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T is amusing to observe how we «democrats » keeping ways, but still the balance of injustice resent the dissemination of our ideas. We has been on the other side, and out of the per. have long insisted that we would die for prin- plexing situation which now confronts us may

ciples of eternal liberty and equality, and arise some definite good. The servant girl have, indeed, proved our willingness to do so. will be looked upon as a more desirable article But now that the foreigners with us are learn- than she has been previously, and when she ing their lesson to perfection and refuse to accept asks, «What sort of room am I to sit in the menial positions we offer them - nay, that after my work is done?» she will not be shown we insist upon their taking we are indeed en- the undecorated kitchen in which she has raged. That our dinners should go uncooked worked all day. Moreover, the mistress, in because the Swede maidens marry and have providing better accommodations and extendhouseholds of their own; that the summons at ing fairer treatment, will have a right to exact the door must be answered by ourselves be- more intelligent service, and perhaps in time cause the colored cook prefers to work by the she will come to have it. It is impossible to day) instead of submitting to our small tyran- better the condition of the maid without also, nies, arouse our indignation. The freedom and eventually, bettering the state of the mistress equality which we desired for ourselves, but

as well. which we never granted to our servants, seem Sooner or later, as the inevitable result of now an impertinent sophistry. Why are not the present domestic upheaval, there must be these beings silent before us? Why are they a readjustment of matters, - an increase of not grateful for our reluctantly doled wage? wages, a higher standard of work, more conWhy are they not content to stay in the kitchen science upon the part of employers in recomsix nights of the week, gazing upon our pots mending help, and more honesty upon the part and pans, and waiting upon our sovereign of servants. For now it must be maintained that pleasure ? Because — shame to them!— they many of them are dishonest in that they do not have adopted our democratic principles — those satisfactorily perform the tasks for which they principles which we have so dangerously ad- have been hired. In short, after we have sufvocated in our drawing-rooms, at our clubs, and fered long enough and experimented suffiin the press. Did they presume to listen,- they, ciently we shall learn to treat our servants, not who should have no ears? Were they so incon- as slaves, but as thinking and lovable human siderate as to take us at our word? Alas, it is beings, -as they are treated in England, for so! These women have wedded the pleasant example. Here, being apprehensive, as we policemen who patrolled our streets, the engag- have been, that at any moment our servinging order-clerks who called at the kitchen maids might rise up and assert themselves, imdoors, or the genial barbers who cut the locks posing their individuality upon us in some way of our hopefuls. Some of them have even gone exceedingly disagreeable to our plutocratic senthe length of sending us their wedding cards,- sibilities, we have not learned to rely upon and for are they not as good as anybody and hap- to confide in our domestic helpers as the women pier than most? Truly. Therefore are our of England do, nor have we paid them the rekitchens desolate and our tea-tables unat- spect which is paid to the excellent servant tended.

class there. True, our helpers have not, as a The famine in servant girls is not confined to class, done anything to deserve it. We have, any one locality. It exists over the length and in fact, proceeded upon a mistaken theory, have breadth of the country, nor has anything like it most inconsistently ignored our own theories, been known since pioneer days. It is said that and have made a mess of it. Democratic in it is also causing much inconvenience in principle, we have been the most autocratic Europe, where marriages among the laboring mistresses in the world in fact. Ambitious to classes are, as they are here, becoming more attain absolute independence for ourselves and frequent, and factory or shop work is preferred an aristocratic leisure, we have endeavored to by the unmarried to the long and monotonous have all of our household labors performed for hours required by domestic service.

us by one or two servants. We have expected It is not to be denied that many a kind mis- everything to run like clockwork while we entress has been treated with much inconsid- tertained company, went about as we pleased, eration, and that many a pure home has been and left all to the care of our assistants. It has defiled by the presence within it of working- not succeeded. We have blundered. Let us women of foul language and uncleanly house- now, as in the better class of homes in England, provide proper sitting-rooms for our servants, curiosity and alertness, are sorrowful or joyful arrange definitely concerning the duties of each as their circumstances may warrant; and like person employed, faithfully overlook the work us they are baffled and filled with mourning ourselves, pay fair wages, and permit all the when their chosen companions die. We have liberty consistent with justice. Of course been stupid, take us for all in all, in dealing many women have always done these things, with and judging of the animals. and are suffering now because of the selfish- Mrs. Coonley Ward, who is one of the most ness and stupidity of the women who have not; influential women in Chicago, a writer, a clubbut in time better service will come with im- woman, and a sort of universal mother to all proved conditions, and intelligent young who need mothering, a stately hostess, and a women, finding domestic service not too unre- famous traveller, has a winning way with animunerative or confining, will prefer it to the mals. This summer, while she was on the very fatigue of factory work. It must be admitted, quietest part of her vacation, she made herself however, that all of this theorizing is poor com- acquainted with a red squirrel. She did it by fort to the overworked housekeeper who at sitting perfectly still every day in a certain present attempts to be both mistress and maid, place, and becoming, so to speak, a part of the lacking persuasion to induce any one to come to landscape. That she was the most pleasing her assistance. The situation may be said to part of it was evidenced by the demeanor of have reached a crisis.

the squirrel, who came furtively and crept upon the folds of her gown. After several days of

this intimacy Mrs. Ward ventured to stroke him The enthusiasts in the cause of anti-vivisec- with a finger, and after the first suspicious tion hoped to have an exhibit at the Paris Expo- moment the squirrel concluded that these sition, but it has been barred out as not being caresses were to his liking and submitted to “pleasingly attractive, and also because of its them with sweet unconcern, international character, — «no provision being

There is a certain beautiful and odd little made, for any such combination. It is there- town in Iowa named Tabor, which was founded fore proposed to have a bureau near the Expo- many years ago by good Congregationalists sition, at which lectures will be given, displays from Oberlin, Ohio, who journeyed westward made, and literature distributed. The anti- to establish a church and a school for higher vivisectionists feel, not without reason, that by

education at the frontier. The story of how very many the movement for which they stand they did it, and of how they stood for great is regarded as a fad, and they desire to contro- ideas and afforded shelter to John Brown and vert this idea by showing in a practical and his fugitives, and of how they have always memorable manner the truth about the suffer- consistently proceeded along the lines laid ings — unnecessary sufferings, as they claim- down by our Puritan ancestors, is too long to inflicted upon the animals created to be our tell here. But, of all the movements for companions. They wish, also, to exploit the which the men and women of the town fact that the movement is continually growing have stood, none is more quaint and disand now has its representatives in almost every interested than the interpolation among the part of the world. To speak quite frankly upon town ordinances of a forbiddance to kill the this subject, it has often seemed as if Chris- squirrels or the birds. Tabor was a treeless tians, amiable and tender in all other matters, plateau when the devoted pioneers settled upon were criminally neglectful of the interests of it, but the first of their labors was tree-planting, the lower animals. To hunt and kill them has and now the streets are a veritable arbor, so been the delight of many of the men most dis- umbrageous are the trees and so generous tinguished for great qualities. To treat them their sweep. They are alive with birds and always as creatures made for the pleasure of squirrels, and the latter have no more trouble man is the custom of the average Christian, than the former in chasing each other from one and for this view he has of course such war- side of the street to the other, for it is not nerant as can be produced by ancient aphor- cessary for them to do more than find their way isms.

among the interlacing branches. An idyllic While we would not suggest that the regard atmosphere pervades the place in consequence. for animals should degenerate into the igno- When the groups of students sit at twilight rant awe which obtains in the East, yet, casting talking in the shady yards, the squirrels come superstition aside, and putting the relationship down to listen, and to turn upon them a upon purely affectional grounds, there is all friendly regard; and the sylvan chorus of unthat is beautiful in the little Indian child's sa- molested birds lives forever in the memory of lute of: «Brother! Brother! » when he calls his those who have Tabor College for their alma kid to his side. Brothers, indeed, are these mater. creatures; created as mysteriously as selves; gifted, like ourselves, — though not in There is an idea among the men who stay in equal degree, — with intelligence and the capa- the city to drudge while the women enjoy the city for love; capable, like ourselves, of good or retirement of the country that the summer vabad lives. Like ourselves they are filled with cation is a time of idleness,-at least for those


women who have not young children. This is summer's industry, with carving, stenciling, true, of course, of hundreds of thousands of and some pictorial inlaying of delicately colored women. But there are others who make it a woods. Nor was the least of their achievetime of fascinating activities. The women who ments the construction of a flight of steps down love work of the mind and hands find it the the bluff leading from the wooded plateau most fertile period of the year. One company where stand their homes to the beach of a beof middle-aged ladies spent two hours of each witching little lake. A spirit level tested the summer morning botanizing in the dim Wis- perfection of each step, the proper implements consin woods under the instruction of one of packed the mobile earth, and on the base of the their number, who is a distinguished scien- upper steps ran certain lines from «M'Antist.

drew's Hymn" in celebration of good workThese women also made themselves a work- manship. Surely a labor such as this must shop, and in it they did some truly exquisite win the applause of all who like to have a cabinet work, using only fine and beautiful needed thing well done. woods, and decorating their cabinet, chairs,

ELIA W. PEATTIE. and screen, which were the result of the CHICAGO.



HE worst characteristic of matrimony is nately for progress there are few individual or

that it results in a pause, a cessation. original men.
Marriage should be a beginning. A girl Marriage for companionship is the only real

is educated for marriage. It is her ambi- marriage whose reason can continue to exist. tion, almost her destiny, certainly her thought. This alone would raise it above the others. And when she marries the thing is done. Her And not only does the motive continue to exist, destiny is accomplished. The result is domes- but it may even grow in intensity. Though ticity, which to a husband who is still her lover companionship has transient reactions, yet, is not at all what he married her for. This is when founded on esteem and practised in courwhy most marriages, where the man continues tesy, its course is onward, and it grows deeper to feel about the girl as he felt before, are a as it grows closer, becoming clearer as it bedisappointment. It is absolutely true that the comes placid. Companionship is beautiful bemost comfortable marriages are those in which cause it implies willing self-forgetfulness in each person takes the other as a matter of thought of another. It should mean openness, course. Is this sort of marriage a success ? and simplicity, and unboasting reliance on the It depends on a man's ideal of matrimony, and other's fidelity. Then it does not matter much fortunately most men are not burdened by in- if one is deceived, for the lesson has been dividual ideals.

learned. In companionship it is not what one Marriages may perhaps be divided into three gets that matters, it is what one gives. How varieties, — marriages for a pretty face, mar- fine a thing, then, is the companionship of a riages for money or position, and marriages for man and a woman, entered into voluntarily, with companionship.

mutual understanding and respect, - a companThe marriage for a pretty face is probably ionship not only of affections but of interests, the most common. We call it sentimentality, not only of the emotions but of the mind! It - a nice word for a sensuous thing. It is the makes marriage high and enduring. It is more shallowest of all motives. This marriage the than a fancy; it is more than a gain; it is an soonest loses its reason; not so much because honor. of the aging of the pretty face as because a man How few marriages are an honor»! Most tires of one pretty face, or even of all.

of them are a bore. The tragedy of marriage Marriage for money is not marriage; it is an is not so much when the love of both the man arrangement. It is repellant to a man of the and the woman eases off into indifference; that least idealization because it partakes of buying. is at least indifference. It is when the love of It is a civilized form of the slave market,-only one decays while the love of the other still here the slaves are willing. The immorality is lives, that love becomes a torment. The lover the same, but the slave of antiquity had the suffers a constant slight. The heart grows excuse of unwillingness. Some day men will weary. It longs bitterly not to love. . Cynicism realize that morality and custom are innately rusts it. It aches beneath the ashes of livedalien; to use an old simile, morality is the water out and long-dead passions. In the face of this and custom is the oil. Only individual and ori. indifference it stands in silence, pitiful, accuginal men can see that neither the universality mulating angers against its disappointment. of a custom or its antiquity is a reason for its The heart of its love grows rageful, and at last existence or a sign of its excellence. Men to it hates. But it still loves, and that is the whom this would seem a reason are surely not tragedy. capable of making good customs. Unfortu- A yet greater tragedy is the bitterness


of love defiled. This is a woe of the soul loves his wife; he is used to her. It is absolutely which is everlasting, because there can be no true. Woman's only chance of continued comre-raising of ideals. Of all bitternesses this is panionship is to grow with her husband. But the deepest. And the vile ridicule of it all is this requires a rare woman. that to the desecrated one there seems no dese- Lastly it may be well to mention, among cration. Then the heart grows solitary, and it the things that make a marriage unhappy, the laughs.

lack of control of temper. Two people living The fact of being loved deeply, honorably, in companionship, supposing each to have some and lastingly surely entails some duties. One individuality, will certainly differ, not only on owes something to a love like this even if one many subjects but in many ways. Yet friends does not share it. One owes a certain nobility may differ and not quarrel. Why could not of action toward the lover who has given one people who are married do so? Perhaps the such a love. All high, courteous natures will principal reasons are that — first — friends dread pay the debt, and they will pay it in a way that the breaking of friendship by a quarrel, while absolves them from any blame of not sharing married people feel that they are bound to the love, in a way that is the dearest to the one another. But this is unworthy. Highwho loves, in a way that is more valuable to minded people would not see it as an excuse. themselves than any other act could be. They The second reason is that friendship is largely will repay it by trying to be the thing their founded on mutual esteem, which is forgotten lover dreamed them. But there are so few in marriage, mutual passion taking its place. high, courteous natures!

The third reason is that married people usually The best thing in love is friendship, but few do not allow each other a separate character, married people are friends. They are not ene- while friends do. In marriage there should be mies; they are too used to one another to be so, conformity as much as possible in two things, – and it would be uncomfortable. But there is actions and standards. But the character of a vast fatigue of one another lying hid beneath each person should not conform. And many the customary affection which they have made married people demand this both consciously their surface. Interest in one another has and unconsciously. Their natures are at war. lessened. Why? It is usually because one or And there is one other sort of temper very the other has seemed to cease to grow, to common and very troublesome in marriage, change. Interest is soon satiated in one phase. the intermittent nature,— temper arising from When they marry, people adopt a certain char- uncontrolled moods, from exaggerated intenacter toward one another from which they sity of feelings about little things, or simply

And even when they do vary it from hysterical tendencies. There is only one is in their manner toward others, not toward remedy, and this remedy lies only with the paeach other. This soon wearies interest. Each tient. It is what men call philosophy, a thing feels that he or she knows the other, while alien to most people. And there is only one often only the surface is known.

relief for the victim,- for in this case the But, worse than this, one or the other often patient is not the victim,- and that is the conactually ceases to grow mentally. It is almost stant realization that such moods are intermitinvariably the woman, particularly if she has tent. In the presence of temper of this kind offspring. The reason is obvious. She be- self-control is always superior, as stability is comes a servant, and not only this, but a ser- superior to instability. And it is at the same vant to creatures who are not adults. So her time the most dignified thing, the kindest, the mental development stops. But the man goes least regrettable, and, if one desires revenge, on. He evolves into the care-taker. His wife the most revengeful, and it is sometimes even has become his housekeeper. This is a tragedy provocative of remorse — in thinking people. which few men realize. How can they feel Marriages are happy usually only between tragical about their housekeeper? And, do the very stupid and the very intelligent. But they still love? Love? What is there of the many are content, many are disagreeable, and girl of their choice - the girl they fell in love a few are tragic marriages. within this woman ? And even if she re- The truth of it all is that the best thing in mained the same — his wife and not his house- love is friendship-and few people are capable keeper — would he in his new growth find her of friendship!

R. V. RISLEY. sufficient? No. The average man no longer

seldom vary.





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HE true work of art,” says Michael An

gelo, “is but a shadow of the divine perfection.” «The art of an age or

nation, writes another, is the efflorescence of its whole spiritual life and endeavor.” The art of a people is therefore only the embodiment of its prevailing ideas, affections, and conceptions, in architecture, in sculpture, and on the glowing canvas. A nation's art is but a mirror reflecting the image of the features and body of the age, its finer spirit and its inner strivings and longings. Victor Hugo, in « Les Miserables," says, “There is a spectacle grander than the sea, - that is the sky; there is a spectacle grander than the sky,– that is the interior of the soul. It is because artists have sought to give us a view into the inner workings of the soul of which the poet sings, the preacher discourses, and upon which the philosopher meditates, because they have sought to give us a glimpse of the heights and depths of this inner sky, that art must go down the centuries interlocked, as it were, in the holy bonds of wedlock with religion. And where shall the artist find grander and more inspiring scenes, more tragic incidents, tenderer emotions, sublimer examples of patriotism and devotion for his pencil or chisel to portray, than in the religion of his fathers, in which are so strangely blended all the holier feelings of love, adoration, and romantic honor. Religion is the gauge of human progress and bears the same relation to art that cause does to effect in the philosophical world. As a river can never rise higher than its source, so a people can rise no higher than its objects of worship, be they what they will, - wood or stone, as those of the Congos of equatorial Africa, or the Triune God of the Jews, who was, who is, and who shall be. Go back to the remotest antiquity, where history fades into myth and legend; search among the ruins of decayed empires; examine the monumental remains of Asiatic civilization - and everywhere the truth stands out boldly that everything worthy of the name of art has sprung from religion. On the banks of the Nile rose the pyramids and catacombs, — vast receptacles for the dead. On these huge structures were exhausted the wealth, the skill, and the lives of countless generations. And for what? To give the dead a royal resting-place. The Egyptian believed in the transmigration of souls. He believed that his soul, and those of his wife and children, would at death enter

some animal, and then another, and so on forever. Therefore the Egyptian cared more for the dead than he did for the living. Hence the worship of animals, the embalming of the dead, and the vast and costly sepulchres.

So in the same manner we can trace the art of Greece to its religion. The religion of the Greeks was the deification of nature and the affection and faculties of man.

Their gods and goddesses who dwelt on Mount Olympus were only beautiful and powerful men and women, such as we might conceive our first parents were when in the Garden of Eden. The religion of the Greeks was essentially terrestrial in its nature. Its fundamental proposition, as manifested in its votaries, was pleasure, pleasure of the senses, of the imagination, and of the intellect. The future was nothing the present everything. Such, in short, was the religion of this precocious race. Its art we can easily imagine. Beauty of form and majesty of intellect will be its highest ideals. And such we find it to be. It could not be otherwise. Their gods and goddesses, who were removed only a few degrees in power and strength and beauty above mortals, became the ideal of all true and genuine artists, who found in them materials for immortality. To express the form divine and the rich intellectual endowments which the Greeks attributed to their deities, statuary was the most effective and the best adapted. Therefore we find that sculpture was the central art among the Hellenic race, around which all the others were wreathed as a garland. It was the religion of the Greeks that furnished their artists their sublimest conceptions and the style of dress best suited to exhibit the soul within the crystal shrine.

The same relation can be traced between modern art and Christianity as that which existed between Grecian art and Grecian mythology. The Christian religion is in its character essentially different from that of the Greeks. It is divine in its origin and in its aims. The present, compared with the future, is nothing. It is only a vale of tears, a day's journey, a cold and barren point between two eternities. In the divine economy of this new faith the physical man is nothing; the spiritual man is everything. It is only as he is related to infinity that he becomes a little lower than the angels and crowned with glory and honor. It is present at all times and everywhere. Sculpture being unable to express the infinite, the

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