Mercury from Gold and Silver Mining: A Chemical Time Bomb? ; with 29 Tables
Due to its inherent characteristics, mercury contamination from gold mining is a major environmental problem compared to past mercury contamination from industrial point sources. The worsening of social-economical conditions and increasing gold prices in the late 1970s resulted in a new rush for gold by individual entrepreneurs for whom Hg amalgamation is a cheap and easily carried out operation. Even after the present-day mining areas are exhausted, the mercury left behind will remain part of the biochemical cycle of the tropical forest. This book reviews the current information on mercury from gold mining, its cycling in the environment and its long-term ecotoxicological impact. The book is illustrated with numerous diagrams and photographs.
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The Use of Mercury Amalgamation in Gold and Silver Mining
12 PresentDay Worldwide Utilization of Mercury Amalgamation
13 PresentDay Amalgamation Mining Techniques
Estimating Losses of Mercury to the Environment
22 Mercury Emissions from Historical Gold and Silver Mining
23 The Second Gold Rush in the South
Mercury in the Atmosphere
Burning of Amalgam
443 Mercury Cycling in Artificial Tropical Reservoirs
45 Mercury Methylation
Mercury in Biota
52 Aquatic Macrophytes
53 Animals Excluding Fish
541 Mercury Concentrations and Distribution in Fish
542 MethylMercury in Fish from Gold Mining Areas
Degassing from Contaminated Soils Waters and Tailings
32 Mercury Concentrations in Air of Urban and Rural Areas
33 Chemical Forms Reactivity and Fate of Hg in the Atmosphere
34 Impacted Areas Through the Atmospheric Transport Pathway
Mercury in Tropical Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems
42 Leaching from Tailings
422 Mercury Export from Tailings to Adjacent Aquatic Systems
432 Mercury and Its Associations in River Sediments
433 Hydrological Effects on Hg Dispersion
434 Dispersion of Mercury in River Systems
44 Tropical Reservoirs
441 Atmospheric Inputs
543 Fish Response Changes in Hg Environmental Concentrations
55 The Atmospheric Link in the Mercury Content of Fish
Mercury Contamination of Humans in Gold and Silver Mining Areas
61 Exposure Characteristics to Human Groups
62 Mercury Concentrations in Humans from Occupational Exposure
63 Mercury Concentrations in Humans Due to Environmental Exposure
631 Mercury Concentrations in Human Blood
Perspectives on the Temporal Development of Mercury Inputs into the Environment
72 The Decrease in Mercury Inputs from Industrial Point Sources
The Second Gold Rush and Before
Summary and Outlook
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Mercury from Gold and Silver Mining: A Chemical Time Bomb?
Luiz D.de Lacerda,Wim Salomons
Previzualizare limitată - 2012
activity amalgamation Amazon amount aquatic associated atmosphere background blood bottom sediments Brazilian central Brazil close collected compared contamination countries cycling decrease deposition dispersion distribution drainage ecosystems effects emissions environment environmental estimated etal example exposure factors fish forest gold and silver gold dealer gold mining gold mining areas groups hair Hg concentrations Hg2+ higher human important increase industrial inputs involved Italy Lacerda lakes less levels Madeira River major Malm measured Mercury concentrations metallic methyl-Hg methylation miners mining sites natural nearly Negro River Nriagu occurs operation organic matter particles pathway plant population present production ranging rates reach region relatively released reported reservoir samples season sediments showed significant similar soils species studies suggest surface suspended particles Table tailings tion tons total Hg transport tropical typical urban urine values vapor various
Pagina 130 - High levels of mercury in fish and human hair from the rio Negro basin (Brazilian Amazon): natural background or anthropogenic.
Pagina 125 - The global cycle of mercury. In: Nriagu JO (ed) The biogeochemistry of mercury in the environment.
Pagina 130 - Rudd. 1980. Measurement of mercury methylation in lake water and sediment samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40: 770-776.
Pagina 125 - Akagi H, Kinjo Y, Branches F, Malm O, Harada M, Pfeiffer WC, Kato H (1994) Methylmercury pollution in Tapajos River Basin, Amazon.
Pagina 139 - A preliminary study of mercury contamination in the surface soil and river sediment of the Roscio District, Bolivar State, Venezuela KP Shrestha & X.