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African continent in the Niger district, including the native kingdoms of Sokoto, Borgu, and Gando, lying between Say on the upper Niger eastward to Lake Chad and southward to the Benue River and the northern boundary of the German Kameruns. The inducement was great to exploit this region, for it is not only very populous and of vast area, but is rich in native products, which comprise among other exports hides, gums, oils, india-rubber, and ivory.
In 1886 the National African Company, Ltd., was granted a charter by the Crown, the new organization taking the name of the Royal Niger Company, with a capital of £1,000,000 sterling. The Governor of the institution is Sir George Goldie, K.C.M.G., and it has at its command a frontier force of imperial soldiers, chiefly Hausas, which was raised in 1897 under Colonel Lugard, C.B., when international complications with the French threatened over boundary disputes, as well as to repress native disaffection. The force consists of artillery, engineering and telegraph detachments, and a medical service corps. Under the administration of the Royal Niger Company great and valuable extensions of territory have been made. In adjoining tracts in the Niger basin other interests have also been in operation, which at times clashed with those of the Niger Company. These include the Lagos district, under the administration of the Colonial Office, and the Niger Coast Protectorate, whose affairs have been directed by the English Foreign Office.
Recently it has been decided that the Crown shall assume entire responsibility for the management of the whole region, absorbing the Royal Niger Company's interests, with its territorial rights, which have been acquired by treaty. This has now been done, the Royal Niger Company being compensated for the sale of its interests, and all now passes into the possession of the Crown. The area of British interests in Africa is thus largely extended, covering a territory of some 500,000 square miles, with a population estimated at 30,000,000. Trade will of course be actively stimulated throughout the acquired territory, while it will be pushed with greater confidence, since the British interests in the region have been nationalized and brought under the direct control and protection of the Crown. This is an important gain for commerce, for trade will now
be safe from turbulent native potentates, as well as from aggression on the part of ‘rival European Powers. Whether the expropriation of the Niger Company's interests foreshadows similar government action in Rhodesia and other African regions operated by chartered companies in British interests, it is at present impossible to say. The course taken would seem to portend extinction for these trading organizations; but if they are amply compensated for their labors as pioneers of empire, and the Crown makes a good bargain for itself in absorbing their possessions, there can be little for the British taxpayer to object to, while trade unquestionably is the gainer. Money, moreover, would seem to be little of an object where imperial interests are to be substantially aided and advanced.
☆ Santo Domingo A hideous crime, the assasAgain
sination of the President of Santo Domingo, occurs at an inopportune moment for this country, should it lead to another uprising in the island republic so menacing as to call for active interference by the United States. American interests in the island, it is well known, are important and the protection of these interests, should they be imperilled by the confusion into which the affairs of the republic are cast by the killing of President Ulysses Heureaux, may impose upon this country the unhappy necessity of intervention. Should this occur, we shall look upon it as a real misfortune, particularly at the present juncture, when the nation is suffering from an epidemic of expansion, and the fit is on us to throw the ægis of this country over one more of the hapless islands, always ripe for revolution, in the Antilles. Santo Domingo, or Haiti, as perhaps it should be called, has had from the earliest occupation by the Spanish an ill-starred history. At first it was a dumping-ground for slaves, then it became the prey of buccaneers, and in the stormy days of the French Revolution it made for itself an ill reputation for color revolt, massacre, and insurrectionary violence. The factions that internal strife gave rise to were naturally hostile to peace, and since the days of Toussaint l’Ouverture and the later Dominican Republic the dual island has been the theatre of almost continuous warring and bloodshed. The present crisis may possibly revive the annexation sentiment in the United States
which President Grant encouraged and blocked the wheels of justice and saved which to-day is unhappily rife in many the army from the snub which it receives sections of the Union. That it will be in the reopening of the Dreyfus inquiry. opposed, as it was in Grant's day, as an But the situation is still critical, for the unwise departure from the best traditions temper of the nation is ugly, and with of the Commonwealth, we should like to army chiefs smarting under dismissal and believe, if intelligence and character and anti-Dreyfusards chagrined and sullen, common sense have not utterly gone from one hardly knows what may at any moamong us. In the general interest of ment happen in France. The odds, howcivilization it may be there is a mission ever, may always be laid on gallantry, in these islands for the active agency of a moral courage, and the resolute hand. higher race: doubtless there is; but there That the investigation within the lines are other ways of exerting the influence proposed may be thorough and searching of a dominant race upon communities de- we must all hope, since the enemies of void of any political idea than by the revision can only thus be effectively sihazardous expedient of annexation and lenced and the honor of an innocent and the taking up and quixotically bearing to greatly wronged man be vindicated. There them the white man's burden.)
is no knowing, however, how far the con
spiracy against the unfortunate officer The Dreyfus The curtain rises at Rennes may still go, though the new Minister of
on what we hope is to be War has done much to disabuse the army the last act in the Dreyfus drama. That chiefs of their notion that they are suit will be a brief act, characterized by preme in the State, while he has put an despatch as well as by vigor, we end to their theatrical struttings and gashardly hope, seeing that no less than conading talk. If justice can be furthered, seventy witnesses have been summoned the perusal of the pathetic but manly to give evidence before the new court- “Letters of Captain Dreyfus to his Wife, » martial. This means, we suppose, that
which have just been authoritatively pubeach witness will be permitted to add to lished, ought to convince anyone that the insatiate curiosity of Frenchmen by Dreyfus is an innocent man, ever seeking lengthened depositions, while it will afford in his lonely exile - as the letters show each the opportunity to pose elaborately reunion with those dear to him, and the before a deeply interested concourse of rehabilitation of his character and good people and a highly excitable nation. The name. As a rule we are not partial to evidence, we understand, is happily to be the lifting of veils from private affection, narrowed to the single question whether but the conspiracy against Dreyfus has Captain Dreyfus did or did not communi- been so diabolical and persistent, and cate to a foreign power the precise docu- his case otherwise apparently so hopeless, ments enumerated in the incriminating that one feels kindly to this act of a wife bordereau, and the burden of proof is now, in her hour of extremity,- her loyal dewe believe, to be shifted from the victim sire to convince the world that her husof the discredited 1894 court-martial to band is no traitor but a true man, and the prosecution. That justice will now that his passionate reiteration of innotriumph and the Court of Cassation will cence should win for him redress of his be justified in its review of the evidence wrongs and — what is happily at length which recalled Dreyfus from exile and within his reach – a just re-hearing of his gave him a re-trial, must be the hope pitiful case. After all the poor officer has of all. After what has occurred, not only gone through, however, there seems a rethe honor of the accused, but the honor finement of cruelty in subjecting him to of France, is now in the scales, and on the ordeal of this new trial. While the the justice and dispassionateness of the Court of Cassation, in its recent prolonged Rennes tribunal will depend the verdict inquiry, was empowered only to settle the of history, not only upon Dreyfus himself, question whether there were grounds for but upon France and her army. Much is revision, it seems hard that when it found due to the new Minister of War, General that there had been an illegal and iniquide Gallifet, for his vigor and firmness not tous conviction, which it quashed and only in smoothing the pathway to re-trial, annulled, it should not have finally acbut in disciplining those high in army com- quitted Dreyfus and relieved him of all mands who would, if they could, have future prosecution.
AN AMERICAN WILLIAM MORRIS
HERE is a small village in the western part
of humor; art and refinement are the keynotes of New York State, called East Aurora. of his literary mind; yet, he always strikes It has a population of little more than
whatever he aims at; his sarcasm and wit 1,500. Four years ago it was almost un- flash ever and anon, purifying the air as does known; scarcely anyone had ever heard of it. the lightning in nature, for there is always a So when a tiny literary magazine, sailing under good reason for his attacks. In one of the rethe name of «The Philistine,» made its ap
cent numbers of “The Philistine » there was a pearance, bearing on its title-page the name of little preachment entitled "A Message to GarEast Aurora as its place of publication, many
cia.” Mentioning in a few terse words the readers believed that this was but an imaginary
famous deed of dauntless Rowan, who went place, the name chosen to indicate its character fearlessly through the enemy's lines to deliver as “the rising light or roseate glow of early the President's message to General Garcia, morning in the eastern [literary) sky.» Had it he uses this incident as the preacher uses been but an imaginary name, none could more a text from Scripture. He draws a parallel, aptly have been selected as the birthplace of applying this deed as an object lesson to modthis new magazine. He was a bright, saucy, ern life. In an announcement in a later issue little chap, this self-styled “Philistine;» not he calls it modestly an insignificant article; it afraid to speak his mind, to stir up wasps' nests, is, however, in its simplicity so significant and to act the enfant terrible of literary philis- strong that it could not fail to make a deep imtines, arrogant jeunes who hide their impudent pression. The edition of that number was soon mediocrity under the mask of a feigned superior exhausted; the article was quoted throughout exclusiveness and mysticism, and self-satisfied the country; it was reprinted in pamphlet form, old fogies whose blood had become stagnant as well as in an édition de luxe, and sold to the under the influence of fattening egotism, and extent of many thousand copies. whose big heads were half hidden under the It is in this particular branch of brother night-caps of indolent and obstinate conserva- Hubbard's achievements, namely, in the maktism. The father of this valiant young knight ing of books, veritable éditions de luxe, that was Elbert Hubbard, now lovingly called « Fra he has gained the reputation of an «Amer: Elbertus » by his numerous friends and disci- ican William Morris. » The press where ples. This congenial man, who has made the « The Philistine” is printed is called “The obscure village of East Aurora famous on two Roycroft Shop,” and the books which have continents — at least among booklovers and emanated from this press are known as “Roy. littérateurs-is in wider circles known as the croft Books. That name has for some time author of the charming «Little Journeys to the come to mean to every book-lover and colHomes of Great Men and Women.” He has lector the embodiment of all that is most exalso written some novels, though these are his quisite and elevated in taste and refinement in minor efforts. His literary strength and origi- the high art of bookmaking. In type, presswork, nality, however, has full sway in the columns binding, and general appearance these books of his tart little «Philistine.” Its origin was are a delight to the eye. They are almost too obviously caused by the appearance of that pretty for profane, daily usage; they want to memorable little magazine, “The Chap-Book,» be cherished as art-treasures. Though issued which, like its numerous imitators, is now in but small, limited editions, and by no means dead. «The Philistine," of all these miniature cheap books, they are eagerly bought up by magazines, which at a time had become a lovers of fine books, who feel a justifiable pride veritable literary craze, is the only one still in owning these beautiful volumes. The list alive, and as brisk and bright as ever. What of the Roycroft publications includes some of makes it so beloved by a host of readers is the the masterpieces of literature, such as the sincerity of its tone and feeling, the strong “Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam,” the «Sonnets morality of purpose in exposing philistinism, from the Portuguese,” the “Confessions of an vanity, ignorance, and indifference. Mr. Hub- Opium Eater,” the “Essays of Elia.) “In bard wields a virile pen; he is fearless and ag. Memoriam,» «The Deserted Village,” « The Angressive; yet as a writer he always holds himself cient Mariner, etc. Aside from these there in check and never becomes vulgar or offensive. are also some modern works written in the Whatever he writes is poetry in prose; tender- spirit of «The Philistine.) Among these are. ness of feeling is blended with a delicate sense a collection of essays by Elbert Hubbard,
entitled "As it Seems to Me;» «Sermons from a Philistine Pulpit,” by William McIntosh (Doctor Phil); “Hand and Brain," a symposium of essays on socialism by William Morris, Grant Allen, George Bernard Shaw, Henry S. Salt, Alfred Russel Wallace, and Edward Carpenter. To these books there has recently been added another exquisite volume containing a collection of bookish verse by Irving Browne, entitled « The Ballads of a Bookworm.” Many of these poems have already appeared in print in Duprat's “Book Lover's Almanac,» in The Philistine,” and in various magazines and newspapers; some are new. The author died in February of this year at Albany, N. Y., but bis verses stand as a living monument of the poet and of his love of books, a love that finds an echo in the hearts of all who know how to appreciate the Roycroft Books. All of them show loving care in their maker, far above the manufacture of ordinary books, which is governed more or less by commercial considerations. They are all beautifully printed in bold type, with deep dark ink, on hand-made paper, initialed and illumined by hand, and bound with characteristic taste either in soft chamois leather with silk lining, or in plain, rough pasteboard, no less artistic in its effect.
Mr. Hubbard, before entering the book field, was a stock-breeder – hence probably his animosity to the Chicago pork-barons. A man of fine education and literary propensities, he spent much of his time in the company of books, and when he found in his little village
of East Aurora an enterprising printer of a congenial mind, he interested himself practically in the making of books. He had made a special study of the Italian art of printing during the Renaissance, and from his large collection of specimens of fine old printing he chose initials and head- and tail-pieces, or had them especially designed after these samples. His wife proved a valuable helper, as it was she who illuminated by hand all initials and ornamentation of the first publications. Now the Roycrofters number about twenty in all, working together in harmony in the artistic atmosphere of the Roycroft Shop, which has its home in a quaint chapel-like brick building in Gothic style. Most of Mr. Hubbard's co-workers are young ladies of East Aurora,-among them his particular "édition de luxe,” his daughter. To this colony of artistic bookmakers belongs also Will Denslow, the young Chicago designer; St. Gerome Roycroft, a clever young sculptor; «Ali Baba,” an old man in years, but not in mind, who is full of quaint sayings, bright talk, and interesting reminiscences.
Mr. Hubbard is not what is generally called a genius; that would be stretching friendly admiration too far. But he certainly is an artist in modern bookmaking art; he has done more, perhaps, than any other American in fostering the love of fine books and the appreciation of art in letters. As a writer he is original, vivid, lucid, stimulating, entertaining, and always interesting
A peculiar interest attaches to
th: first novel of a man who, like Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton, has made himself a name as a poet and an essayist. From the writer's reputation we should naturally expect that charm of style that appeals to the highly cultured reader; and we are not disappointed. In beauty of thought and expression the novel suffers little in comparison with Walter Pater's “Marius, the Epicurean, or the happiest efforts of Robert Louis Stevenson.
The first impression of the reader is that of a distinct originality, and a poetic quality rarely found in prose. Hence we are not surprised to learn that the character and theme were first thought out for a poem, and then found to be better adapted for a romance. This early poetic conception is perhaps responsible for one quality in the atmosphere of the novel, a kind of poetic isolation from nineteenth-century thought and occupations. The characters seem to move in a picturesque world all their own, among ancient ruins, by the Cornish sea, in the Welsh mountains, or in the studios of London, with only an occasional mention of a modern art like photography, or a modern scientific discovery, to remind us of the age in which they live. But this peculiarity makes the book rather more refreshing than otherwise.
* New York : Dodd, Mead & Co.
Unlike Pater's masterpiece, this novel excels in action and thrilling interest.” It is a rare combination of the best qualities of poetic and popular romance. Its theme is the old, old story of love, a love so strong, that, like the loves of Greek story, it absorbs all the hero's powers. And, as in those ancient tales, it is an unseen power from the spirit world that separates the lovers, — the instinctive superstition of the imaginative Celt which proves itself almost as fateful a power as that wielded by the deities of ancient Greece.
The opening picture is of rare beauty; two children of Cymric blood, one mixed with Romany; the boy a child of the sea, the girl a daughter of Snowdon. In the face of the first
_«a deep undertone of Romany brown' seemed breaking through that peculiar kind of ruddy golden glow which no sunshine can give till it has been deepened and colored and enriched by the responsive kisses of the sea. Moreover, there was something in his eyes that were not gipsy-like,-a something which cannot be described, but which seems like the reflex of the daring gaze of that great land-conquering and daring sea.”
At our first glimpse the child heroine is sit. ting among the graves in the old churchyard by the sea.
• With her head bent back she was gazing up at the sky and singing, while one of her little hands was pointing to a tiny cloud that hovered like a golden strongest protests in literature against the materialism and rationalism of our day. As a plea for the spiritual in life, it represents a new tendency of our later literature, - that seeking after something that we seem to have lost in our struggle with Philistinism. Its atmosphere of unrest and search, its attitude of open-mindedness toward spiritual forces, reflect a phase of our intellectual life. The book is perhaps the most intense expression, in the English prose fiction of our century, of what the writer calls the "modern renaissance of wonder in the mind of man.»
E. A. V.
feather over her head. ... High up in the blue, a lark that was soaring toward the same gauzy cloud was singing as in rivalry.”
Of her voice it is said: • The blackcap has a climacteric note just before his song collapses and dies, so full of pathos and tenderness that often it affected me more deeply than any human words. But here was a note sweet and soft as that, and yet charged with a richness no blackcap's had ever borne, because no blackcap has ever felt the joys and sorrows of a young human soul."
The cloud to which Winnie was pointing was the Golden Hand, the Dukkenpen) of the gipsies, which hovers with its promise and menace over the lives of both children, giving a strange weird effect to the story.
The climax of the tale, where Winnie loses her reason, is an intensely tragic scene. The whole story of her wanderings and the faithful lover's long and fruitless search for her has an absorbing interest and a tender pathos relieved by its highly picturesque nature-setting. But Winnie, even in the wreck of her mental powers, is as beautiful and winning as Ophelia. It is the lover that moves our pity, for he is borne down by sorrow for his lost love and consumed by the mental conflict between reason and the inherited instinct of superstition. In his mind, rationalistic convictions have become a passion. It is only after great suffering and deep trial that his soul is impelled to seek rest in «a mystical conception of the universe. He can then say with his friend,
*Even in this material age of ours there is not a single soul that does not in its inner depths acknowledge the power of the unseen world.”
This undercurrent of reflective and subjective experience in a singularly thrilling romance furnishes the true motif of the tale.
Coming in the last years of the nineteenth century as the mature and thoughtful expression of one of our most cultured writers, the novel strikes a significant note in our literature. It is a protest against those tenets of realism that prescribe the portrayal of commonplace events and the people that one meets in everyday life. Yet its character delineation is as vivid and as true as any realist can boast. Sinfi Lowell, the « Romany chi,” is as thoroughly alive as any character in modern fiction and as fresh as a new creation. The careful study of race characteristics, of inherited tendencies, and the subtle influence of nature upon impressible minds, has its psychological value making it as truly (a buman document) as a realistic novel.
The descriptions of Welsh mountains, of gipsy life, of the London studios, are as graphic and vigorous in their way as that grosser style of portrayal so common in our literature, and possess a picturesque charm, a poetic glamour, belonging to the higher plains of art.
As a record of the struggle of the modern mind under the influence of scientific training, with the inherited instincts of the Celtic and Romany races, the romance is one of the
Carroll Wright's Messrs. Longmans, Green, and
« Practical Co. have instituted an AmerSociology)
ican Citizen Series » of books, to be edited by Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History in Harvard University. Mr. Carroll D. Wright's “Outline of Practical Sociology, with Special Reference to American Conditions,»* is the first of the series. The project was an admirable one, and the initial volume was put into excellent hands, - those of the United States Commissioner of Labor, the author of «The Industrial Evolution of the United States," a recognized and frequently quoted authority on this subject.
A «science » of sociology there is not and perhaps never will be. As Mr. Wright himself rightly says, “It is not until the highly developed animal, man, appears, with heart and soul, or those attributes which may be called spiritual, that organization is resorted to as the expression of the social instincts.) Accordingly, until we have the sciences of the heart and soul, we shall not have a science of sociology, - we shall not, that is, be able to formulate a scientific system of the true and proper method by which mankind shall govern itself in communities : elect its legislators; make its laws and enforce them; regulate its industry; provide its penal and eleemosynary institutions; dispose of its sewage; distribute light and water (and, in time no doubt, power); arrange its systems of transport; collect its statistics; and perform the thousand and one complicated duties which now devolve upon every highlycivilized nation. There is no «science » of all these multifarious functions. They have to be evolved, as mankind itself has evolved, by efforts, by struggles, by practical attempts Any system of sociology, therefore, will be largely an exposition of practical attempts, and Mr. Carroll Wright wisely calls his admirable and lucid work an “Outline of Practical Sociology.) Here and there, of course, theory, as proved by practical attempt, is permissible; notably, for example, in the case of the benefit of the introduction of machinery,-a benefit once strenuously denied. The author makes full and excellent use of such opportunity. But, as a whole, Mr. Wright's work is, as it
* New York & London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1899. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. xxv, 431.