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was accomplished. It is not easy to imagine how such coin. cidences should have happened, had not these epistles been in existence, and been received as genuine.
4. The correspondence between the general facts as stated by Ignatius, and as related in that account of his martyrdom which is quoted by nearly every historian, and is referred to by the reviewer in the Spectator as genuine, is so close, that if the epistles fall, the relation of his martyrdom must go with them.
5. The evils of the times in which Ignatius lived were such, as far as we can learn from the little that remains, as are described in the epistles; and such as would naturally call forth such epistles. Even in the days of the Apostles, insubordination and rebellion against ecclesiastical rulers, was not unknown. The Church at Corinth, in the days of the Apostles formed parties in the church, professing to array themselves under Paul, and Cephas, and Apollos, and other leaders and proceeded so far as to call forth a severe reproof from the Apostle. This seems to have allayed that difficulty and schism; but some time after another contention arose, more bitter in its nature and more evil in its consequences, producing a schism which required all the piety and wisdom at home, with the counsel and prayers of other churches, to heal. It was on this occasion that Clement, Bishop of Rome, wrote his truly Apostolical epistle to the Church in that place. Both of these contentions related to the authority of the ministry. Indeed, from this and other fragments of the history of those times, it seems to have required all the wisdom and authority of the wisest and holiest men who lived in the age immediately succeeding the Apostles, to carry the infant Church safely through that period of transition which ensued upon the death of the Apostles, and which transferred the authority of governing the Church from Apostolic to other hands.
These epistles, also, bear strong internal evidence of having been written at a time when those commotions in the Church were common, and by one who had been an eye-witness of their evil consequences. Thus, when at Philadelphia he cried, « attend to the Bishop, and to the Presbytery, and to the Deacons,” he was accused of having said it "on account of the separation of some;" and though he tells them that such was not the fact, he assures them that " where there is division and strife, God dwells not,—that he who makes a schism in the
IC. 6. 2 1 Cor. 1: 12–17. Ep. Clem. Rom. Ad. Cor. cc. 45–50. • Ep. Ad. Rom. cc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 37. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.
Church shall not inherit the kingdom of God; but that God forgives all that repent, if they return to the unity of God and the counsel of the Bishop." And when, at a subsequent time, he wrote his epistle to the Church in that place, he wished them joy; “especially if at unity with the Bishop, and the Presbyters, and the Deacons." The disobedience of the people towards the ministry is also spoken of in the epistle to the Magnesians. “It is, therefore, fitting that we should not only be called Christians, but be so, as some call a Bishop by that name, but do all things without him.". The writer also describes himself as "a man anxious for unity." Wherefore he warns all the Churches to “love unity—to flee divisions-as the beginning of evil;"4 and “exhorts them to love nothing among them which can cause division ; but to study to do all things in a divine concord, being united to the Bishop, and those who presided over them."5
On the other hand, the Ephesians are described as “deservedly happy-being united—by an uniform obedience—having no contention or strife among them—but having always agreed with the Apostles." The Trallians are also commended, because they have “continued in their Apostolic character, and are exhorted to continue inseparable from Jesus Christ, and from the Bishop, and the commands of the Apostles." These declarations all tend to prove the existence of discord, division, and schism, to a great extent, at or near the time when these epistles were written. It is, indeed, upon the assumed existence of those evils that the whole argument proceeds; an assumption which manifests itself in every part, and is in exact accordance with the little we know of the history of those times; thereby furnishing a strong presumpitve argument in favour of their genuineness.
If, leaving this age, we descend in the history of the Church, we shall find no other period where the things here described can be supposed to have existed. At A. D. 200, and at all times subsequent thereto, the authority of the Bishops, as an order superior to Presbyters, was as firmly fixed as possession and acknowledged right could establish it. Whatever difference of opinion might have existed as to the extent of their authority subsequent to that time, there was none as to the fact of their superiority. Hence, the evils which are brought to view so often, and which are dwelt upon with so much zeal
iC. c. 7. 8. 2 c. 4. 3 Ad. Phil. c. 8.
and fervency in these epistles, could have existed at no time, but at or near that when they purport to have been written. Hence, therefore, the whole internal evidence of these epistles is most decidedly in favour of their early origin ; which inference is in conformity with the opinion of the whole primitive Church, and is sanctioned by every ancient work that contains any allusions to them. But of all the arguments which go to prove the genuineness of these epistles, the strongest of all is one which cannot be spread upon paper. Whoever studies them with attention, will be thoroughly persuaded that they were written under no ordinary circumstances; that they breathe such a spirit of ardent piety and holy devotion ; that there is such an air of sincerity and truth pervading them ; and such a confident expectation of a blissful martyrdom announced in them, and yet expressed in language so evidently unstudied, and in a style so hasty and unpolished; that it is impossible to believe that they were written at any other time, or by any other person, than the Blessed Martyr whose name they bear; and that he, too, must have written them under precisely such circumstances as they describe—during a hurried journey to the place of his martyrdom, amid the congratulations and the tears of the vast concourse of saints that came to meet him ; circumstances which compelled him to write from the impulse of the moment, without reflection, and with no opportunity for revision. We cannot better bring this article to a close than by saying with Dr. Murdock, “that if any one wishes to know what was the simplicity and Godly sincerity of that first and infantile age of the Church, let him read the Apostolic Fathers ;" and with M. Dupin, “ that these epistles deserve to be well esteemed, and to be admired by all those who profess to have any regard for books of piety."
ART. VII.- Elements of Political Economy. By FRANCIS
WAYLAND, D. D. President of Brown University, and Professor of Moral Philosophy. New-York. Leavitt, Lord & Co. 1837. 8vo. pp. 472.
“WHEN," says President Wayland, “ the author's attention was first directed to the Science of Political Economy, he was struck with the simplicity of its principles, the extent of its generalizations, and the readiness with which its facts seemed
capable of being brought into natural and methodical arrangement." There is a prejudice, however, which has existed extensively against this science, and not altogether without cause. Paradoxes, palpable untruths, and overwrought metaphysical theories, have been advanced by reputed masters of the science, and violent disputes have been prolonged about differences little more than verbal ; and though these have now, in a great measure, passed away in the general settlement of the most important principles, yet the prejudice excited against the science still remains. Political Economy is not the only science that has suffered in this way. The history of intellectual and moral philosophy would almost lead to the belief that the simple and the true can never be generally adopted until every possible form of error has had its advocates. The prejudice against Political Economy has occasioned a very great neglect of the systematic study of its principles. In many of our colleges it is not taught at all; in few with any thoroughness. Yet it is exceedingly important for this country that its principles should be thoroughly understood ; they lie at the bottom of a large portion of our legislation ; and they are capable of practical application to all the employments of life, more especially to the capitalist and merchant; and it is shallow and of mischieyous tendency to affect indifference to a scientific and theoretical arrangement of its doctrines.
We are glad that this science is attracting more attention. President Wayland's book will promote its study. He does not pretend to have discovered any new truths. He admits that the works in general use teach its doctrines truly, but not in a manner“ most likely to render them serviceable, either to the general student or to the practical merchant." " This de fect," he remarks," he has endeavoured to supply. What he thus first prepared for them, he now offers to the public. In how far he has succeeded, it must be left for others to decide. His object has been to write a book which any one who chooses may understand. He has, therefore, laboured to express the general principles in the plainest manner possible, and to illustrate them by cases with which any person is familiar."
He has, in our judgment, succeeded in his undertaking. A careful perusal of his work will render one well acquainted with the principles of the science. Those who are not desirous of becoming acquainted with its history, need refer to no other volume. They will here meet with no dogmatic assertion, no "useless metaphysics," nó theories unsupported by facts ; in short, with nothing that is not eminently plain and practical. For a text book in our colleges and universities, it
is too much expanded : a text book should not be so constructed as to dispense with all labour on the part of the pupil and teacher. The outlines of the science only should be embraced ; something should be left for the instructor to supply, and something for the pupil to think out, if he have any capacity. Too many of our text books (so called) are so diluted, that the possibility of thought on the part of the pupil is well nigh excluded ; some cannot even be read without the slackening of all the mental energies. It is proper, however, to state that it was not Dr. Wayland's design to compose a text book.
“ His object has been to write a book which any one who chooses may understand.” We wish he would condense the principles contained in this volume into one of about half the size, retaining his leading sub-divisions only. Such a book would, we think, be introduced into all the higher seminaries of our land, and do much to promote the study of this science.
We shall not attempt to present an outline of the work be. fore us, or to discuss any of the principles it contains. We purpose only to state the views of the author on some important topics such of our readers as are acquainted with the science will be pleased to know what are the views of this distinguished writer, and such as are not will, we hope, be pleased to receive instruction at his hand.
President Wayland defines Political Economy to be “the Science of Wealth.” This definition does not present a very definite idea to the uninitiated. We, however, regard a definition at the outset as of comparatively little importance ; so that it directs the mind to the general subject of investigation, it is sufficient.
Wealth, according to the author, is defined to consist of objects “ having the power of gratifying human desire, and capable of appropriation.” By objects in this connexion, we understand him to mean material objects. Such of our readers as are familiar with the history of this science know that many definitions of the term wealth have been given, and contended for with great zeal. We may consider them as at present narrowed down totwo: the first, restricting the term wealth to material objects having utility, and capable of being appropriated ; the second, extending it to immaterial objects fulfilling these conditions. The skill of the physician and player would, by these, be denominated wealth. We prefer the definition adopted by Dr. Wayland, chiefly because the principles of the science can then be stated in language more accordant with common usage.
President Wayland divides the subject of Political Economy into four parts— Production, Exchange, Distribution, and Consumption. Most preceding writers have made but three divi