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To accommodate thofe who have not patience to go regularly through the alphabet, and to affift the memory of others, I have, in imitation of the Afiatics, inferted a fhort profpectus of the whole; in which each letter (e mute excepted) occurs in my scheme, with the power it actually poffeffes here; and this will at once refolve fuch doubts as may at times exift, relative to the found of any vowel or confonant that can prefent itself in the course of our Work.

Hall jug ya, jhu ghu għu, beet bhu yu, thu ču thu.
Ere my ye, ĩu Ĭhu zhe, feud ooze yoo, dhu du ďhu.
Shčk wo yo, khu khu qu, pin phu yi, fong and nu.
vouch chhu you.

ňu.

The note (b) in page 3, muft now be reperufed with particular attention; observing here, that b is our afpirate before broad a, is evident, j the soft l &, u_is short, g hard, as above in hall, jug. The aspirated jbu, (notjhoo,&c.) ghu, khu, can hardly prove ambiguous, ghu is the guttural gh or Northumberland rin Rhine; khu the guttural k or x of the Greeks, and ch or gh of the Scots: qu, the harsh Palatine k, or Hebrew p. Inherent u (not 00) in bhu, tu, &c. correfponds with e in our letters be, tee, &c. being merely to give utterance to confonants, which must otherwise remain for ever mute. K is always for the hard, and S for the foft, C.

Whoever hath comprehended me fo far, will be at no loss to read the following Ode from Souda, in the Roman character; to which, for obvious reafons, I have prefixed the Perfian, and fhall infert a literal translation, with a paraphrase in verfe, at the end of this chapter.

با تین کہ ہر گئین وه تيري بهولي بهو ليان* دل لی کی بولتا ہی جو تو اب یہ بو لیان

Bateň kid,hur gu een we teree b,holee b,holee,aň

هودیان

2

i Hur bat hy luteefu o hur yek foŏkhun hy rumz

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کرنا

ہر بات ہی لطیفه و هر یک سخن ہی رمز* ہر آن ہی

Dil leke bolta hy jo too ub ye bolee,aй“”.

نكر في دي پهر که آنان جس آرسي في شهري نمونهه په کمولیان جبرت في اسکو نیند نكر في دي پهر

Undam i gool pu ho nu quba is muze fe chak

Hyrut ne oosko neend nu kurne dee phir kub,hoo Unk,hee,an jis arfee ne tere mooй h pu kholee aй.

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Hur an hy kina,e u o hur dum thu tholee,ai

اندام گل پہ ہو نہ قبا اس مزه ی چاک جیون خوش ہونگی تن به مسکتی ہین جولیان

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گن نے کیا خرام چمن مین کہ اب صبا* لا تي بي بوي ناز سي بهتر بهر کي بهو ليان

Kin ne kee a khiram chumun meň ki ub fuba- Latee hy boje naz se b,hur bhar ke j,holee an .

ساقی پہونچ و تاب کہ محمد بن اس ابرسی پر ہی نہین نگر گ برستی بین کو لیان

Saqee puhonch fhitab ke tooj h bin is ubr fe

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Je on burf hogue hyň khoonuk ub bŏŏtani hind

Souda ke dil se saf nu ruhtee thee zŏŏlfi yar

Puřte nubeeň tugurg buruftee hyn golee,aň.

جیون برف ہو گی ہین جنگ اب بتان بنده نسبت انہونگی گر موہین کا ہاں کی لولیان

ركابي

بناء

کیا چا ہی تجہی سر انگشت

Jis be gonuh ke khoon men chaheň doobɔlceaй

سودا کی دل سی صاف نہ اپنی تنہی زلف یار * شانه نی بیچ پر کی گر ہین اوسکی کہو لیان

Nifbut oonhoй ke gurm hyй kabool kee lolee aй.

Shane ne beech puř ke girheň oofke kholeeja ň.

To assist the scholar ftill further in reading the above, I shall analyse the first four words in it, agreeably to the principles on which their pronunciation is founded; and leave him to do the reft at his leifure. Baten, b of beet in the profpectus, a of hall, t of beet, e of ere, French nafal; kidhur, k in shook, i in pin, dh d the d of feud aspirated, u in jug, r of ere; gueeň, g in jug, u as before, ee of beet, nafal; we, w in wo, e of ere, and fo on. й be required for children only, and less might have answered the purpose of teaching men how to prosecute what the authour has begun.

More would

We may now proceed to the alphabetical table, attending at the fame time to the words inferted in the perpendicular lines; that each letter in rotation may be

the

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بال connected in this manner. A is pronounced as in ball, gall, hall, &c. thus bal

hair, and generally represents the Perfian and Naguree-is convertible with e, rikabee a dish, being occafionally written or pronounced rikebee

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every thing relative to a, its examples, and convertible letters, have been duly confidered, the next in order, viz. e muft be treated as above, and this continued fucceffively until the whole letters be finished. The most material parts only appear in the Synopfis, the more curious than immediately useful, being referved for the Notes, which when confulted, will, I trust, in general be found interefting enough, to merit infertion in this work; but if the reader's opinion coincide not with mine, he has it in his option to let them alone. The arbitrary marks

marks and abbreviations, are illustrated in fuch a way, as will most probably be fatisfactory to the student; who will be fo good as to recollect, that where a particular vowel is examplified, no regard must be paid to the mute and fuperfluous letters of the examples, and vice versa—for instance. In the confonant column watch band, is the coach-hours

best word I have yet found for exhibiting the chh in our language; t is left out as fuperfluous; wa, is not farther required than to show, I mean the German, instead of the Italian a in chhandiz a tether. Rogue, is used merely to preserve the Iong o in rog, disease, though the discerning reader may if he choose deduce therefrom, that g here, is hard, and filent ue, unknown. Array illustrates as well as I can, the harsh in ařa across, quafi aur au not with the vowels in the example. To premise more would I believe prove unneceffary, and to have faid less might have left the fubject obscure. The figures before the Perfian and Naguree letters point out the rank of each, in these alphabets, that those who have no Persian Grammar may if they please, reduce fuch letters to their proper order; as 1st. Alif, 2d. Be, &c. printed in Italics to distinguish them from the Hinduwee [36] kandoon, [23] bukar, in Roman letters. In the former, exclusive of the three vowel pointsearab, there are thirty-two symbols; but in the latter we have, including the matras or twelve vowels, no less than fortyfix: though upon the whole the reader will find he has not, in fact, to attend to more than thirty-fix founds, (thirty of which he is already acquainted with) feveral of the characters being our confonants merely afpirated, and others common to all the three languages that form the Hindooftanee; while a few of difficult prolation, become monotonous with those that are easier. To the first class belong — ab, q. A bb,, & d, osadḥ, &c. to the second&ch, S8,

with a number more; and to the lasts forth and

fwad z for ; thal

co

thwad b thwoe, &c.

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ABBREVIATIONS.

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ABBREVIATIONS.

mujal قدرت goodrut دور muqdoor

b

When words are inferted in a feries as

belonging to one language, the letter, that is prefixed to the first of them is applicable to those that follow, until another intervene : thus, a. taqutb

are all Arabic words for ability,
q. v. in the Dictionary. Portuguefe

words are sometimes marked Port.
though many of this kind with others
have been noted uncertain by u. A
few evidently from the Greek are ne-
vertheless called Arabic, having found
their way through this laft into the
Hindooftanee.

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d

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AFFIX E D.

bandhna to tie.

rukhna lf, to keep.

mafculine.

f feminine.

dalna W, to throw.

dena - to give.

hona Cop to be.

& jana lb to go.

i kurna to do.

رکھنا

For their various ac-
ceptations while form-
ing compound verbs
confult Vol. I, but for
their fignification as
simple verbs, fee Vol.
II. when published.

This distinction I was foon obliged to lay afide in the present work, and it in fact more properly belongs to the next Volume.

If the learner have arrived fo far, by regular stages, there can be little doubt of our understanding one another, in the fubfequent parts of the Grammar, as well as through the whole of the Dictionary. On the contrary, should he anticipate the fubject by devious leaps, it will thereby be as much out of the authour's power to instruct, as the reader's to criticise; because, on the one hand, if rules be laid down and not attended to, on the other, conjectures only can be hazarded, unworthy the name of criticifm, and feldom entitled to the smallest reply, either from the writer of this effay, or from those scholars who may take the trouble to comprehend him. Should the latter become critics, it will be with judgement, and their animadverfions will be dignified with reafon ;-fair argument with men of parts and application must ever be attended

with

(c) The Notes in this Chapter will be regularly marked, for the conveniency of reference, by the letters in our alphabet, and inferted in the order they ought to be read after the student has very deliberately perufed the Orthographical Synopfis, which should be frequently inspected as he proceeds; not only to impress the subject at first on his memory, but also to preferve the connection between each part, and the remarks properly belonging thereto; which a little industry in the beginning will foon effectuate, and render perfectly familiar, in a few days, what may otherwife feem complicated and abstruse for several months.“Orthoëpêa fonat rectè, orthographia fcribit." GRAM. BUSBEIANA.

(d) The a must always be pronounced broad, when neither final nor initial, full, and rather long; efpecially when the mud or grave mark accompanies it Authours have difcriminated this German a, (which the French have in bas, cheval, &c.) in the following various ways: à, á, â, ä, ä, aa, au, aw; though we have this very letter ourselves in fulfe, warm, water, and the examples in the text, multiplied in the hope of fixing the learner's attention to it's uniform broad found here; even in fuch words, as, an hope, hope, at the custard-apple, ag fire, pronounced with the ore pleno et amplo of our ancestours, preferved to this day among the Scots; who thus read, perhaps with Virgil himself, "arma virumque cano," as they have the fanction probably of every nation for fo doing, but the English alone; who pronounce Latin in a tone that does not correfpond with the idea I have of an old Roman; and may have been copied more from the fqueak of emafculation, or the mince of a dancing-master, than from the actual pronunciation of modern Rome. Profodial and other figns, unless when unavoidable, ought in my opinion to be difpenfed with, that general inftruction and utility may not be facrificed to too great accuracy and refinement. In fuch words as

aram

honour, as آن

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گ

,a diamond الماس easy, ulmas آسان reft, afan آرام

I am not fenfible of any thing fo incompatible with our ideas of letters, as to induce me to mark them, àrám, ásân, ùlmäs, nor will the reader, when he recollects that my a is conftantly broad, and u invariably very short: illustrated by jug in the Profpectus, which he will do right to copy, and fufpend along with note (b) in a convenient place to be confulted; having previously qualified himself for analysing the same, by attending to the 'mode pointed out in page 6. The arbitrary marks will prove, I hope, as few and obvious as poffible, confiftent with the nature and wants of a new fyftem; which a worthy military friend of

mine

D

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