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66 as before mentioned; that his, viz. Stephen's "Allegation was utterly falfe, he could have no fuch Tradition from thofe Apoftles (i. e. "St. Peter and St. Paul) from whom he pre66 tended to have it,and that for this very good "reafon,that in their Days there were no He"retical Communions, by confequence no "Heretical Baptifms, no Baptisms out of the true Communion of the Church Catholick, " and that therefore he flander'd them by fa"thering fuch a Tradition on them, seeing it 66 was certain that they taught the quite contrary in their Epiftles; that St. Paul (Acts "19) re-baptized those who had been bapti"zed by John the Baptift, ought not we then "(fays he) to baptize thofe who come from "Herefy to the Church? Will any Man fay "that the Bishops now a-days are greater "than St. Paul was? which they must needs
be,if they are able to do that which he could not, if they by Impofition of Hands only,can "give the Holy Ghoft to Hereticks when they "come to them." St. Cyprian in his Letter to Jubaianus reafons to this purpose against the Validity of fuch Baptifms." "Tis evident "where and by whom the REMISSION OF "SINS (which is given in Baptifm) can be given; for our Lord gave firft to Peter, &c. "that Power, that whatsoever he should loofe 66 on Earth, fhould be loofed in Heaven; then, "after his Resurrection, he gave it to all the "Apostles, when he said (John 20. 21, 22,
"23.) As my Father hath sent me, &c. Whence (C we learn, that none have Authority to "BAPTIZE and REMIT SINS but the "BISHOPS, and those who are founded in "the Evangelical Law, and our Lord's Infti"tution, and that nothing can be bound or "loofed out of the Church, feeing there is none "there who has the Power of Binding and "Loofing. Jefus Chrift (fays Fortunatus in the "Venerable Council of Carthage, Anno 256) σε our Lord and God, the Son of God the Fa"ther and Creator, built his Church upon, a "Rock, and not upon Herefy, and he gave "the Power of Baptizing to BISHOPS, and 66 not to Hereticks. Those therefore who are "out of the Church, and ftand against Christ, and fcatter his Flock, cannot baptize, being 66 out of the Church."
It would be endless to mention all the Teftimonies and Arguments brought in that Age against the Validity of fuch Baptifms, I fhall therefore name but one more, which feems to be of great moment for the Discovery of what was meant by Hereticks and Schifmaticks in thofe Days; and that is Firmilian, who in one of his Letters fays, "That "he, and all the Bishops who met with him "in the Synod of Iconium, decreed that all "thofe fhould be holden as Unbaptized, who 66 were Baptized by fuch as had once been "Bishops in the Catholick Church, if they were Baptized by them after they had SE B 4 "PARA
"PARATED from the Church." By which, and the other Monuments of that Age, it is evident, they held, that even Bishops, and all other lawful Minifters, loft their VERY AU THORITY to do any thing more in the Ministerial Functions, when they either Schif matically or Heretically feparated themselves from the Church of Chrift. Hence doubtless it came to pass that St. Cyprian and his Colleguès efteemed all their Ministerial Acts, done while in Schifm or Herefy, to be Null and Void, and confequently that the fuppofed Sacraments adminiftred by them, and those whom they ordained, were no true Chriftian Sacraments, and therefore Invalid and Ineffectual. This, I fay, appears to me to be the true Foundation of that great Difpute concerning the Validity of Heretical and Schifma, tical Baptifms, and which "St. Cyprian mana
ged with fo much Chriftian Humility and "Charity, that tho' Stephen Bishop of Rome "was fo far from agreeing to the Reasons of "the Africans (whether because he imagin'd "they had a Defign to condemn the Roman "Church, or becaufe he thought this Que"ftion was of too great confequence) that "he was enrag'd against St. Cyprian and his "Collegues, and ufed their Deputies ill; nay,
he prohibited all Chriftians belonging to "his Church to receive or lodge them, de. 66 priving them not only of Ecclefiaftical "Communion, but also refufing them the 66 common
❝ common Civilities of Hofpitality; yet he CL [i. e. St. Cyprian] could not think of break"ing Peace with them, of giving up Com"munion with them, of Abftaining or Ex" communicating them; notwithstanding Ste"phen had taken upon him to excommunicate "those who oppos'd the Ratification of Here❝tical and Schifmatical Baptifms. Upon the "whole, the Perfecution of the Church by
Valerian, Anno 257. put an end to this "Controverfy. St. Cyprian NEVER alter'd "his Opinion; the Greek Churches were, for "a long time after him, divided upon this "Queftion: The Council of Arles firft de"cided it in the Weft; St. Auftin followed its "Decifion; the Western Church has embrac'd "this Opinion; viz. That Baptifm by Here"ticks, in the Name of the Trinity, is Valid: "And tho' the Eastern Churches have not a"greed with her abfolutely in this Point, yet "they always made a Diftinction between "Hereticks, and differently receiv'd them.
In the Canons that are call'd Apoftolical, we have these Remarkable Canons, according to the Divifion of Cotelerius.
Canon 38. "We order, that a Bishop, "Prieft or Deacon, who has receiv'd Bap"tifm, c. from an Heretick, be depofed;ar, as the Learned Author of the Clergy-man's Vade-Mecum obferves, "The Bi66 Shop, Prieft or Deacon, who allows the Bap“tifm, &c. of Hereticks.
Canon 39. "If a Bishop or Prieft do again Baptize one who HAS REALLY receiv'd "Baptifm before; or if he do not Baptize one "that has been polluted by Wicked Men, (i. e. Baptized by Hereticks, See Canon 38.) "Let him be depos'd, as one that makes NO "DISTINCTION betwixt PRIESTS and "PRETENDERS,
"In the 4th Century, St. Athanafius re"jects the Baptifm of Hereticks. Pacianus
fays, That Baptifm purifies from Sins, and "Unction brings down the Holy Spirit; and "both the One and the Other are apply'd by the "Hand and the Mouth of the Bifbop. Optatus, "That the Donatifts (who, by the way, were "Schifmaticks)" committed a great Crime "in Reiterating Baptifm: (Where 'tis to be noted, That they Re-baptized the very Catholicks who came over to them.) "That 'tis not he "who gives this Sacrament of Baptifm, that "confers the Graces; but the Faith of him "that receives it, and the Virtue of the Tri"nity. We ask (fays he) if it be Lawful to repeat Baptifm given in the Name of the Trinity? Ye maintain that it is Lawful; "We fay that it is forbidden: The People 66 are in Sufpence. Let us therefore fearch after "the Will of our Father, in the Gofpel; which "will inform us, That he who hath been
once washed, needs not to be washed a"gain: Wherefore (adds he) We do not Re-baptize those who have been Baptized,