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The American National Red Cross, in transmitting this request to you, points out that the International Red Cross has issued an urgent appeal for $35,000,000 to help meet immediate needs of millions of persons for all the basic essentials of life such as food, clothing, shelter, blankets and medical aid. In view of the very rapid developments in South Vietnam and Cambodia and the greatly increased number of persons to be assisted, intensive increased effort is imperative to expand and continue the work already begun by the International Red Cross in those countries. The International Red Cross is coordinating its efforts to send personnel, including medical and nutritional experts as well as supplies, and provide transportation facilities to meet the urgent human needs of refugees who are victims of a situation beyond their control.
I, therefore, seek your intercession with appropriate authorities of the United States Government to assist the humanitarian efforts of the International Red Cross to provide aid to relieve the suffering refugees of Southeast Asia. You may be certain that my Red Cross associates throughout the world would join me in a heartfelt expression of gratitude if it is possible for the United States Government to meet this request.
GEORGE M. ELSEY.
Mr. HABIB. It may be. I could not answer the question precisely. It may be.
Mr. WINN. Some of those agencies, the religious ones or some of them, may be acceptable to the North Vietnamese?
Mr. HABIB. They may be, but under what circumstances and what conditions and whether or not they will be able to follow through and know what happens with it, I don't know.
Mr. RIEGLE. Would the gentleman yield?
OFFICIAL RED CROSS APPROACH
Mr. RIEGLE. As I understand it, I think the gentleman in the second row is trying to give a response. As I understand it, I thought I had read published records to the effect that the North Vietnamese had officially approached International Red Cross organizations-I think specifically the one that is based in Geneva-and asked that they be involved. Is that not correct? I think one of you there knows that.
Mr. HABIB. That is correct, they have, but what I have offered to provide for the committee, if I could, is a factual statement of just what is going on.
Mr. RIEGLE. What I don't understand is that you were very imprecise in your response and he was just very precise in his. He said there was such a request made.
Now, is there or isn't there?
Mr. HABIB. To my knowledge, there was a request made but what I was trying to address was the question of what that is, compared to what is actually going on, what is being done, and I think we have some idea in that regard.
LACK OF NORTH VIETNAMESE COOPERATION
Mr. WINN. Along that same line I would have to point out that all during the war basically the North Vietnamese did not recognize the International Red Cross nor did they recognize inspection teams nor did they cooperate as far as MIA's are concerned.
Mr. HABIB. That is correct. We tried in those days to get the ICRC in and they were refused.
Mr. WINN. Thank you.
TRANSFERS AND REALLOCATIONS
Mr. HAMILTON. Gentlemen, I have one other request that you furnish the committee. I would like to have any transfers or reallocations of funds to South Vietnam from other sources that may have occurred in fiscal year 1974 and 1975 budgets.
Mr. GARDINER. From what other sources?
Mr. HAMILTON. That is for you to tell me. I am just aware of the facts that from time to time amounts of money popped up and we don't know where they have come from. You have done some transfers and reallocation. We want to know how much has gone into South Vietnam in fiscal 1974 and 1975.
[The following information was supplied:]
No funds were transferred to the South Vietnam MASF or DAV accounts during FY 1974 or FY 1975.
AID FUNDS ALLOCATED TO SOUTH VIETNAM IN FISCAL YEAR 1974 AND
FISCAL YEAR 1975
Of $383,398,000 obligated in FY 1974 for the South Vietnam program under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, $50,000,000 was from the Development Assistance appropriation. This sum was in the form of a Development Loan and was authorized in July 1973. There were no such allocations made in FY 1975. Obligations in FY 1975 for Vietnam totalled $193,044,000 through March 31, 1975, all authorized and appropriated by the Congress within the Indochina Postwar Reconstruction category.
Mr. HAMILTON. Any further questions?
If not, the subcommittee will go into executive session.
We will have to ask your guests to leave at this point and only those who are witnesses, members of the subcommittee, staff of the International Relations Committee and those gentleman necessary to assist the witnesses should remain.
[Whereupon, at 3:58 p.m., the subcommittee proceeded in executive session.]
BIOGRAPHIES OF WITNESSES
LT. GEN. HOWARD M. FISH, U.S. AIR FORCE
General Fish was born in Melrose, Minnesota, on 1 August 1923, and graduated from St. Cloud Cathedral High School, St. Cloud, Minnesota, in June 1941. He entered the Army Air Force in 1942 and served as an aerial gunner at Tyndall Field, Florida. He entered advanced navigator training at Monroe, Louisiana, in November 1943, and received his navigator rating and commission as a second lieutenant in the Army Air Corps in July 1944.
During World War II, from October 1944, he served as a navigator in the European Theater of Operations on a B-17 aircraft crew with the 419th Bombardment Squadron, 301st Bombardment Group in Italy. He was shot down over Vienna, Austria, in February 1945, and spent the remainder of the war as a prisoner of war in Germany.
In November 1945 he attended a student navigator refresher course at Ellington Field, Texas, and at Fairfield-Suisun Air Base, California. In February 1946 he was assigned as assistant statistical control officer, Chanute Field, Illinois, and in April 1946 he was transferred to Orlando, Florida, for statistical control indoctrination training.
General Fish returned to Germany in July 1946, serving first in Berlin, at Tempelhof Air Base, and later in Wiesbaden as a statistical control officer. He also flew in the Berlin Airlift.
He returned to the United States in July 1949, and trained as a navigatorbombardier at Mather Air Force Base, California. In April 1950 he was assigned to the 84th Bombardment Squadron at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.
During the Korean War, in July 1950, he was transferred to the 162nd Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, which was immediately sent to Korea where he flew 63 combat missions. General Fish later served as a navigator on the crew of the commanding general, Eighth Army in Korea. In March 1951 he was assigned as Chief, Program Analysis Section, 374th Troop Carrier Wing, Far Eastern Air Forces.
He returned to Langley Air Force Base in June 1951 to train replacement combat crews for B-26 aircraft units in Korea. Initially he served as a squadron navigator in the 4400th Combat Crew Training Group and later as a squadron executive officer and group director of operations and training.
In January 1954 General Fish attended the Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. He returned to Langley Air Force Base as executive officer for the 405th Fighter Bomber Wing.
In June 1956 he entered the University of Chicago and graduated in August 1957 with a master's degree in business administration. He became a member of the business scholarship fraternity, Beta Gamma Sigma.
He was transferred to Europe in October 1957, serving first as Wing Comptroller for the 60th Troop Carrier Wing at Druex Air Base, France, and then as Comptroller, 7310th Air Base Wing, Rhein-Main Air Base, Germany.
In July 1960 he entered the Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk, Virginia, and in January 1961 he was assigned as Director of Data Automation, and later as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff, Comptroller, Headquarters Eastern Transport Air Force, McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey.
In August 1963 he entered the Air War College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, and while there, received a master's degree in international affairs from George Washington University. In July 1964 he was assigned as a plans and programs officer in the Directorate of Plans, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. He was named Assistant for Analysis to the Deputy Director of Plans for Force Development in December 1967.
In March 1969 he was named Director of Tactical Analysis, Seventh Air Force, Tan Son Nhut Airfield, Republic of Vietnam.
General Fish returned to Headquarters U.S. Air Force in July 1970 as the Deputy Director of Doctrine, Concepts and Objectives, Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans and Operations. He was appointed Deputy Director of the Budget, Office of the Comptroller, in February 1971 and became Director of the Budget in October 1973.
On 1 August 1974 General Fish assumed the dual-hatted title of Director, Defense Security Assistance Agency, and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs) for Security Assistance.
His military decorations and awards include the Legion of Merit with one oak leaf cluster, Distinguished Flying Cross with one oak leaf cluster, Air Medal with four oak leaf clusters, Air Force Commendation Medal, and the Purple Heart. He holds a master navigator rating.
General Fish is married to the former Jamie Katherine Tom of Corpus Christi, Texas. They have one son, Howard Math Fish.
He was promoted to the grade of lieutenant general effective 4 October 1974, with date of rank 3 October 1974.
ARTHUR Z. GARDINER, Jr.
Present position: April 1975: Assistant Administrator, Bureau for East Asia, AID, Department of State.
1971-75: General Counsel, AID;
1967-71: Partner of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering; General Washington practice with emphasis in communications, trade regulation, international financing, corporate and securities law;
1961-67: Associate of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering; and 1960-61: Associate of Cox, Langford, Stoddard & Cutler.
Military duty: None.
1960: L.L.B., Harvard Law School, Harvard Law Review; and
1957: B.A., Yale College, History Major, Magna Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa. Personal data:
Born August 1, 1935, New York, New York.
HON. PHILIP C. HABIB
Philip Charles Habib of California was sworn in September 27, 1974, as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, succeeding Robert S. Ingersoll who is now Deputy Secretary of State. A career Foreign Service Officer, Mr. Habib had served since 1971 as Ambassador to Korea.
Mr. Habib was born on February 25, 1920 in Brooklyn, New York, and graduated in 1942 from the University of Idaho. In 1952 he received a Ph. D. degree from the University of California.
Mr. Habib served in the U.S. Army during World War II. He became a Teaching Research Assistant at the University of California in 1947. He was appointed a Foreign Service Officer in 1949 and assigned to the American Embassy at Ottawa as an Economic Officer. He served at the Embassy in Wellington, N.Z., from 1951 through 1954, and in the Department 1955-57. He subsequently served as Political Officer at Port of Spain, and in 1960-61 served as the Officer-inCharge for Under-Developed Areas in the Office of the Under Secretary's Special Assistant for Communist Economic Affairs.
From 1962-65 he was Counselor for Political Affairs at Seoul. He was assigned to Saigon from 1965 to 1967, where he served as Political Officer with the personal rank of minister. He was Deputy Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs from 1967 to 1969, and from 1968 to 1971 was Senior Advisor to the United States Delegation at the Paris meetings on Vietnam.
Mr. Habib is married to the former Marjorie W. Slightam. They have two daughters, Phyllis and Susan.
HON. ROBERT S. INGERSOLL
Robert Stephen Ingersoll, of Winnetka, Ill., was sworn in July 10, 1974, as Deputy Secretary of State. Mr. Ingersoll had served since January 8, 1974, as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, and from April 3, 1972 until last January as U.S. Ambassador to Japan.
Born in Galesburg, Ill., on January 28, 1914, Mr. Ingersoll graduated from Phillips Academy and from the Sheffield Science School of Yale University, where he received a BS degree in 1937.
Before his service in Japan, Mr. Ingersoll had spent some 35 years in industry, the last 33 with the Borg-Warner Corp. in Chicago. He was chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Bork-Warner at the time of his appointment to Japan. Prior to joining Borg-Warner, Mr. Ingersoll served with Armco Steel Corp. from 1937 to 1939.
He was formerly a director of the First National Bank of Chicago, Atlantic Richfield, Burlington Northern, Marcor Corp., and a member of the board of directors of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. He has also been a director of the Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry and a member of the Business Council; also an active member of several international business committees and councils, including the Advisory Council on Japan-U.S. Economic Relations, and the Emergency Committee for American Trade.
With a deep interest in education, Mr. Ingersoll holds trusteeships with the University of Chicago, the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, and the California Institute of Technology. He was formerly President of the Board of Education of Winnetka, Ill.
Other associations involved him in civic activities such as board memberships with Evanston, (Ill.) Hospital, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities, and the Mayor's Committee for Arts and Culture (Chicago).
Mr. Ingersoll is married to the former Coralyn Eleanor Reid, and they have four daughters.
Name: Garnett A. Zimmerly.
GARNETT A. ZIMMERLY
Present position: Acting Assistant Administrator, East Asia Bureau, Agency for International Development.
Date and place of birth: December 21, 1928, Hope, Arkansas.
Marital status: Married to Carol Carpenter-1950; Children-four (ages: 23, 20, 18 and 12).
Education: Graduate BSA-University of Missouri-1952. Additional work: USDA Graduate School, George Washington University.
Military service: U.S. Navy-1946-48.
October 15, 1974-present: Acting Assistant Administrator, East Asia Bureau. March 19, 1973-October 15, 1974: Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Supporting Assistance.
October 1972-March 18, 1973: Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Supporting Assistance.
July 1972-September 1972: Director, Office of Vietnam Affairs.
January 1972-July 1972: Acting Deputy Director, Office of Vietnam Affairs. September 1970-October 1971: Associate Director for Program, USAID/ Saigon.
August 1969-June 1970: Member, Senior Seminar in Foreign Policy, State Department.
January 1968-July 1969: Program and Economic Affairs Officer, USAID/ Laos.
February 1965-January 1968: Deputy Assistant Director, Program and Economic Policy, USAID/Korea.
January 1964-February 1965; Deputy Chief, Program Division, Office of Development Planning, East Asia Bureau-AID/W.
December 1962-January 1964: International Relations Officer, Office of Korean Affairs, East Asia Bureau-AID/W.
October 1958-December 1962: USOM/Korea-Assistant Program Officer and Program Officer Assignments.
January 1953-July 1958: Kansas State University Extension Service. February 1952-January 1953: University of Missouri Extension Service. Awards and honors:
-Who's Who in America.
-Who's Who in Government.
-Republic of Korea Award for Civil Service Merit awarded by President of Korea-March 1968.
-Agency for International Development Meritorious Award-1967.