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success. His venture entails upon him a good deal of money changed hands” is the steady and careful application of sound polite way of saying that a certain number business principles as well as a large of foolish people have handed over to an amount of mental and physical exertion. equal number of foolish but successful And he proposes to give value for what people sums of money which many of the money he takes in over the counter. The former could ill afford to part with, and limit he sets for himself, or that is set by some of which was not theirs to use. And the market, is a fair return for his outlay, they did so, not to possess anything subenough to yield a competence, not merely stantial in return, but simply because of a. the accumulation of wealth by any and mere difference of opinion as to which every means, chiefly chance. He has con- man or horse could travel a certain disstantly to study his constituency and its tance faster than another; or whether one needs, and to pay a fair market price to human brute could pound another into secure what it wants.

insensibility in a given number of rounds. Now contrast with this the methods of The assertion that horse-racing, for inthe speculator on “margins.” He makes stance, is indulged in to improve the his venture upon no certain previous know- breed of horses, is an absurd fallacy. If it ledge. He trusts to hazard. He does not were so, racing every day, hail, rain, or make adequate and continuous effort after shine, and every night by electric light, honest, decent profit. He sets no limit to is treatment best calculated to ruin any his winnings, and his capital is utterly decent horse. The statement that “the inadequate to his prospective gains. In only honest thing about a horse race is the his selfishness he cares little or nothing horse,” is much nearer the truth than is. whether others are ruined by his success. the case with many such bits of proverHe professes to buy what he never sees bial wisdom. Why do we see crowds of and neither could nor would use if he frenzied spectators rush upon the grounds. had it. His prosperity depends upon the at some athletic contest to protest against. activity of his fellow gamblers, and not some decision? It is not that they wish upon any law of legitimate supply and fair play; for their action prevents it. demand. He does not propose to give The real truth is that they are the people value for what he gets, and makes no con- who have money on the result, and are tribution to the needs of the community; determined not to lose it if they can preindeed he seeks to make his money out of vent it, no matter how. Betting requires. its necessities, and in proportion to them, ready money.

If it cannot be got by but without supplying it with any substan- honest means, many a sad case shows. tial return. His wealth is unproductive in that those who must have money to cover the sense that it is not used for any public up their losses will take what is not their good, or made to serve as capital for the own, intending to settle up some day. employment of labor or the manufacture But some day” seldom comes, and in the and distribution of its products. He seeks meantime the unfortunates become more to reap where he has not sown, and strives and more involved by further efforts to reto get something for nothing and to enrich trieve their fortunes, and disgrace, if not himself at the expense of the community. suicide, is often the only result of all their He gives countenance to the evil doctrine labor: poor profit, but vigorously dethat success is only to be measured by manded and inexorably paid. The gameffect, not effort; and is a staunch uphold- bler or the betting man, despite the false er of the vicious doctrine that the end praise of his nerve and skill, is a coward, justifies the means so long as the end is a failure, and an enemy to society. He is. gain. The speculator often makes large a coward, because he will not labor for: profits, but he usually does so at the ex- labor's rewards, but seeks to get what is pense of that inward feeling of satisfaction another's by false and unworthy means. which marks the man of character, and at He is a failure, because he unfits himself the expense, also, of the approval of con- for any honest occupation that calls for science, which is the voice of God within sustained effort. He is an enemy to the soul.

society, for he preys upon its weaknesses Betting is gambling on a small scale. It or necessities in order to furnish himself is the vice of the many, and unfortunately with what he is too lazy to seek to acquire invades most honest and lawful sports by honest toil. and pastimes. The statement that «a

FREDERIC B. HODGINS..

DETROIT.

THE WORLD AND ITS DOINGS:

EDITORIAL COMMENT

now

era

The War in

The uncompromising nation that would bar England's resort South Africa and defiant temper of the to the sword. Both of these expectaTransvaal government in its relation to tions have so far failed him, notably the Great Britain, which we dealt with in our latter, since not only has the English last issue, has since then sought and Cabinet been of one mind in resenting found definite though lamentable expres- the defiant ultimatum, but it has practision. By President Kruger's ultimatum cally united the British people in answerto the British government, under date of ing the challenge to war. That there October 9 last,- in itself a declaration of were dissensions in the English Cabinet war, - diplomacy gave place to hostilities or serious divergences of opinion even in and to the armed invasion by the Trans- Parliament we know were vain vaal and the Orange Free State of British imaginings, and what differences there possessions in South Africa. This rash were among the political parties were and precipitate action on the part of the patriotically silenced in presence of the Boer Executives of Pretoria and Bloem- threatened peril to the nation. These fontein sadly detracts from the great facts are a significant answer to the charge romance of the pathetic “trekking that England cherished sinister designs and qualifies one's sympathy for a people against the independence of the Transwho were fain to pose before the world as vaal or desired to enter upon an immoral a simple pastoral community cherishing, war of aggression. The falsity of this with boasted singleness of heart, its own charge may be gathered from the stirring aloofness. That the Boers are neither appeal of Lord Rosebery, the great Eng. peace-loving nor docile, we already knew lish Liberal, to the British nation, to from the history of their warrings with close the ranks” of faction in presence the natives of the country, as well as of Boer threats and “unite in rescuing our from their recent contumelious and obdu- fellow countrymen in the Transvaal from rate rejection of British pleadings and intolerable conditions of subjection and counsellings in the interests at once of injustice and so secure equal rights for justice and of peace. That they are posi- the white races of South Africa.” tively unreasoning and doggedly set in Nor has the Boer hope of intervention their ways we also now see; while their by foreign Powers been justified, if we perilous action in resorting to war with take as proofs the official attitude of the a mighty and resourceful nation, in defi- governments of this country and of Gerance of every dicta of prudence and many, and the utterances of the more moral right, shows them to be inexcusa- influential public men of those nations bly prejudiced and perversely blinded by and the organs of their press. Among passion.

the latter there is more or less difference Sympathetic, in great measure, as we of opinion, though in the great centres have been with the Boers, and desir- public feeling is on the whole favorable ing above all things that peace between to Britain, as may be seen in the utterthem and the Imperial Power in South ances of such influential journals as the Africa should not be broken, we felt New York «Tribune,» «Times,” Journal keenly the shock of Mr. Kruger's ulti- of Commerce,” «Commercial Advertiser." matum. Nor have we found it easy to « Journal,” «Press,” the Brooklyn "Eagle, account for his precipitate initiation of the Washington "Star” and “Times, the the strife, save on the hypothesis that he St. Louis Globe-Democrat, and the reckoned on European and possibly on Chicago Times-Herald. All of these American intervention, and most of all on journals take the British side of the conparty divisions in the British Cabinet and troversy and uphold what they esteem to

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be the cause of civilization and progress. ous movement on the part of the Boers Nor do they take this side only for the was, as we have said, directed against the reason that England stood by us and pre- north-eastern tongue of Natal, which vented European intervention in our war abuts upon the South African Republic. with Spain. Most of them recognize the Here the invading burghers were conintolerable misrule of the Boer govern- fronted by the British forces in the ment, from which Americans as well as neighborhood of Glencoe and Dundee, Englishmen have long suffered in the under Generals Symons and Yule, with a Transvaal, and the hopelessness of ob- reserve at Ladysmith under the chief taining relief by diplomacy or moral command of General Sir George White. suasion. Not a few of them affirm, what The Boers concentrated at Glencoe at is manifestly true, that only the compa- the outset were at first severely handled rative weakness of the Boer Republic has by the British troops, and later another kept England from applying coercion body of them suffered heavy losses in long ago; and much the same note is a desperate engagement at Elandslaagte. sounded by many of the leading German But their strategy as

well their newspapers, which scoff at Boer mediæ

courage not only saved them from rout, valism and, in the Kaiser's name, declare but enabled them to turn the tables for rigid neutrality while England is at terribly upon the English,-a portion

of whose cavalry was entrapped and Boer precipitation of hostilities came forced to surrender. The disaster took a like a thunder-clap upon England, unpre- more serious turn with the wounding pared as she was for war, and far from and subsequent death of General Symons, even expecting it as the outcome of the and the enforced retreat, in face of a situation in South Africa. This in itself greatly superior irruption of Boers, upon is proof that she harbored no thought of Ladysmith. Here misfortunes continued aggression in the Transvaal, though she to pursue the British, though so far they must have known that the Boers had for have maintained a gallant defence of their years been preparing for a conflict when new position against the persistent asready to trample upon British suzerainty. saults and clever tactics of the burghers. The ultimatum, sharp and offensive in its

attack ordered by Sir George declaration, was, on the other hand, a White, with the view partly to relieve the revelation of the extent and bitterness of situation and partly to draw the Boers Boer hostility toward the English, and into the open country, and so protect this was emphasized by the desire to British communications to the southward, take them unawares, and so snatch the portions of two English regiments and a prestige of early successes in hurling mounted battery, having lost their gun the combined Boer forces across the fron- equipment and ammunition supplies by a tiers upon British possessions. The chief mule stampede, were surrounded and attack of the Boer invading force, under compelled to surrender. General Joubert, was directed against As we go to press, the situation of the Natal; while smaller bodies of the Free English troops beleagured at Ladysmith State and Transvaal burghers marched is the cause of grave anxiety, since the upon the western towns of Kimberley place is believed by military critics to be and Mafeking in Cape Colony and Bechu- indefensible; while the Boers, who are analand. From both of these frontier brilliant fighters and skilled in strategy, towns the women and children were early largely outnumber the weakened though sent southward to Cape Town, and the not dispirited garrison. With the arrival towns have since been in a state of in the country of the new English siege.

army corps under Sir Redvers Buller, To meet the crisis that had arisen, an the commander-in-chief, relief must soon army corps was despatched to the Cape come to Ladysmith and the peril for the from England, from India, and from the present will be passed. Brief as the garrisons in the Mediterranean; while with struggle has so far been, it is obviously the summoning of the English Parlia- one of deadly earnest, and there has been ment the reserves were called out in on both sides grievous loss of life. The the United Kingdom, and contingents Boers have fought as brave men who were sent for service in South Africa have everything at stake, and though from England's colonies. The more seri- theirs is the crime of precipitating the war

In an

they have shown how grimly and stoutly while all must know that the present war they can wage it and yet do so with in South Africa is not of England's seekhumanity to the sick and wounded.

ing, but has been rudely thrust upon her. Later news relieves the situation much In the Dutch African Republics it may be for the British, who have begun to show no crime to resist British ascendancy, but greater respect for the splendid fighting needlessly to provoke war is surely not in qualities of the Boers and warinessin attack- accord with the Gospel message or with ing them, while demonstrating their own the humane spirit of the age. traditional skill and courage on the field. The invested towns are not only holding bravely out, but brilliant sorties have been Filipino Peace Whatever truth there may made from them in which frightful losses

Overtures be in the reported overwere inflicted on the burghers. These tures which Aguinaldo is said to have British successes, if they do not wipe out made to the American military authorithe memory of early disasters, do much to ties in Luzon, peace is not likely to be the avenge them. The treacherous use of the result, in the present mind and mood of white flag by the Boers we cannot bear to the McKinley Administration. The one accept without corroboration, since, if condition, we are told, on which General true, it would cast a dark and ineffaceable Otis will have anything to say to Aguinstain upon their humanity and bravery. aldo or anyone of the responsible Tagal

leaders is that he shall first make submis

sion for himself and the so-called “rebels » No European Happily for England there who have been driven to insurgency in

Intervention would seem to be no prob- defence of their hearths and homes in the ability of foreign intervention in the con- Philippines, and have consequently detest now going on in South Africa. Ger- . terminedly resisted American authority. many has positively pledged herself to That this attitude toward Aguinaldo and neutrality, with the understanding, it is the native army we have long been fightsaid, that she is to have a free hand in ing on the islands is official, may be readAsia Minor, where she is vigorously prose- ily gathered from the speeches of the cuting railway plans and has the good will President in his recent tour in the West, of the Turk. The French and Russian as well as from the tenor of the prelimiunderstanding, it is true, is a menace; but nary Report of the Philippine Commission, both France and Russia stand in awe of which has just been published. Evidently England's navy, a strong demonstration the only hope for peace, therefore, is of which we have just seen in the Mediter- either subjugation or voluntary submisranean, and neither of them is likely to sion to our rule, though the President has disturb the Triple Alliance, especially been telling us, in oft-repeated words, while the German and British Courts con- that the United States is conducting a tinue friendly and there are signs of an war only of liberation, and that our counAnglo-German agreement. Both Paris try's flag is the emphatic symbol of selfand St. Petersburg, we know, however, government! Whether imperialism or are but biding their time, for France has anti-imperialism is to prevail among usnot resigned herself to England's designs and the approaching session of Congress in Egypt; while Russian intrigue has al- will, it is to be hoped, settle that there is ways, as its objects, to seek an outlet from no doubt that the nation as a whole is now the Euxine into the Mediterranean and desirous of peace, and that, of course, control of the Persian Gulf.

with honor. How peace with honor is While nothing is more easy to generate best to be secured – whether by putting among the nations than war passions, the 60,000 men we now have in the Philipmutual jealousy, and not the restraining pines to the further work of annexation influences of the recent Peace Conference and conquest, with the attendant heavy at The Hague, prevents a general concert expenditure of blood and treasure, or by of the Continental Powers. Nor, were honestly retracing our steps and abandonthis otherwise, would there be much ing the attempt to subdue an alien people justification for an attack upon Eng- by trampling upon liberty and upon our land. No European Power, if perhaps traditional regard for human rights - we we exclude Holland, has any interest in must leave Congress to say.

Meanwhile, Boer affairs or motive for intervention; Presidential appeals to Duty taking hold

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branches of the United States service. His various manuals on military drill and on target practice and field duty made his

familiar among volunteers, and many organizations of the latter, and chiefly the Seventh Regiment of New York, found in him an ideal soldier and an interested friend and counsellor. At the Adjutant-General's Department, Washington, as well as in high military and official circles at the capital, General Henry was deservedly held in much esteem, and his sudden death has been greatly deplored.

Christmas

Vice-President As the present number Hobart's IUL

passes from our hands Vicene88

President Garret A. Hobart's illness continues to give great alarm to his friends and is the cause of deep regret throughout the nation. The statesman lies in a very critical condition at his New Jersey home in Paterson, the attendant physicians, it is reported, holding out no hope of recovery. The announcement is further made that, whether there is a recovery or not, Mr. Hobart will not retusn to Washington or continue to fill his high office as President of the Senate. Mr. Hobart's withdrawal from public life will doubtless occasion widespread regret, since he has won the esteem and good will of even his political opponents, and been a useful and worthy servant of the State, always actuated by scrupulously correct motives and a high sense of honor.

Death of General It is with unfeigned reGuy V. Henry

gret that we chronicle the death at New York on the 27th of October, after a short illness, of Brigadier-General Guy V. Henry. To the present generation the deceased officer is chiefly known for his participation in Cuba in the events of the war with Spain, and for his brief but admirable administration as GovernorGeneral of Porto Rico. His career as a soldier, however, dates back to the era of the Civil War, in which he served with distinction as an artillery officer and as colonel of the 40th Massachusetts infantry. During the Indian troubles in the 'seventies he saw hard service and did much brilliant and effective work. He was in command of a cavalry regiment which formed part of General Crook's force in the expedition against the Sioux of the Yellowstone country and the Big Horn. Twenty years later he acted as lieutenant-colonel of the Seventh and colonel of the Tenth Cavalry, and was afterwards gazetted a brigadier-general in the regular army and a major-general of volunteers. General Henry was very popular in both the regular and the volunteer

With the recurring close

of the year, and within a twelvemonth of the hastening end of a century, comes again the social and ecclesiastical festival of Christmas. As the world grows older and gets further away from the Divine event which the season commemorates, Christmas seems to lose much of its once cherished and hallowing associations. The age becomes more and more critical and sceptical, and with the advent of a so-called “scientific school of Biblical criticism religious faith suffers increasing loss and becomes impatient with revealed and even more impatient with dogmatic truth. With the materialism of the time there has also come an increasing indifference, which is perhaps working more havoc in the ranks of belief than was the case in an earlier era of aggressive doubt. And yet this is not the attitude of myriads of intellectual minds that feel the perplexities of the hour, but continue to bow before the unique character of the Founder of Christianity, and admit the sufficingness for every need of the world's great message. Nor is it the attitude of those, still the salt of the earth, who retain their reverence for sacred things, and, themselves feeling the benign influence of Christianity, recognize its power in the world for good. These are they who, impelled by the charity which the Gospel above all virtues commends, open their hearts and hands to the poor and needy at the sacred season of family reunions and home rejoicings. Nor in these days can it be said that there is little need for the ministrations of practical religion, when, if there is not actual want of bread, there are numberless sorrowing hearts to be comforted and an infinitude of yearnings for human sympathy.

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