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TA time when there is being planned hung at his side, and that the cuts of meat a trust or combination of seven were precisely like ours. They used

tenths of all our Western range-cat- leather, and they did better tanning than tle owners and shippers, to operate in we do; the blood, instead of being prounison with several great railway systems, cessed into fertilizing, was used for cook- a combination that may redound to our ing purposes; and our Spanish newly-made good and give us cheaper meat, as cheaper friends never see a better bullfight than oil was a result of the oil-trust; but that, was daily purveyed for the delectation of nevertheless, will be so huge, so powerful those ancient sports.” as to be capable of making almost any A little later in the world's history we disposition it wishes of the meat question, find records of tricks being played in the and of absolutely dictating its own terms cattle trade; for do not some historians to us common consumers,—it may be of aver that Jacob exercised undue influence some interest to glance at the industry upon the cows of Laban's herds as well and the stock that this power is seeking as upon the ewes of his flocks? And to control.*

others tell us that Zaph-u-to — otherwise While we may now and then mention known as "Joseph the wise,” stockbrokerhorses, sheep, and even swine in what in-chief for the pharaoh Apophies, who, follows, it will be merely for the sake of of course, was not known in the dealcomparison or to show gross results; for it cornered the cattle as well as the grain of is intended to adhere, in the main, to the all the country about. more limited acceptance of the word There were Chicagos too in those days. “cattle” as meaning only the members Damascus was an old city in the time of of the bovine family.

Abraham, and the greatest cattle-market The origin of the species is obscure. of the world. Perhaps some day it will The earliest records of Egypt show us be discovered that they refrigerated their that cattle were used as draft animals and beef and canned it, although the have that beef was the favorite meat there been no charges, as yet, that they emæons of time before the founding of the balmed anything other than their relakingdom of Menes.

tives. That our vaunted progress after all is The domestic cattle, like all highly culbut comparative is forced upon our atten- tivated animals, are of a wide range of tion in observing that these ancient colors, sizes, and characteristics. Columrecords depict a butcher cutting up an ox bus brought over the first bull and cows, exactly as is done to-day outside of the of the Estremadura breed, that ever set great slaughtering establishments, with a hoof upon our continent. Their longknife that he sharpened upon a steel that legged, long-horned descendants range the

* In the compilation of this paper the writer received, and wishes to acknowledge, the courteous and material assistance, in data for both pen and pencil, of the officers of the Department of Agriculture, of the editor of the « Breeders' Gazette ” and of Capt. R. A Torrey (retired), a cattle-owner who is as conversant with all the phases of the subject as he is successful in the application of his knowledge in acquiring tangible results.

plains of Spanish America to-day,- poor milkers but good meat, - and some of our Texas steers can vaunt of a pretty direct line, on the paternal side, back to those aristocratic and historical discoverers of our pampa grass.

The Portuguese brought cattle to New


roan Durhams, now called “shorthorns,” are fair milkers and perhaps the first fully developed beef for meat purposes. Subsequent to the development of the Durhams as meat-producers we brought over the “Hornless Scot” and the Hereford breeds, famed, both of them, for the

quality of their meat, though not great milkers.

We have imported but little of what might be called alien stock, and a glance at some of them will suffice. The Polish cattle are large and strong. poor in milk, but rich in meat. In Jutland, Holstein, and Schleswig there is a fine breed closely allied to the Friesland and Holderness stocks. Hungary has a remarkable darkblue-colored breed; there are the mildeyed, gentle, languor

ous, mouse-colored cattle of Italy; the hump-backed zebu; the yak of Thibet; the indolent, smoothcoated, large-eared Brahmin, as large almost as the American bison; and in Calabria we find the great snow-white, direct, and untainted descendants of the sacrificial cattle of classic times.

According to the Department of Agriculture we have in this country to-day 43,984,340 head of cattle, of all species, colors, and previous conditions of servitude; of which total 15,990, 115 are

In 1884 we had 42, 547, 307 head of cattle. Incidentally, and as a comparison, the same authority tells us there

to-day 13,665,307 horses, 2,134,212 mules, 39, 114,455 sheep, and 38,651,631 swine. A year ago there were 13,960,911 horses, 2, 190, 282 mules, 37,656,960 sheep, 39, 759,993 swine, and, getting back to our cattle, we had 45, 105,080 head. Our total live-stock — cattle, horses, etc. last year was valued at $1,888,654,925, or $50,000,000 more than we had in circulation in paper and coin! But in 1884 our total live-stock was worth $2,467,868,924.

Our horned cattle to-day constitute an asset of about $1,050,000,000. Texas leads in the list of States with 5,234.699 head;



foundland in 1553, but they were not fitted for so vigorous a clime and soon became extinct. Some Norman cattle were introduced into Canada in 1600, some of that fine old Norman stock that gave character and tone to all the cattle of the north of France, and whose close kin, — though a smaller variety,—the Jerseys, are a standard breed with us to-day. A few light tan-colored Devonshires were brought over in 1611, and more were placed upon Massachusetts farms in 1624.

We have gone to the Channel Islands for most of our milk stock, and to the British Isles for a goodly portion of our meat stock. The latter country has long been famed for its cattle. Even in the time of Cæsar there ranged great herds through the Caledonian forest: remnants of the original black-horned species have been seen there in comparatively recent years, - that species which, in prehistoric times, some would have us believe, wore horse-like manes.

We imported some roan and piebald Ayrshires in 1838,- good all-around stock for milk, yoke, and meat; and we have the red and yellow Alderneys,-poor beef, but rich milkers. The red, white, and



she leads also in horses with 1,157,015; Argentine Republic, 22,869,585; United ranks in the fifth place for sheep with States, 48, 222,995; Brazil, 17,000,000; Aus2,543,917, and in the third for swine tria-Hungary, 15,085,760; Italy, 5,000,000; with 2,684.987. Iowa is second in cattle France, 12,879, 240; Germany, 17,555,694; with 3,410,000 head, and first in swine with United Kingdom, 10,753, 314; in the two 3,408,281 hogs. Montana has but 996,492 Russias, 39,000,000; British India, 65,721,head of cattle, but ranks first in sheep 144; or, by continents, North America, with 3,377,547.

Missouri has 2,133,832 56,413,443; South America, 55,675,635; head of cattle, but is second on the list Europe, 110,238, 202; Asia, 77,290,532; with swine, having 2,949,818 porkers. In Africa, 5,913,797; Australasia, 13,325, 264; 1898 we exported 439,255 head of cattle, Oceanica, 131,796. or in dollars our exports of cattle, horses, Our slaughtering and packing industry sheep, and all other domestic animals is enormous. Our next census will show amounted to $46, 243,406.

that there are over 1,000 establishments While we are discussing figures we may in the country, employing nearly 60,000 as well glance at a few relating to the people and a capital of $160,000,000, turnslaughtering, the by-products, and the ing out a product of certainly over $620,other rather dry but valuable statistical 000,000 worth

a year.

The Chicago data upon the subject. Added to our ex- packing-houses alone employ nearly 25,port of cattle we also ship away 37, 109, 570 000 people and have a capital of $25,000,pounds of canned beef, 274, 768,074 pounds of fresh beef, and 44,314,479 pounds of This census will also show that these salted beef; or a total in value, including 1,000 establishments slaughter about 6,cattle and beef meat, of $66,442, 182, repre- 500,000 cattle a year, - leaving the 9,000,senting, all told, about 900,000 head. 000 sheep and 33,000,000 hogs out of the These are the figures for 1898. and during question. Deducting our exports from the same year we exported 51, 150 horses, this total we have left and actually con199,690 sheep, 12, 224, 285 pounds of fresh sume at the rate of one eighth of a pound pork, 88, 155,078 pounds of pickled pork, of beef a day for every man, woman, and 81,744,809 pounds of tallow, 709, 344,045 pounds of lard, 650,108,953 pounds of bacon,

200, 185,861 pounds of ham, 25,690,025 pounds of butter, and 53, 167,280 pounds of cheese. But then 1898 was a phenomenal year, the renaissance of prosperity, let us hope,a year during which we exported nearly $200,000,000 worth more of merchandise than we ever did before, and when our exports exceeded our imports by $329,000,ooo more than during any previous year. child of our 74,530,000 people. If each

The latest data, compiled in 1896 by one of us consumed one pound of beef a the Department of Agriculture, develop, day we would simply exterminate our stock from authoritative sources, the fact that in of cattle in a year's time. So that we are all the known world there were 73, 308,950 working upon what may be called a horses, 8,952,984 mules, 318,988,667 cattle, « factor of safety” of only eight. 532,239,165 sheep, 104, 156,447 hogs, 32, 268,- In early times stock was raised in the 821 goats. Of that total under “cattle,” settlements of Connecticut, Ohio, and New Canada had 4,291,845; Cuba, 2,485.766; York for meat purposes, the markets of



men or so.

New York and Philadelphia creating the demand; then some herds were driven as far west even as Illinois, and the railroads soon after offered such opportunities for distribution and increased sales that prime cattle were carried by them to greater distances still. The Texas cattle were not a great factor in the problem, nor could the Western cattle (the natural increase of the stock driven overland and up from Mexico in the long ago, or carried around by water by the early settlers to California, Utah, and Oregon) be so considered either. Then came the war of the Rebellion; the long-horned Spanish-Texan cattle were practically confined to their own territory, none being driven north, and few indeed finding their way even into southeastern markets. Left free to roam their native plains they increased enormously. Soon after the war it became necessary to find “pastures new," and, the Union Pacific Railway being under construction, it seemed to Texan owners that along that line they would find a market for their surplus beef. Great herds were driven north. An owner would start out with from 2,000 to 4,000 head, tended by ten

These men led a nomadic life. The cattle made their own broad trails leading north and west. There was no particular objective point, simply a seeking of fresh pastures and a market wherever either could be found. This exodus of surplus stock was also effective in taking out of the country many surplus men. The early herdsman in many cases left his native heath for the good of that heath. Then was the time of outlawry, cattle-stealing, and the acme of Western toughness generally. Who has not read stories of the “Texas trail,” buffalo hunting, and cattle-men yarns ?

It was found that these cattle throve upon the tough grasses of the semi-arid country bordering the Union Pacific Railway and extending north to the Canadian line. They did better than in Texas and wintered better, though it was so much colder, and without other feed than their grazing they put on flesh. Then it was that this stock became a factor in the market. The owners of cattle in Oregon and Montana, where stocks had also largely increased, noting the success of the Texans, began to drive their herds into the same country, seeking the same market. These two currents met in Wyoming and Idaho, and the result was a

tremendous production in the Territories that reached its very zenith in 1886.

In Texas the grass is succulent, and there is moisture enough to keep it green the year around, but when norther” winds and frosts nip it the succeeding rains and heat rot it. Then the climate and the pestiferous insects, added to poor winter feeding, keep the cattle thin, longlegged, bony, and producers of a comparatively poor quality of meat.

Those early herders found that the dry, bracing climate and freedom from insects throughout the well-named semi-arid regions helped their stock, and that the grasses—less succulent, it is true, but less woody and of curtailed growth, owing to lack of rain-dried down and were cured on the stem, forming the best of hay and producing a first-class quality of nutritious fodder, little affected by frost or snow (that was generally swept off great patches by the prevailing high winter winds ), and sufficient in quality and quantity for the long winters until the green grasses sprouted forth again. Cattle-men, from shipping steers only, soon began scientific breeding operations as well as merely holding for supply, crossing the Texan with the Oregon stocks, and the result was as good a quality of meat as was produced anywhere in the country. This experimenting was begun in Colorado and Wyoming; then later the stockmen of Montana, Utah, Idaho, and Nevada took it up and produced from that northern country as good meat as the average beef-making stock of Iowa, Missouri, or even of Illinois did.

Cattle-raising on the ranges was a new art, however, and much was to be learned. It was found that covis, after the long march northward, and generally reaching pretty far north too, by winter were in rather poor condition to stand the hardships of that season together with the cares of maternity, so they began shipping them by rail, and the great droves were inade up almost exclusively of steers. Later still it was deemed more economical and better even to ship these by rail to the western ranges.

As stated before, cattle-ranching was at first a very nomadic existence; the stock was rounded up only for branding or to select beef for shipping to market. The men merely camped here or there, but later home ranches were established, some hay was put away for the horses,

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gardens were cultivated, and the stock ins, the bison, roamed in countless milwas kept as near “home” as the range lions. To-day the herds are small and feeding permitted. Nearer still to our widely scattered, and we have but reminown day enough feed was raised and iscences of the halcyon days of the range stored to provide for the weaker members cattle. of the herd, which were fed for short peri- We have said that there were other conods during the winter. The main body, tributory causes to the falling off of range however, continued as before, and as it cattle than the sheep. They are many. still does, to graze summer and winter, The wolf followed the buffalo and on the open range, Uncle Sam's do- preyed upon the young and weak: when main.

the buffalo was exterminated, the wolf The cattle-men have learned many les- turned his attention to the cattle. A sons and have had much to contend with. merciless war was waged against him, Among their tribulations not the least has and he too was almost cleaned off the been the sheep-men. The latter, finding plains by the hunter and poisoner. His that their sheep did fairly well upon the lessened numbers giving less trouble to open range in Oregon, and being awake the settler, and his hide being worth but to the advantages enjoyed by the cattle- little, the war was relaxed. He increased man in his new territory, began invading quickly in numbers and in wariness, and the borders of the latter, then encroached has been long and is now a most serious further and increased his flocks.

It was a

element of danger and loss to our range great invasion, and the cattle, ever shy of cattle. man and dog, and fretting in the pres- Angelic settlers are found mostly in ence of the fleecy intruders, penetrated heaven. Among those who drifted to the further and further into the country and plains there were some who were not into an ever-decreasing radius of terri- angelic and who could not or would not tory. It was not that the sheep ate all distinguish 'twixt meum and tuum. The the grass about, but merely passing over temptations were certainly strong. With it spoiled it for their rather finnicky great herds of cattle at large, only seen by horned co-tenants. As the cattle sought their owners or herders at rare intervals, distance from settlements and sheep, both the identification of the young was almost followed them, pressing rather closely, impossible, and some of these found their and, assisted by severe winters, fencing way into the possession of the innocent in of water, overstocking, and other settler, who frequently thus founded conagents, have well nigh succeeded in clos- siderable herds of his own. Later, when ing the history of the great herds that, a Indians or other depredators thinned out few years ago, ranged over those semi- his herds, there was a cry for law and arid plains in uncounted numbers where, order,” and short shrift was given the new again but a few years before, their cous- thief-when caught. It was not an unfre

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