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hears the silent petitions of his people. He needs not that we should cry aloud; yea, he knows and perfectly understands when we only pray in our hearts, as Hannah did, 1 Sam. i. 13.
Idols are but vanities and lies; in them is no help. As to power or knowledge, they are nothing; as the apostle says, i Cor. viii. 4. “Áp idol is nothing in the world." As to images, they are so far from having power to answer prayer, that they are not able to act: “ They have hands, and handle not; feet have they, but they walk not; neither speak they through their throat.” They, therefore, that make them and pray to them, are senseless and sottish, and make themselves as it were stocks and stones, like unto them: Psal. cxv. 7, 8. and Jer. x. 5. “They are upright as the palm tree, but speak not: they must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them; for they cannot do evil; neither also is it in them to do good,” As to the hosts of heaven, the sun, moon. and stars, although mankind receive benefit by them, yet they act only by necessity of nature ; therefore they have no power to do any thing in answer to prayers. And devils, though worshipped as gods, are not able, if they had disposition, to make those happy who worship them, and can do nothing at all but by divine permission, and as subject to the disposal of Divine providence.- When the children of Israel departed from the true God to idols, and yet cried to him in their distress, he reproved them for their folly, by bidding them cry to the gods whom they had served, for deliverance in the time of their tribulation. Josh. x. 14. So God challenges those gods thenselves, Isa. xli. 23, 24. “Show the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are gods ; yea, do good or do evil, that we may be dismayed, and behold it together. Behold, ye are of nothing, and your work of nought; an abomination is be that chooseth you.”—These false gods, instead of helping those who pray to them, cannot help themselves. The devils are miserable tormented spirits; they are bound in chains of darkness for their rebellion against the true God, and cannot deliver themselves. Nor have they any more disposition to help mankind, than a parcel of hungry wolves or lions would have to protect and help a flock of lambs. And those that worship and pray to them, get not their good-will by ser. ving them : all the reward that Satan will give them for the service which they do him, is to devour them.-I proceed now,
IV. To give the reasons of the doctrine; which I would do in answer to these two inquiries : first, Why God requires prayer in order to the bestowment of mercies ? and secondly, Why God is so ready to hear the prayers of men ?
Inq. I. Why doth God require prayer in order to tbe bestowment of mercies?
It is not in order that God may be informed of our wants or desires. He is omniscient, and with respect to his knowledge unchangeable. God never gains any knowledge by information. He knows what we want, a thousand times more perfectly than we do ourselves, before we ask him. For though, speaking after the manner of men, God is sometimes represented as if he were moved and persuaded by the prayers of his people ; yet it is not to be thought that God is properly moved or made willing by our prayers; for it is no more possible that there should be any new inclination or will in God, than new knowledge. The mercy of God is not moved or drawn by any thing in the creature ; but the spring of God's beneficence is within himself only; he is self-moved ; and whatsoever mercy he bestows, the reason and ground of it is not to be sought for in the creature, but in God's own good pleasure. It is the will of God to bestow mercy in this way, viz. in answer to prayer, when he designs beforehand to bestow mercy, yea, when he has promised it; as Ezek. xxxvi. 36, 37. “I the Lord have spoken it, and will do it. Thus saith the Lord, I will yet for this be inquired of by the house of Israel, to do it for them." God has been pleased to constitute prayer to be an antecedent to the bestowment of mercy; and he is pleased to bestow mercy in consequence of prayer, as though he were prevailed on by prayer. When the people of God are stirred up to prayer, it is the effect of his intention to show mercy; therefore he pours out the spirit of grace and supplication.
There may be two reasons given why God requires prayer in order to the bestowment of mercy; one especially respects God, and the other respects ourselves.
1. With respect to God, prayer is but a sensible acknowledgment of our dependence on him to his glory. As he hath made all things for his own glory, so he will be glorified and acknowledged by his creatures, and it is fit that he should require this of those who would be the subjects of bis mercy. That we, when we desire to receive any mercy from him, should humbly supplicate the Divine Being for the bestowment of that mercy, is but a suitable acknowledgment of our dependence on the power and mercy of God, for that which we need, and but a
a suitable honour paid to the great Author and Fountain of all good.
2. With respect to ourselves, God requires prayer of us in order to the bestowment of mercy, because it tends to prepare us for its reception. Fervent prayer many ways tends to prepare the heart.
Hereby is excited a sense of our need and of the value of the mercy which we seek, and at the same time earnest desires for it; whereby the mind is more prepared to prize it, to rejoice in it when bestowed, and to be thankful for it. Prayer, with suitable confession, may excite a sense of our unworthiness of the mercy we seek ; and the placing of ourselves Vol. VI.
in the immediate presence of God, may make us sensible of his majesty, and in a sense fit to receive mercy of him. Our prayer to God may excite in us a suitable sense and consideration of our dependence on God for the mercy we ask, and a suitable exercise of faith in God's sufficiency, that so we may be prepared to glorify his name when the mercy is received.
Ing. II. Why is God so ready to hear the prayers of men ? To this I answer,
1. Because he is a God of infinite grace and mercy. It is indeed a very wonderful thing, that so great a God should be so ready to hear our prayers, though we are so despicable and unworthy : that he should give free access at all times to every one; should allow us to be importunate, without esteeming it an indecent boldness ; should be so rich in mercy to them that call upon him; that worms of the dust should have such power with God by prayer; that he should do such great things in answer to their prayers, and should show himself, as it were, overcome by them. This is very wonderful, when we consider the distance between God and us, and how we bave provoked him by our sins, and how unworthy we are of the least gracious notice. It cannot be from any need that God stands in of us; for our goodness extendeth not to him. Neither can it be from any thing in us to incline the heart of God to us ; it cannot be from any worthiness in our prayers, which are in themselves polluted things. But it is because God delights in mercy and condescension. He is herein infinitely distinguished from all other gods: he is the great fountain of all good, from whom goodness flows as light from the sun.
2. We have a glorious Mediator, who has prepared the way, that our prayers may be heard consistently with the honour of God's justice and majesty. Not only has God in himself mercy sufficient for all this, but the Mediator has provided that this mercy may be exercised consistently with the divine honour. Through him we may come to God for mercy; he is the way, the truth, and the life ; no man can come to the Father but by him. This Mediator hath done three things to make way for the hearing of our prayers.
(1.) He hath by his blood made atonement for sin ; so that our guilt need not stand in the way, as a separating wall between God and us, and that our sins might not be a cloud through which our prayers cannot pass. By his atonement be hath made the way to the throne of grace open.
God would have been infinitely gracious if there had been no Mediator; but the way to the mercy-seat would have been blocked up. But Christ hath removed whatever stood in the way. The veil which was before the mercy seat “is rent from the top to the bottom," by the death of Christ. If it had not been
for this, our guilt would have remained as a wall of brass to hinder our approach. But all is removed by his blood, Heb. X. 17, &c.
(2.) Christ, by his obedience, has purchased this privilege, viz. that the prayers of those who believe in him should be heard; he has not only removed the obstacles to our prayers, but has merited a hearing of them. His merits are the incense that is offered with the prayers of the saints, which renders them a sweet savour to God, and acceptable in his sight. Hence the prayers of the saints have such power with God; hence at the prayer of a poor worm of the dust, God stopped the sun in his course for about the space of a whole day; hence Jacob as a prince had power with God, and prevailed. Our prayers would be of no account, and of no avail with God, were it not for the merits of Christ.
(3.) Christ enforces the prayers of his people, by his intercession at the right hand of God in heaven. He hath
. entered for us into the holy of holies, with the incense which he hath provided, and there he makes continual intercession for all that come to God in his name; so that their prayers come to God the Father through his hands, if I may so say; which is represented in Rev. viii. 3, 4. “And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all, the saints upon the golden altar, which is before the throne. And the smoke of the incense which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up be- . fore God, out of the angel's hand.” This was typified of old by the priest's offering incense in the temple, at the time when the people were offering up their prayers to God; as Luke i. 10. “And the whole multitude of the people were praying · without at the time of incense."
Hence we may learn how highly we are privileged, in that we have the Most High revealed to us, who is a God that heareth
prayer. The greater part of mankind are destitute of this privilege. Whatever their necessities are, whatever their calamities or sorrows, they have no prayer-hearing God to whom they may go. If they go to the gods whom they worship, and cry to them ever so earnestly, it will be in vain. They worship either lifeless things, that can neither help them; nor know that they need help, or wicked cruel spirits, who are their enemies, and wish nothing but their misery; and who, instead of helping them, are from day to day working their ruin, and watching over them, as an hungry lion watches over his prey.
How are we distinguished from them, in that we have the true God made known to us; a God of infinite grace and mercy; a God full of compassion to the miserable, who is ready to pity us under all our troubles and sorrows, to hear our cries, and to give us all the relief which we need; a God who delights in mercy, and is rich unto all that call upon him ! How highly privileged are we, in that we hav' holy word of this same God, to direct us how to seek for way! and whatever difficulties or distress we are in, we way yo to him with confidence and great encouragement. What a oc.ntirt may this be to us! and what reason have we to rejoi e in our privileges, to prize them so highly, and to bless Go... at he hath been so merciful to us, as to give us his word a... al himself to us; and that he hath not left us to cry for , to stocks and stones, and devils, as he has left many thuus mus of others.
OBJECTION. I have often prayed to God for certain mercies, and he has not heard my prayers.—To this I answer
1. It is no argument, that God is not a prayer-hearing Gur, if he give not to men what they ask of him, to consume upon their lusts. Oftentimes when men pray for temporal things, they desire them for no good end, but only to ý their pride or sensuality. If they pray for worldly good thii chiefly from a worldly spirit; and make an idol of the wor it is no wonder that God doth not hear their prayers; Jana. :v. 3. “Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, to consume it upon your If you request him to give you somuiumg of which you will make an idol, and set up in opposition to him or will use as weapons of warfare against him, or as instri · ments to serve his enemies-no wonder that God will not hear you. If God should hear such prayers, he would act as his on a enemy, inasmuch as he would bestow them to serve his enemies.
2. It is no.argument, that God is not a prayer-hearing God, that he heareth not insincere and unbelieving prayers. How can we expect that he should have any respect to that which has no sincerity in it? God looketh not at words, but at the heart; and it is fit that he should do so. only in words, and not in heart, what are their prayers good for? and why should that God who searches the heart, and tries the reins, have any respect to them ?-Sometimes, men do nothing but dissemble in their prayers; and when they do so, it is no argument that God is the less a prayer-hearing God, that
a he doth not hear such prayers; for it is no argument of want of mercy. Sometimes, they pray for that in words which they really desire not in their hearts; as that he would purge them from sin, when, at the same time, they show, by their practice, that they do not desire to be purged from sin, while they love
If men pray