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price, if the intrinsic excellence of the art and its practical advantages are understood and appreciated.

If the soul be equal in value to the body, and much more if its value exceed, ought the same or an analagous discipline be given to the soul. What is the awkward gait of the unpractised to the fairy step of the elastic dancer or the arrowy flight of the racer? And what are the cleaver-like hackings of the recruit to the lightning point of the swordsman ? Trained skill of weakness shall easily foil the giant efforts of rude strength, as a child by the aid of his hands can, in many things, excel an ox.

Now if the body, with the approbation of the world, be subjected to a rigorous discipline, why should the soul be neglected, or be thought unworthy the pains bestowed upon the body? Shall the clay tabernacle decaying in its using, and tumbling into ruin from the shock of its own motions, receive all this care, and the undying soul not be fitted for the full exercise of its noble faculties? Surely the soul ought not to be left to grope in imaginary darkness, to be appalled at imaginary danger, to be debased by superstition, to be driven about by every wind of doctrine, to become the tool and the slave of the designing. Every feeling and argument, therefore which favours the least degree of proper intellectual discipline, separate from mere passive recipiency of knowledge, favours the highest degree.

Let us be distinctly understood. The end or intention of proper intellectual discipline, is the largest possible capacity to serve God; but as

we write in part for practical men, who have, some, only small faith, and others none, we remark here, that, overlooking the true end, and proposing the secondary ones, practical advantages to ourselves, no education so well secures such, as the one now recommended. And we are willing to suit the age, by submitting the matter to the test of experiment, not for our own, satisfaction, but for that of the practical : hence if it be possible, let two young persons equal in all respects, be separately educated, and for the same term of years, not less than five, however, nor more than ten; one in the modern system of knowledges, and the other in any system of the severe old school, rod-enforcing, self-exerting, spirit-trying, patience-provoking, labour-causing, toil-producing, especially in the system presently to be recommended, or a similar one; and then launch both, and at the same time, in precisely the same circumstances of

poverty and destitution, into the troubled waters of life. Then the latter shall be seen swimming, or wading, or walking, as the tide demands or admits, without fear; but the other, floating, or driven at the mercy of the winds, mired, or sinking. Or let both pursue a professional or a literary life, and the truly disciplined, with even less advantages, shall so easily excel the other in any assigned task, and even in amassing so much larger a stock of mere knowledge, that ten years after the end of the academical training, the great and manifest differences between the two will be ascribed, not to difference in elementary studies, but in native intellectual powers.

Before recommending our favourite discipline, or rather instruments of discipline, let us look a moment at some of the leading things to be accomplished by any true intellectual discipline.

And first, it is desirable, to exercise and strengthen the power of attention; for it is in proportion to the intensity and fixedness with which the mind perseveringly contemplates its objects, that it comprehends them, and where other mental qualities are equal, success is to one man from his attention, failure to another from want of attention.

Next, it is desirable to cultivate perseverance, for even intense and fixed attention is often unavailing if not continued long enough at a time, and if not resumed after repeated failures, and unavoidable interruptions.

But perseverance itself may be hindered, from want of data, or tools, and hence patience must be cultivated, that without fretfulness, we may wait, not only for days, but for months, perhaps even for years, till better opportunities and more favourable circumstances furnish what is needed.

If, however, attention, persevering and patient, were directed always to one thing or one class of things, a species of monomania would result, in drawing extensive conclusions from narrow premises; hence the importance of cultivating caution and comprehension which, in the first place, conclude not until after full examination of cognate subjects, and then hold conclusions, ready to be modified by subsequent discoveries.

In cultivating and strengthening the above named qualities or states of the soul, we cultivate a state or disposition, also, of contented although unavoidable reliance on probability. And all know that without this spirit of faith, men would be utterly miserable in this world, and the other.

Again, while no sensible person may despise the Aristotelian logic, yet is it not enough for discipline to know the terms of that art, or to apply them to the examples in the text books; we need incessant practice in that logic, till our very thoughts and words rise and flow in the logical channel between the banks of major and minor, to the harbour of just conclusions. The pugilist who attempts to box by thinking of the rules in Mendoza's book, with one who has practised them and perhaps forgotten them, will not be more at disadvantage than the reasoner, who merely knows, and whose opponent has to his knowledge added experience, by severe and long continued practice.

Nor should we forget the discipline of memory; a faculty capable of almost indefinite improvement, whether is regarded its capaciousness or its tenacity. It is true a vulgar prejudice against a good memory exists, because uncultivated minds of some quickness, remember things trifling in their nature, and empty out the entire cargo on all occasions ; but the memory in a well disciplined mind, may not only be vastly improved, but made to acquire and store up only what is useful. Without memory, man would be like a merchant without a warehouse, and although a warehouse may be filled with valueless articles, it can also be filled with the most valuable. So the memory may be filled with trifles, but it may also be filled, and is, in a good discipline, with the best things, with principles, however, rather than details.

It is important in discipline that a habit of order be acquired; for by system and arrangement not only is every work facilitated, but works of the most opposite nature can be done.

Nor ought the cultivation of taste, fancy, or imagination to be neglected ; which may be excited and directed, in very early life, by daily acquaintance with living or departed authors, long before we are capable of appreciating reasonings about the nature of these faculties.

To accomplish in elementary education all these and several other kindred things, we must find

either many subjects of study, neither too easy nor too difficult, suited to the various purposes we design, or we must find a class of studies with ample praxis for every purpose, and suited by progressive difficulty to the age of pupils. But it is of vital importance to a good elementary system, that it have

competent instructors—men of learning, men of talents, men of skill, men of piety.

We are ready then to say that the system we here advocate, is the good old fashioned one of the dead languages and the pure mathematics, as taught in the classical schools of Great Britain, and thirty years ago in the United States, requiring vigorous, learned, faithful, clerical masters.

At present we leave out of view the pure mathematics, as the tendency of the age, although in favour of what is practical, is not here, perhaps, so adverse to what is abstract, and because if one is persuaded to take the true course in languages, he by that act, consents to the true course in mathematics. Confining our view to the classics, what is proper instruction in them from the first to the last, but a series of incessant and yet ever varied exercises in fixedness of attention, in concentrating all the powers and ingenuity of the soul, to read hidden meanings, ascertain relations, reconcile seeming contradictions; in perseverance, where failures attend oft repeated attempts to find the probable truth ; in patience, which waits resolutely for light from other quarters, without which the present text is darkness impenetrable to any persevering attention ? What have we here, but exercises of caution and comprehension, in surveying at every step the ground passed over; correcting conclusion after conclusion; till the mind having a comprehensive and accurate view of the whole at once and all the parts, settles at last upon a conclusion derived from a whole subject and not any of its details? And after all this, how does the mind still rejoice in its discovery as the most probable, still awake to any suggestion, that may even yet modify ?

The study of the languages is a constant exercise in reasoning; for never is the full sense received till subject, and copula, and predicate and accidents are all perceived; to say nothing of all the rigid inquiries and rational conjectures intstituted and paraded to make an erroneous interpretation of a part harmonize with the probable interpretation of the whole.

All concede that these studies do wonderfully enlarge and strengthen, and if we may so speak, correct the memory; and the order and arrangement of all standard Greek and Latin sentences, and subjects, make an impress of themselves on the mind, too broad and deep to be ever effaced.

In all literature, where are better models of every thing

imaginative, fanciful, humorous ? Or where better specimens of every species of composition ? Or if as good or even better

may be found in our own literature, is all that literature accessible to school boys? Or can models avail if not considered with long and intense attention ?

The preference for our system is founded not on a belief that there is nothing so good elsewhere, but on a belief that all that is good and necessary in elementary training, is concentrated into so small a compass and so easily accessible to most, perhaps to all. A very few books and at a very moderate price contains the instruments of our whole discipline : and these books are so arrayed, that without making education for children a thing to be eaten as gingerbread, or sucked as sugar candy, the first are level to the understanding of very young children: or rather, while exciting their curiosity and exercising their ingenuity from the first, the system follows the order of nature, and begins with the memory rather than the judgment, with the faith rather than the reason. As subjects suitable for foundation studies are scattered over many English works, such can never be available to schools ; and if it were possible, it is not very probable, that they will ever be so reduced and so arranged as to serve the purpose : for still the difficult ones would be too difficult for beginners, and the easy ones too easy. Boys will never stop to chop the logic for themselves, when in text books in their own language, it is already chopped and dried to their hand : the medium of another, and especially of a dead and ancient language, is necessary, to make them pause and ascertain the sense by its logical arrangement and connexions. So far from removing every thing that stops rapid progress, such as it is, we wish just that amount of impediment in elementary studies interposed by the dead languages: and it is against the spirit of the age that makes every thing so plain and easy and captivating, and truth so like fiction, that we most loudly and earnestly protest. A child fed on sweetmeats turns away from plain and wholesome bread ; and one that is always carried in the nurse's arms will have no use of its legs: and so boys trained as many are, will always shrink from difficult studies however needful, and will in time, have no relish for truth, if it be not entertaining and exciting.

It is undeniable that, for the last twenty five years a popular current has been running against the study of the anVOL. XIV.NO. II.


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