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And I, sir, (bless the mark') his Moor-ship's jis spy'd in populous cities. ancient.

[hangman. Rod. What ho! Brabantio! signior Brabantio, Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his


[thieves ! lago. But there's no remedy; 'tis the curse of lago. Awake! what, ho! Brabantio thieves ! service;

5 Look to your house, your daughter and your bags! Preferment goes by letter?, and affection, Thieves! thieves! Not by the old gradation, where each second

Brabantio, above, at a window. Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge your- Bra. What is the reason of this terrible sumWhether I in any just term am affin'd (self, What is the matter there?

[mons ? To love the Moor 3.

10 Rod. Signior, is all your family within Rod. I would not follow him then.

Iago. Are your doors lock’d? lago. O, sir, content you;

Bra. Why? wherefore ask you this ? I follow him to serve my turn upon him;

lago. Sir, you are robb’d; for shame, put on We cannot all be masters, nor all masters

your gown; Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark 15 Your heart is burst", you have lost half your soul;" Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave, Even now, very now, an old black ram That, doting on his own obsequious bondage, Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise; Wears out his time, much like his master's

ass, Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, For nought but provender, and, when he's old, Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you: cashier'd;

20 Arise, I say. Whip me such honest knaves * : Others there are, Bra. What, have you lost your wits? Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty, Rod. Most reverend signior, do you know my Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves;

voice? And, throwing but shows of service on their lords, Bra. Not 1; What are you? Do well thrive by them, and, when they have 25 Rod. My name is Roderigo. lin'd their coats,

(soul ;) Bra. The worse welcome: Do themselves homage: these fellows have some I have charg'd thee, not to haunt about my doors: And such a one I do profess myself.

In honest plainness thou hast heard me say, For, sir,

My daughter is not for thee: and now, in madness, It is as sure as you are Roderigo,

30 Being full of supper, and distempering draughts, Were I the Moor, I would not be lago:

Upon malicious bravery, dost thou come In following him, I follow but myselt;

To start my quiet. Heaven is ny judge, not I for love and duty, Rod. Sir, sir, sir,But seeming so, for my peculiar end:

Bra. But thou must needs be sure, For when my outward action doth demonstrate 35 My spirit, and my place, have in them power The native act and figure of my heart

To make this bitter to thee. In compliment extern, 'tis not long after

Rod. Patience, good sir.

[Venice; But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve

Bra. What tell'st thou me of robbing. this is For daws to peck at: I am not what I am. My house is not a grange'.

Rod. What a full fortune 5 does the thick-lips 40 Rod. Most grave Brabantio,
If he can carry 't thus !

[owe, In simple and pure soul I come to you. Iago. Call up her father,

lago. Sir, you are one of those that will not Rouse him: make after him, poison his delight, serve God, if the devil bid you. Because we come Proclaim him in the streets; incense her kinsmen, to do you service, you think we are ruffians. And, though he in a fertile climate dwell, 45 You'll have your daughter cover'd with a BarPlague him with flies: though that his joy be joy, bary horse; you'll have your nephews ' neigh to Yet throw such changes of vexation on't, you : you 'll have coursers for cousins, and genAs it may lose some colour.

nets' for germans. Rod. Here is her father's house; I'll call aloud. Bra. What profane o wretch art thou? Iago. Do; with light timorous accent, and dire 50. lago. I am one, sir, that comes to tell you, your yell,

daughter and the Moor are now making the beast As when, by night and negligence, the fire with two" backs.

'It has been observed, that the Scots, when they compare person to person, use this exclamation. * i. e. by recommendation from powerful friends. 3 'The meaning is, Do I stand within any such terms of propinquity or relation to the Moor, as that it is my duty to love him? * Knare is here used for servant, but with a mixture of sly contempt. Full fortune may mean a complete piece of good fortune. To owe is in ancient language, to own, to possess. • i. e. broken. *. That is, “ You are in a populous city, not in a lone house, where a robbery might easily be committed." Grange is strictly and properly the farın of a monastery, where the religious reposited their corn. But in Lincolnshire, and in other northern counties, they call every lone house, or farm which stands solitary, a grange. & Nephew, in this instance, has the power of the Latin word nepos, and signifies a grandson, or any lineal descendant, however remote. · A jennet is a Spanish horse. 10 That is, what wretch of gross and licentious language? " This is an ancient proverbial expression in the French language, whence Shakspeare probably borrowed it.


seech you,


Bra. Thou art a villain.

How didst thou know 'twas she?-0, thou delago. You are-a senator. [Roderigo.

ceiv'st me Bra. This thou shalt answer; I know thee, Past thought!—What said she to you?-Get more Rod. Sir, I will answer any thing. But I be


5 Raise all my kindred. Are they marry'd, think If’t be your pleasure, and most wise consent, (As partly, I find, it is) that your fair daughter, Rod. Truly, I think, they are. At this odd'even and dull watch o' the night, Bra. O heaven!-how got she out?-O treason Transported—with no worse nor better guard,

of the blood !

[minds But with a knave of common hire, a gondalier,—10 Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters' To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor:- By what you see them act.-Arethere not charms, If this be known to you, and your allowance, By which the property of youth and maidhood We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs;

May be abus'd' Have you not read, Roderigo, But, if you know not this, my manners tell me, Of some such thing? We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe, 15 Rod. Yes, sir; I have, indeed. That, from the sense of all civility,

Bra. Call up my brother.-0,'would you had I thus would play and trifle with your reverence:

had her! Your daughter,--if you have not given her leave,-- Some one way, some another.—Do you know I say again, hath made a gross revolt;

Where we may apprehend her and the Moor? Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes, 20 Rod. I think, I can discover him; if you please To an extravagant and wheeling stranger, (self: To get good guard, and go along with me. Of here and every where : Straight satisfy your- Bra. Pray you lead on. At every house I'll If she be in her chamber, or your house,

call; Let loose on me the justice of the state

I may command at most:-Get weapons, ho! For thus deluding you.

25 And raise some special officers of might.Bru. Strike on the tinder, ho!

On, good Roderigo; I'll deserve your pains. Give me a taper ;-call up all my people:

[Exeunt. This accident is not unlike my dream, Belief of it oppresses me already:

SCENE II. Light, I say ! light!


Another Street. lago. Farewell; for I must leave you:

Enter Othello, lago, and Attendants. It seems not meet, nor wholesome to my place, Iago. Though in the trade

of war I have slain men, To be produc'd (as, if I stay, I shall)

Yet do I hold it very stuff o' the conscience Against the Moor: For, I do know, the state, To do no contriv'd murder; I lack iniquity Ilowever this may gall him with some check — 35 Sometimes to do me service : Nine or ten times Cannot with safety cast ' him; for he's embark'd I had thought to have jerk'd him here under the With such loud reason to the Cyprus' war,

ribs. (Which even now stands in act) that, for their souls,

Oth. 'Tis better as it is. Another of his fathon they have not,

Iago. Nay, but he prated, To lead their business: in which regard, 40 And spoke such scurvy and provoking terms Though I do hate him as I do hell pains, Against your honour, Yet, for necessity of present life,

That, with the little godliness I have, I must shew out a flag and sign of love,

I did full hard forbear him. But, I pray you, sir, Which is indeed but sign. That you

shall surely


you fast marry'd for, be sure of this, find him,

45 That the magnifico’ is much belov'd; Lead to the Sagittary the rais'd search;

And hath, in his effect, a voice potential And there will I be with him. So, farewell. As double as the duke's: he will divorce you;

[Exit. Or put upon you what restraint and grievance Enter, below, Brabantio, and Servants. The law (with all his might to enforce it on) Bra. It is too true an evil: gone sbe is; 50 Will give him cable. And what's to come of my despised * time,

Oih. Let him do his spite: Is nought but bitterness.- Now, Roderigo, My services, which I have done the signiory, Where didst thou see her? ( unhappy girl! - Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know, With the Moor, say'st thou?--Who would be a (Which, when I know that boasting is an honour, father

155 I shall promulgate,) I fetch my life and being

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' Dr. Johnson observes, that the even of night is midnight, the time when night is divided into eren parts.- Mr. Steevens thinks that odd is here ambiguously used, as it signifies strange, uncouth, or unwonted ; and as it is opposed to even ; but acknowledges that the expression is very harsh. travagant is here used in the signification of wandering.

s That is, dismiss him; reject him. Despised time, is time of no ralue. Si. e. by which the faculties of a young virgin may be infatuated, and made subject to illusions and to false imaginations. Sluj of the conscience, is substance, or essence, of the conscience. The chief men of Venice are, by a peculiar name, called Magnifici, i. c. magniscoes.

* Double has here its natural sense. The president of every deliberative assembly has a double voice. For example: the lord mayor in the court of aldermen has a double voice. 3 X 3



From men of royal siege'; and my demerits Bra. Down with him, thief!
May speak, unbonneted?, to as proud a fortune

[They draw on both sides. As this that I have reach'd: For know, lago, . Iago. You, Roderigo come, sir, I am for you. But that I love the gentle Desdemona,

Oth. Keep up your bright swords, for the dew I would not my unhoused * free condition 5

will rust them.Put into circumscription and confine

Goodsignior, you shall more command with years, For the sea's worth. But, look! what lights come

Than with your weapons, yonder?

Bra. O thou foul thief! where hast thou stow'd Enter Cassio, with others.

my daughter? Iago. These are the raised father, and his friends;

10 Damn'd as thou art, thou hast enchanted her : You were best go in.

For I'll refer me to all things of sense, Oth. Not I: I must be found;

If she in chains of magic were not bound, My parts, my title, and my perfect soul,

Whether a maid-so tender, fair, and happy, Shall manifest me rightly. Is it they?

So opposite to marriage, that she shunn'd Iago. By Janus, I think no.

15 The wealthy curled 10 darlings of our nation, Oth. Theservants ofthe duke, and my lieutenant.

Would ever have, to incur a general mock, The goodness of the night upon you, friends!

Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom What is the news?

Of such a thing as thou; to fear", not to delight, Cas. The duke dloes greet you, general ;

Judge me the world, if 'tis not gross in sense, And he requires your haste, post-haste appearance,

20 That thou hast practis'd on her with foul charms; Even on the instant.

Abus'd her delicate youth with drugs, or minerals, Oth. What is the matter, think you?

That weaken motion"? :-I'll have it disputed on; Cas. Something from Cyprus, as I may divine;

"Tis probable, and palpable to thinking. It is a business of some heat: the galleys

I therefore apprehend and do attach thee, Have sent a dozen sequent messengers

25 For an abuser of the world, a practiser This very night at one another's heels;

Of arts inhibited and out of warrant;And many of the consuls', rais'd, and met,

Lay hold upon him; if he do resist, Are at the duke's already : You have been hotly Subdue

him at his peril. call'd for;

Oth. Hold your hands, When, being not at your lodging to be found,

30 Both you of my inclining, and the rest: The senate hath sent about three several quests,

Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it To search you out,

Without a prompter. Where will you that I go Oth, 'Tis well I am found by you.

To answer this your charge? I will but spend a word here in the house,

Bra. To prison; 'till fit time And with you.


35 Of law, and course of direct session,

Call thee to answer,
Cas. Ancient, what makes he here?
Jago. "Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land-

Oth. What if I do obey}

How may the duke be therewith satisfied; If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever. Whose messengers are here about my side, Cas. I do not understand.

40 Upon some present business of the state, Iago. He's married.

To bring me to him? Cas. To who?


. 'Tis true, most worthy signior, Re-enter Othello.

The duke's in council; and your noble self, lago. Marry, to-Come, captain, will you go?

I am sure, is sent for. oth. Have with you :

45 Bra. How! the duke in council! Cas. Here comes another troop to seek for

In this time of the night!—Bring him away; you.

Mine's not an idle cause: the duke himself, Enter Brabantio, Roderigo, with Officers.

Or any of my brothers of the state, lago. It is Brabantio ;-general, be advis'd'; Cannot but feel this wrong, as'twere their own: He comes to bad intent.

50 For if such actions may have passage free, Oth. Hola! stand there!

Bond-slaves, and pagans, shall our statesmen be. Rod. Signior, it is the Moor.

(Ercunt, ' i. e. men who have sat upon royal thrones. Demerits, here has the same meaning as merits.

i. e. without taking the cap off. * i.e. free from domestic cares: a thought natural to an advena turer.

Consuls seems to have been commonly used for counsellors ; as before in this play. * Quests are searches. 'A carrack is a ship of great hulk, and commonly of great value; perhaps what we now call a galleon. * This expression denotes readiness. • i.e. be cautious; be discreet. 10 Curled, is elegantly and ostentatiously dressed. 11 i. e. to terrify. 13 Theobald proposes, and we think justly, to read, That weaken notion, instead of motion ; i.e. that weaken her apprehensión, right conception and idea of things, understanding, judgement, &c."-Hanmer would read, perhaps with equal probability, “ That waken motion :” and it is to be observed, that motion, in a subsequent scene of this play, is used in the very sense in which Haomer would employ it: “But we have reason to cool our raging motions, our carnal stings, our unbitted lusts."



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Duke. Write froni us; wish him, post, posthaste: dispatch.

[Moor. A Council-chamber.

Sen. Here comes Brabantio, and the valiant Duke and Senators, sitting.

Enter Brabantio, Othello, lago, Roderigo, and Duke. There is no composition' in these news, 5

Officers. That gives them credit.

Duke. Valiant Othello, we must straight em1 Sen. Indeed, they are disproportion'd;

ploy you My letters say, a hundred-and-seven galleys. Against the general enemy Ottoman.

Duke. And mine, a hundred-and-forty. I did not see you;welcome, gentle signior;[To Brab. 2 Sen. And mine, two hundred:

10 We lack'd your counsel and your help to-night. But though they jump not on a just account, Bra. So did I yours: Good your grace, pardon (As in these cases where they aim ? reports,

me; 'Tis oft with difference) yet do they all confirm Neither my place, nor aught I heard of business, A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus. Hath rais'd me from my bed; nor doth the geDuke. Nay, it is possible enough to judgement : 15

neral care I do not so secure me in the error,

Take hold on me; for my particular grief But the main article I do approve

Is of so flood-gate and o'er-bearing nature, In fearful sense.

That it engluts and swallows other sorrows, Sailor (within.] What ho! what ho! what ho! And yet is still itself.

Enter an Officer, with a Sailor. 20 Duke. Why, what's the matter? Oni, A messenger from the galleys.

Bra. My daughter! O, my daughter!
Duke. Now? the business?

Sen. Dead?
Sail. The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes; Bra. Ay, to me;
So was I bid report here to the state,

She is abus'd, stol’n from me, and corrupted
By signior Angelo.

25 By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks: Duke. How say you by this change?

For nature so preposterously to err, 1 Sen. This cannot be,

Being not detícient, blind, or lame of sense, By no assay of reason; 'tis a pageant,

Sans witchcraft could notTo keep us in false gaze: When we consider Duke. Whoe'er he be, that, in this foul proThe importancy of Cyprus to the Turk; (30)

ceeding, And let ourselves again but understand,

Hath thus beguild your daughter of herself, That, as it more concems the Turk than Rhodes, And you of her, the bloody book of law So may he with more facile question 'bear it, You shall yourself read in the bitter letter, For that it stands not in such warlike brace*, After your own sense; yea, though our proper son But altogether lacks the abilities

35 Stood in your action That Rhodes is dressed in :-if we make thought

Bra. Humbly I thank your grace. of this,

Here is the man, this Moor; whom now, it seems, We must not think the Turk is so unskilful, Your special mandate, for the state affairs, To leave that latest, which concerns himn tirst; Hath hither brought.

140 Neglecting an attempt of ease, and gain,

All. We are very sorry for it. To wake, and wage', a danger profitless.

Duke. What, in your own part, can you say to Duke. Nay, in allcontidence,he's not for Rhodes.


[To Othello. Oji. Here is more news.

Bra. Nothing, but this is so.
Enter a Messenger.

Oth. Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors, Mes. The Ottomites, reverend and gracious, 45 My very noble and approv'd good masters, Steeringwith due course toward theisle of Rhodes, That I have ta’en away this old man's daughter, llave there injointed them with an after-fleet. It is most true ; true, I have married her; 1 Sen. Ay, so I thought:-llow many, as you

The very

head and front of my offending guess?

Hath thisextent, no more.Rude am I in my speech, Mes. Of thirty sail: and now they do re-stem 50 And little blest with the set phrase of peace; Their backward course, bearing with frank ap

For since these arms of mine had seven years pearance

l'Till now, some nine moons wasted, they have Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano, Their dearest : action in the tented field; [us'd Your trusty and most valiant servitor,

And little of this great world can I speak, With his free duty, recommends you thus, 55 More than pertains to feats of broil and battle; And prays you to believe him.

And therefore little shall I grace my cause, Duke.”Tis certain then for Cyprus.- In speaking for myself: Yet, by your gracious Marcus Lucchese, is not he in town?

patience, i Sen. He's now in Florence.

I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver Composition, for consistency, concordancy.

? To aim is to conjecture. endeavour. i. e. State of defence. To arm was called to brace on the armour.

• i. e. were the man here, as in many other places in Shakspeare, signifies to fight, to combat. exposed to your charge or accusation. That is, dear for which much is paid, whether money or labours. Dear action, is action performed at great expence, either of ease or safety. 3 X 4



ji. e. more easy

* To wagc

Of my whole course of love; what drugs, what Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances, charms,

Of moving accidents, by flood and field; What conjuration, and what mighty magic, Of hair-breadth 'scapes” i’ the imminent deadly (For such proceeding 1 an charg'd withal) Of being taken by the insolent foe, [breach; I won his daughter with.

5 And sold to slavery; of my redemption thence, Bra. A maiden never bold;

And portance in my travel's history: Of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion Wherein of antres vast, and de-sarts idle“, Blush'd at herself; And she,-in spite of nature, Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch Of years, of country, credit, every thing,

heaven, To fall in love with what she fear'd to look on? 10 It was niy hint to speak, such was the procesa ; It is a judgement maim'd, and most imperfect, und of the Cannibals that each other eat, That will confess-perfection so could err The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads Against all rules of nature; and must be driven Do grow beneath their shoulders '. These things To find out practices of cunning hell,

to hear, Why this should be. I therefore vouch again, 15 Would Desdemona seriousiy incline: That with some mixtures powerful o'er the blood, But still the house affairs would draw her thence; Or with some dram conjur'd to this effect, Which ever as she could with haste dispatch, He wrought upon her.

She'd come again, and with a greedy ear Duke. To vouch this, is no proof;

Devour up my discourse : Which l observing, Without more certain and more overt test', 20 Took once a pliant hour; and found good means Than these thin habits, and poor likelihoods To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart, Of modern seeming, do prefer against him. That I would all my pilgrimage dilate, 1 Sen. But, Othello, speak;

Whereof by parcels she had something heard, Did you by indirect and forced courses

But not intentively : I did consent; Subdue and poison this young maid's affections: 25 And often did beguile her of her tears, Or came it by request, and such fair question When I did speak of some distressful stroke As soul to soul affordeth?

That my youth suffer'd. My story being done, Oth. I do beseech you,

She gave me for my pains a world of sighs: Send for the lady to the Sagittary,

She swore,-In faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing And let her speak of me before her father : 30

strange; If you do tind me foul in her report,

'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful: The trust, the office, I do hold of you,

She wish'd, she had not heard it; yet she wish'd Not only take away, but let your sentence

That heaven had made her such a man: she Even fall upon life.

thank'd me; Duke. Fetch Desdemona hither. . 35 And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,

[Exeunt Two or Three. I should but teach him how to tell my story, Oth. Ancient, conduct them; you best know And that would woo her. Upon this hint, I spake: the place..

[Exit lago. She lov'd me for the dangers I had past; And, 'till she come, as truly as to heaven And I lov'd her, that she did pity them. I do confess the vices of my blood,

140 This only is the witchcraft I have us'd; So justly to your grave


Here comes the lady, let her witness it.
How did I thrive in this fair lady's love,

Enter Desdemona, lago, and Attendants. And she in mine,

Duke. I think, this tale would win my daughter Duke. Say it, Othello.

too.Oth. Her father lov'd me; oft invited me; 145 Good Brabantio, Still question'd me the story of my life,

Take up this mangled matter at the best: From year to year, the battles, sieges, fortunes, Men do their broken weapons rather use, That I have pass'd:

Than their bare hands. I ran it through, even from my boyish days, Bra. I pray you, hear her speak; so the very moment that he bade me tell it. 150|If she contess, that she was half the wooer,

' i. e. open proofs, external evidence. 2 This means the sign of the fictitious creature so called, i. e, an animal compounded of man and horse, and armed with a bow and quiver. dens. Dr. Warburton remarks, that “ Discourses of this nature made the subject of the politest conversations, when voyages into, and discoveries of, the new world were all in vogue. So when the Bastard Faulconbridge, in King John, describes the behaviour of upstart greatness, he makes one of the essential circumstances of it to be this kind of table-talk. The fashion then running altogether in this way, it is no wonder a young lady of quality should be struck with the history of an adventurer." Dr. Johnson adds, that “Whoever ridicules this account of the progress of love, shews his ignorance, not only of history, but of nature and manners. It is no wonder that, in any age, or in any nation, a lady, recluse, tinorous, and delicate, should desire to hear of events and scenes which she could never see, and should admire the man who had endured dangers, and performed actions, which, however great, were yet magnified by her timidity.” * i. e. wild, useless, uncultivated.

- Dr. Johnson says,

Of these men there is an account in the interpolated travels of Mandeville, a book of that time.” Intention and attention wire once synonymous.




3 i. e, caves,

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