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collected with a view of publishing a new edition of the Handbook,” but afforded me at all times his valuable advice and assistance. How far these advantages have been utilized must be left to the judgment of the reader.

The subject of classification will not fail to awaken some controversy. As every author has his own views, I may be permitted to have mine. To adhere as closely as possible to the long-accepted Friesian system has been the practice of English authors; but this has been carried a little too far, owing to our “insular prejudices,” and the time has come when a new departure must be made. While avoiding the fondness for innovation displayed by our Teutonic, and indeed, though in a less degree, our Gallic, neighbours, I have retained in the form of subgenera some of their more useful groups. I foresee many objections that can be urged to the method adopted, but prefer to let it stand on its own merits rather than enter here into a lengthened justification.

Many of the diagnoses have been altered or added to without reserve, where it appeared to me necessary, and others have been borrowed from one or other of the authors cited in connection with them. Professor Karsten's Mycologia Fennica” and M. Boudier's “ Mémoire sur les Ascobolés” have been of great assistance, the former especially in the measurement of sporidia.

The habitats are chiefly those of “English Flora," Cooke's “Handbook,” Berkeley and Broome's “ Notices of British Fungi,” with such as have come within my own knowledge. To have added those contained in the various local floras would have occupied too much space, besides which many of them are too unreliable.

My thanks are due to the following gentlemen for much valuable help the Rev. W. A. Leighton, Mr. C. B. Plowright, the Rev. J. Stevenson, the Rev. Dr. Keith, Professor James, W. H. Trail, and many others, besides those already mentioned.

As errors, in spite of all one's care, will creep into a work of this kind, I shall take it as an act of kindness on the part of those who will point them out, with the view of correcting a second edition should it ever be called for.

WILLIAM PHILLIPS.

CANONBURY, SHREWSBURY,

August, 1887.

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