity of design, or the adaptedness of a variety of things to promote one intended effect, in which all conspire, as the various parts of an ingenious complicated machine, there is a double beauty, as there is a twofold agreement and conformity. First, there is the agreement of the various parts to the designed end. Secondly, through this, viz. the designed end or effect, all the various particulars agree one with another, as the general medium of their union, whereby they being united in this third, they thereby are all united one to another.

The reason, or at least one reason why God has made this kind of mutual consent and agreement of things beautiful and grateful to those intelligent Beings that perceive it, probably is, that there is in it some image of the true, spiritual original beauty which has been spoken of; consisting in Being's consent to Being, or the union of minds or spiritual Beings in a mutual propensity and affection of heart. The other is an image of this, because by that uniformity, diverse things become as it were one, as it is in this cordial union. And it pleases God to observe analogy in his works, as is manifest in fact in innumerable instances; and especially to establish inferior things in an analogy to superior. Thus, in how many instances has he formed brutes in analogy to the nature of mankind? And plants in analogy to animals with respect to the manner of their generation, nutrition, &c. And so he has constituted the external world in an analogy to things in the spiritual world, in numberless instances; as might be shewn, if it were necessary, and here were proper place and room for it.....Why such analogy in God's works pleases him, it is not needful now to inquire. It is sufficient that he makes an agreement or consent of different things, in their form, manner, measure, &c. to appear beautiful, because here is some image of an higher kind of agreement and consent of spiritual Beings. It has pleased him to establish a law of na

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ture, by virtue of which the uniformity and mutual correspondence of a beautiful plant, and the respect which the various parts of a regular building seem to have one to another, and their agreement and union, and the consent or concord of the various notes of a melodious tune, should appear beautiful; because therein is some image of the consent of mind, of the different members of a society or system of intelligent Beings, sweetly united in a benevolent agreement of heart...... And here by the way, I would further observe, probably it is with regard to this image or resemblance, which secondary beauty has of true spiritual beauty, that God has so constituted nature, that the presenting of this inferior beauty, especially in those kinds of it which have the greatest resemblance of the primary beauty, as the harmony of sounds, and the beauties of nature, have a tendency to assist those whose hearts are under the influence of a truly virtuous temper, to dispose them to the exercises of divine love, and enliven in them a sense of spiritual beauty.

From what has been said we may see, that there are two sorts of agreement or consent of one thing to another. (1) There is a cordial agreement; that consists in concord and union of mind and heart; which, if not attended (viewing things in general) with more discord than concord, is true virtue, and the original or primary beauty, which is the only true moral beauty......(2.) There is a natural union or agreement; which, though some image of the other, is entirely a distinct thing; the will, disposition, or affection of the heart having no concern in it, but consisting only in uniformity and consent of nature, form, quantity, &c. (as before described) wherein lies an inferior secondary sort of beauty, which may, in distinction from the other, be called natural beauty.....This may be sufficient to let the reader know how I shall hereafter use the phrases of cordial, and natural agreement; and moral, spiritual, divine, and primary original beauty, and secondary, or natural beauty.

Concerning this latter, inferior kind of beauty, the following things may be observed :

1. The cause why secondary beauty is grateful to men, is only a law of nature, which God has fixed, or an instinct he has given to mankind; and not their perception of the same thing which God is pleased to have regard to, as the ground or rule by which he has established such a law of nature..... This appears in two things.

(1.) That which God has respect to, as the rule or ground of this law of nature he has given us, whereby things having a secondary beauty are made grateful to men, is their mutual agreement and proportion, in measure, form, &c. But in many instances persons that are gratified, and have their minds affected, in presenting this beauty, do not reflect on that particular agreement and proportion which, according to the law of nature is the ground and rule of beauty in the case, yea, are ignorant of it. Thus, a man may be pleased with the harmony of the notes in a tune, and yet know nothing of that proportion or adjustment of the notes, which by the law of nature is the ground of the melody. He knows not, that the vibrations in one note regularly coincide with the vibrations in another; that the vibrations of a note coincide in time with two vibrations of its octave; and that two vibrations of a note coincide with three of its fifth, &c. Yea, he may not know, that there are vibrations of the air in the case, or any corresponding motions in the organs of hearing, in the auditory nerve, or animal spirits.....So, a man may be affected and pleased with a beautiful proportion of the features in a face, and yet not know what that proportion is, or what measures, quantities, and distances it consists in.

In this a sensation of secondary beauty differs from a sensation of primary and spiritual beauty, consisting in a spiritual union and, agreement. What makes the latter grateful, is perceiving the union itself. It is the immediate view of that wherein the beauty fundamentally lies, that is pleasing to the virtuous mind.

(2.) As was observed before, God, in establishing such a law that mutual natural agreement of different things, in form, quantity, &c. should appear beautiful or grateful to men, seems to have had regard to the image and resemblance, VOL. II. 3 E

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there is in such a natural agreement, of that spiritual cordial agreement, wherein original beauty consists, as one reason why he established such a law. But it is not any reflection upon, or preception of, such a resemblance of this to spirtual beauty, that is the reason why such a form or state of objects appears beautiful to men: But their sensation of pleasure, on a view of this secondary beauty is immediately owing to the ław God has established, or the instinct he has given.

2. Another thing observable concerning this kind of beauty, is, that it affects the mind more (other things being equal) when taken notice of in objects which are of considerable importance, than in little trivial matters. Thus, the symmetry of the parts of a human body, or, countenance, affects the mind more than the beauty of a flower. So, the beauty of the solar system, more than as great and as manifold an order and uniformity in a tree. And the proportions of the parts of at church, or a palace, more than the same proportions in some little slight compositions, made to please children.

3. It may be observed (which was hinted before) that not only uniformity and proportion, &c. of different things is requisite in order to this inferior beauty, but some relation or connexion of the things thus agreeing one with another. As, the uniformity or likeness of a number of pillars, scattered hither and thither, does not constitute beauty, or at least by no means in an equal degree as uniformity in pillars cônnected in the same building, in parts that have relation one to another. So, if we see things unlike, and very disproportioned, in distant places, which have no relation to each other, this excites no such idea of deformity, as disagreement and inequality or disproportion in things related and connected: And the nearer the relation, and the stricter the connexion, so much the greater and more disgustful is the deformity, consisting in their disagreement.

4. This secondary kind of beauty, consisting in uniformity and proportion, not only takes place in material and external things, but also in things immaterial; and is, in very many things, plain and sensible in the latter, as well as the former: And when it is so, there is no reason why it should

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