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gency of the occasion, to charge upon it faults and tendencies, as remote from its genius and operations, as from his own Civilization Society. Hence also, we see the reason, why he labours so hard, to make out a wide difference between the two societies.
Mr. Gurley's answer to this letter of Mr. Buxton is long; but it is very forcible, eloquent, and conclusive. We wish that we could present it entire to our readers. But we need not express such a wish, since it is easily accessible to every one, who may desire to peruse it; and we do cordially recommend it to the careful perusal of our readers, as a composition that will well repay them for their trouble.
Indeed, we are of opinion, that Mr. Gurley is very happy in answering every objection, and refuting every calumny, which had become current in England, through the misrepresentation of the American abolitionists, who, from time to time, had visited England and Scotland.
The joint letter of the Rev. Mr. Gurley, to Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, and to the Hon. Henry Clay, of which seven hundred copies were circulated in England, by the kindness of a few friends, is a well written document, exhibiting throughout, a high tone of moral feeling, and laying down excellent principles for the conduct of such enterprises as the American Colonization Society. Indeed, almost the only fault we have to find, is, that too much time is occupied in discussing and settling great fundamental principles of duty, which had better been taken for granted. If instead of these abstract reasonings, however sound they may be, Mr. Gurley had given a brief, condensed, and comprehensive sketch of the origin, progress, and present prospects of Liberia, it would have had a much greater effect on the public mind. But this letter which extends over fifty duodecimo pages, is every where characterized by good feeling, sound sense, and forcible eloquence; and we hope will do much good in England.
Our opinion is, that Mr. Buxton's book furnished no sufficient ground of a mission to England. We have been uniformly of opinion, that the result would be, what the event has proved. But still, although Mr. Gurley was subjected to much mortification, from the almost universal and deep-rooted prejudice against the American Colonization Society; yet, we are confident, that while the main object was not attained, much incidental benefit to the cause of colonization will accrue from this visit.
Much interesting and valuable information has been communicated, and we doubt not, the prejudices of many intelligent and benevolent men removed, and the real friends of African colonization, encouraged and confirmed. But in our judgment, the true policy of the American Colonization Society, is to form no connexion whatever, with British societies, however identical their objects may be with ours. Let us treat them with justice and kindness wherever we come into contact with them; but let us no more ask any recognition from them. If our own government would assume the protection of Liberia, we should be satisfied. However, if we continue to enjoy the protection of Divine Providence, we shall have no occasion to lean upon any human arm. In our view, the colony of Liberia is one of the greatest wonders of the present age. The existence, on the savage coast of Africa, of a little, happy, well-ordered, and religious community, exercising all the rights and privileges of freemen and self-government, upon the purest republican principles, is surely an event which demands our gratitude and admiration. And this extraordinary work has been achieved by a voluntary association of citizens, possessing no other resources than the free-will offerings of the friends of the cause. And that which increases the wonder, is, that a large portion of the free and respectable citizens of this little republic, were brought up in slavery; very few of them having enjoyed the benefits of even a common education. Does the history of the world furnish an example of an enterprise, at the same time so difficult, and yet so successful? Almost every man who has visited Liberia, has been filled with admiration, at the state of things there. The letter of Capt. Stoll, of the British navy, is a defence of our colony, which is sufficient to answer all the calumnies which have been circulated. We cannot but think, that this work is of God, and therefore, all the efforts of its enemies will not be able to overthrow it. But the friends of the enterprise are not sufficiently active and zealous in its promotion. When the number of wealthy citizens who are its friends is so great, the contributions to the funds of the society should be tenfold greater than they are. If every man would determine to do his duty, prosperity would eventually crown our efforts.
The entire failure of the expedition of the British Civilization Society to make a permanent settlement on the Niger, is an event greatly to be deplored by the friends of Africa. For
as we believe that this scheme, in all its essential principles is identical with that of the American Colonization Society, we anticipated great good to Africa, from its operations. But we trust that this first apparent frown of Providence will not utterly discourage the philanthropists of England, from still prosecuting their noble and benevolent enterprise. The friends of African colonization, in America, can sympathise sincerely with the African Civilization Society of England, under such disasters. The colony of Liberia, now so flourishing, was not raised to its present prosperity, without the loss of many precious lives. When the history of that republic shall be written, at some future period, the names of such men as Mills, Bacon, Ashmun, Carey, Buchanan, and others, will stand out in bold relief, on the historic page.
The death of Buchanan at the present time, is an incalculable, and almost irreparable loss. We know of no man living, who so well understood all the interests and relations of Liberia, as Buchanan. He had once before spent some time in the colony, and only returned to the United States to recruit his health, and to give as far as he could, a new impulse to African colonization, to which object he devoted all his time and energies, while he remained in the country. Buchanan was no common man. In his character were combined many excellent traits, which deserve to be held in remembrance by the friends of the colony. He possessed a sound, discriminating, and independent mind. His schemes were solid, and practicable, and suited to the circumstances in which he was placed. He was also a man of uncommon energy, and undoubted courage. His exertions in defence of the colony, and in securing to her an increase of territory, were wisely conducted, and were for the most part successful. Buchanan died in the midst of his years and usefulness; and a successor qualified to fill his place will not easily be found. But perhaps it is the will of Providence, that the government of the colony should be entirely devolved on the shoulders of coloured men. The lieutenant governor, Roberts, has been for the present, appointed to take upon him the government of the colony. The ability manifested by him in his correspondence with a captain of the British navy, augurs well for his success. And this man is said to have been brought up a slave, in Virginia.
Although the colony of Liberia is truly in a prosperous condition, and presents a specimen of human society, proba
VOL. XIV.-NO. II.
bly as orderly and happy as any in the world; yet the time has not come, in which the friends of African colonization can, with safety, remit their efforts. Indeed, much will depend on the zeal and activity of the friends of this enterprise for a few years to come. More territory is greatly needed to secure the integrity and safety of the several settlements in the colony. A sound, good ship, to ply between Liberia and the United States, is urgently needed. Also, the means of sending out a number of emigrants, who are desirous of joining the colony. We hope, therefore, that the present year will be memorable in the annals of the colony, for great enlargement, and increasing prosperity. Let the hearts of none be discouraged. Let the hands of none be remiss. Much, it is true, has been accomplished, but much more remains to be done. Let the friends of Africa gird themselves with renewed strength, and go forward in their work in full confidence of the smiles of heaven.
ART. VI.-1. Address delivered in South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 30, 1840, at the third anniversary of the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. By Mark Hopkins, D. D.
2. An Address delivered at the Dedication of the Williston Seminary, at East Hampton, Massachusetts, Dec. 1, 1841. By Rev. Mark Hopkins, D. D., President of William's College.
WHILE Massachusetts afflicts and dishonours herself by certain sentiments assumed and promulgated by her authority, on the connexion of religion with common schools, she enjoys a powerful redeeming influence from the views, zeal, and abilities of such a man as the author of these Addresses. That influence is effective. The advocates of the union between learning and religion, in that thriving and powerful commonwealth, may take courage from the fact that the doctrines and efforts of that gentleman are so popular with the community; that he gathers so great public interest around the station he occupies; that his public services on literary occasions are in so great request; and that besides his eminent advantages of talents and address, he holds,
by the public favour, so many facilities for commending to the people his scriptural and philosophical views of education.
The first of the two addresses before us states, with a simplicity of style characteristic of its author, and with a candour and caution, characteristic of a true philosopher, the reasons why female education ought to be as extensive and thorough as the education of men, and why, from the existing state of society, it will not, for the present, be so; and then proceeds to illustrate several of the immediate objects of such an education as is recommended for a female by the present state of society in our country.
In the other address, which with a style of vivacious. simplicity equal to that of the first, but with less pretension. to method, sparkles throughout with scintillations of vigorous, refined, and philosophical thought, we find some passages so happily expressive of our own views on the subject of education, that we propose to make them the occasion of a somewhat extended discussion, We deem the sentiments alluded to, peculiarly worthy of being commended to the serious attention of our readers. "If" says Doctor Hopkins, "there is any one thing that may be regarded as an and not as a means, it is the expansion, by a true culture, of the mind of man. Wealth is a means, place and power are means; but this is an end. This is in fact the highest result that is wrought out, we have reason to believe that it is the very result intended to be wrought out by the whole frame work and steady course of nature. This frame work cannot stand, this wonderful harmony cannot be preserved, for its own sake. It subserves, indeed, material uses, it ministers to bodily wants, but it has higher uses than these, to which material uses and bodily wants are themselves subservient. The opening flower, the ripening harvest, the falling leaf, the running water, the starry concave, have a voice that speaks to the spirit of man, to instruct him and to lead him in the way that is good." "Whoever will observe the constitution of nature with reference to this, will see that it is wonderfully adapted to chasten and elevate the feelings, to awaken curiosity, and to call forth the observing and reflecting powers of the mind. This is an end which enters into our very conception of man as a rational and a progressive being; we can conceive of him as having no bodily wants, or as having those wants supplied without labour; we can conceive of him as divested