Mercury from Gold and Silver Mining: A Chemical Time Bomb? ; with 29 Tables
Due to its inherent characteristics, mercury contamination from gold mining is a major environmental problem compared to past mercury contamination from industrial point sources. The worsening of social-economical conditions and increasing gold prices in the late 1970s resulted in a new rush for gold by individual entrepreneurs for whom mercury amalgamation is a cheap and easily carried out operation. Even after the present-day mining areas are exhausted, the mercury left behind will remain part of the biochemical cycle of the tropical forest. This book reviews the current information on mercury from gold mining, its cycling in the environment and its long-term ecotoxicological impact. The book is illustrated with numerous diagrams and photographs.
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The Use of Mercury Amalgamation in Gold and Silver Mining
12 PresentDay Worldwide Utilization of Mercury Amalgamation
13 PresentDay Amalgamation Mining Techniques
Estimating Losses of Mercury to the Environment
22 Mercury Emissions from Historical Gold and Silver Mining
23 The Second Gold Rush in the South
Mercury in the Atmosphere
Burning of Amalgam
443 Mercury Cycling in Artificial Tropical Reservoirs
45 Mercury Methylation
Mercury in Biota
52 Aquatic Macrophytes
53 Animals Excluding Fish
541 Mercury Concentrations and Distribution in Fish
542 MethylMercury in Fish from Gold Mining Areas
Degassing from Contaminated Soils Waters and Tailings
32 Mercury Concentrations in Air of Urban and Rural Areas
33 Chemical Forms Reactivity and Fate of Hg in the Atmosphere
34 Impacted Areas Through the Atmospheric Transport Pathway
Mercury in Tropical Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems
42 Leaching from Tailings
422 Mercury Export from Tailings to Adjacent Aquatic Systems
432 Mercury and Its Associations in River Sediments
433 Hydrological Effects on Hg Dispersion
434 Dispersion of Mercury in River Systems
44 Tropical Reservoirs
441 Atmospheric Inputs
543 Fish Response Changes in Hg Environmental Concentrations
55 The Atmospheric Link in the Mercury Content of Fish
Mercury Contamination of Humans in Gold and Silver Mining Areas
61 Exposure Characteristics to Human Groups
62 Mercury Concentrations in Humans from Occupational Exposure
63 Mercury Concentrations in Humans Due to Environmental Exposure
631 Mercury Concentrations in Human Blood
Perspectives on the Temporal Development of Mercury Inputs into the Environment
72 The Decrease in Mercury Inputs from Industrial Point Sources
The Second Gold Rush and Before
Summary and Outlook
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Mercury from Gold and Silver Mining: A Chemical Time Bomb?
Luiz D.de Lacerda,Wim Salomons
Previzualizare limitată - 2012
Alta Floresta Amazon region Amazon River amount of Hg anthropogenic atmospheric Hg Aula bottom sediments Brazilian Amazon Carajas carnivorous fish central Brazil Colombia concen Davao del Norte decrease degassing deposition rates drainage ecosystems environment environmental estimated etal exposure forest soils French Guyana freshwater gold and silver gold dealer shops gold mining areas gold mining sites gold production Guimaraes Guyana Shield Hacon Hg amalgamation Hg concentrations Hg concentrations ranging Hg distribution Hg emissions Hg inputs Hg levels Hg methylation Hg released Hg2+ high Hg concentrations Itaituba Lacerda lakes Lerderderg River macrophytes Madeira River major Malm MeHg Mercury concentrations metallic Hg methyl-Hg methylation rates Negro River Nriagu organic matter oxidation pathway Pfeiffer Pocone Porto Velho present reported Rondonia samples sediments showed Hg significant silver mining source of Hg studies suspended particles Table tailings Tapajos River tion tons year"1 total Hg content tropical ug Hg ug kg"1 urine values
Pagina 130 - High levels of mercury in fish and human hair from the rio Negro basin (Brazilian Amazon): natural background or anthropogenic.
Pagina 125 - The global cycle of mercury. In: Nriagu JO (ed) The biogeochemistry of mercury in the environment.
Pagina 130 - Rudd. 1980. Measurement of mercury methylation in lake water and sediment samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40: 770-776.
Pagina 125 - Akagi H, Kinjo Y, Branches F, Malm O, Harada M, Pfeiffer WC, Kato H (1994) Methylmercury pollution in Tapajos River Basin, Amazon.
Pagina 139 - A preliminary study of mercury contamination in the surface soil and river sediment of the Roscio District, Bolivar State, Venezuela KP Shrestha & X.