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Dr. Mosher's Annual Report for the Department for Men-
tal Diseases of the Albany Hospital.-Mercier and the Toxins
of Syphilis.-Psychical Causes of Tuberculosis among Indian
Tribes.—Shall English be “ Made in Germany"?—Fifth Bel-
gian Congress of Neurology and Psychiatry.-Annual Meet-
ing of the French Alienists.—Death of Dr. Lombroso.....487-496
Edwin Holmes Van Deusen.-Maurice J. Stack.... ..509-515
State of New York State Commission in Lunacy. Twenti-
eth Annual Report. (Albany: State Printers, 1909.)—Tenth
Annual Report of the State Board of Insanity of the Com-
monwealth of Massachusetts. (Boston: Wright & Potter
Printing Co., 1909.)—Index-Catalogue of the Library of the
Surgeon-General's Office, United States Army. Vol. XIV.
I-Rzehak. (Washington: Government Printing Office,
1909.)—“Der Angeborene Schwachsinn in seinen Beziehung
zum Militärdienst.” Von Theophil Becker. (Berlin: August
XIII. ABSTRACTS AND EXTRACTS:
A Statistical Study of Alcohol as a Causative Factor in In-
sanity.—Contribution critique et clinique à l'étude des états
terminaux dans la démence précoce.—Psychical End-Results
Following Major Operations.-Surgical Aspects of Graves'
I. THE New GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. William
II. STUDY OF THE AUTO AND SOMATOPSYCHIC REACTION IN FOUR
Cases of DEMENTIA Præcox. Wm. Burgess Cornell...... 529
III. THE APPLICATION OF IMMUNITY REACTION TO THE CEREBRO-
IV. REVIEW OF RECENT STUDIES IN GENERAL PARESIS. James V.
V. A STUDY OF BODY TEMPERATURE IN PARALYTIC DEMENTIA.
VI. THE VALUE OF STAFF CONFERENCES IN STATE HOSPITALS.
VII. REVIEW OF INFECTIVE-EXHAUSTIVE PSYCHOSES WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO SUBDIVISION AND PROGNOSIS. Samuel W.
VIII. STUDIES IN HEREDITY WITH EXAMPLES. William C. Sandy... 587
IX. ACUTE ALCOHOLIC HALLUCINOSIS (ACUTE ALCOHOLIC PARA-
X. REPORT OF THREE CASES OF KORSSAKow's PsycHOSIS. Charles
XI. SCARLET FEVER AS AN ETIOLOGICAL FACTOR IN THE PSYCHOSES.
XII. THE GANSER SYMPTOM AND SYMPTOM-COMPLEX. Theo. I.
XIII. AN ANATOMICAL ANALYSIS OF SEVENTY CASES OF SENILE
DEMENTIA. C. G. McGaffin......
XIV. IMPRESSIONS OF SOME ASYLUMS OF SCOTLAND. C. A. Drew.. 657
XV. NOTES ON THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE INSANITY. Sanger
XVI. ANATOMICAL FINDINGS IN SENILE DEMENTIA. E. E. Southard 673
Honor to Dr. Carlos F. MacDonald.-A Unique Experience
with Pellagra.-The Munich Clinic and Dementia Præcox.
-Summer School for Attendants in Institutions for the In-
sane in Illinois.-The Journal of Educational Psychology.-
American Medico-Psychological Association.—Erratum..709-721
Dr. Walter Robarts Gillette.-Dr. Oliver M. Dewing.-Dr.
H. A. Tobey.-Dr. H. E. Buchan.-Dr. Charles E. Hickey.722-727
Serum Diagnosis of Syphilis and the Butyric Acid Test for
Syphilis. By Hideyo Noguchi, M. D., M. Sc. (Philadelphia:
J. B. Lippincott Co., 1910.)-Thirty-eighth Annual Report of
the Board of Commissioners of Public Charities of Pennsyl-
vania. (Harrisburg, Pa.: State Printer, 1909.)–Forty-fifth
Annual Report of the Trustees of the Boston City Hospital.
(City of Boston, Printing Department, 1909.)..... .747-748
A Study of Errors of Diagnosis in General Paresis.-Blut-
druckmessungen in Geisteskranken.-Ricerche di sfigmoma-
nometria e sfigmografia nei dementi precoci.—Come si com-
portano, in relazione alle alternative di attività et di riposo,
le misure sfigmomanometriche e dinamometriche nei malati
di mente applicati at lavoro....
XXII. APPOINTMENTS, RESIGNATIONS, ETC.
MOTOR RETARDATION AS A MANIC-DEPRESSIVE
BY FREDERIC LYMAN WELLS, Ph. D.,
1. The Experimental Criterion of Retardation..
I. THE EXPERIMENTAL CRITERION OF RETARDATION.
In a fundamental retardation we have an agency or number of agencies, presumably of toxic origin, which tend to increase the difficulty with which certain nervous impulses, consequently certain psychic functions, can proceed. The actual study of cases shows us that the symptom of retardation may involve the various mental functions largely independently of one another. When its manifestations occur mainly in the higher, associative processes of the mind, we speak of it as a “ difficulty in thinking' or “thinking disorder ”; we may also see its phenomena confined with some definiteness to the motor side; and as has been elsewhere suggested, those manic-depressive states which show an emotional condition of apparent apathy in contradistinction to depression are the manifestation of this same symptom in the affective sphere. In like manner we may find these phenomena even more restricted within the categories mentioned.
It is obvious, however, that in merely speaking of a greater difficulty ” of the nervous processes, we do not tell the whole story of the effect of this difficulty upon the resulting movements, which are, of course, our ultimate criteria of the symptom. The response may be merely delayed, without seeming to be otherwise affected. More often, however, there is coupled with this delay a certain weakening of its force and effectiveness. On the other hand, the response may be long delayed and then come with explosive force, as though the patient had been gradually accumulating sufficient energy to burst through the retardation. Occasionally the response fails entirely, apparently from not being strong enough to break through; this is apt to be the case with indifferent situations. Under great stresses, however, a marked retardation may be entirely swept away, indicating a considerable reserve strength of the voluntary impulse, just as our muscles seldom if ever put forth under voluntary stimulation the effort of which they are physiologically capable.
Clinically, we judge of a patient's retardation through the general character of his behavior, by the quickness with which he seems to think or speak or move. Experimentally, we make use of the innumerable tests put forward as measures of mental time. So long as we deal only with the presence or absence of retardation in general, the precise mental function that we select to measure is probably of secondary importance to the accuracy of