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THE GERMAN UNIVERSITIES

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HE German universities are an intermedi. are the class from whom are chosen the higher ate type between the English and the professors. By their youth and ambition they French. They are not free corporations infuse life and energy into the whole body of

with the right of self-control, and with teachers. Realizing that everything depends teachers and students dwelling together in an upon themselves, they are constantly stimulated academic community, like the English univer- to their best efforts. Special and significant sities; nor are they separate schools combined success in some line of investigation is almost in a symmetrical and uniform system under sure to bring speedy advancement. The Gerstate control, and governed by a central author- man professors are first and foremost investiity, like the University of France. But in their gators, and their fame rests more upon their management there is a combination of state success in research than upon their ability as authority and academic independence. They teachers. Teaching plays a subordinate rôle were founded under the authority of the different with them. They do not aim at that, but seem German States and are maintained by funds to think that the dignity of their positions raises provided by these governments. In return the them above the arts of a schoolmaster. State exercises certain rights of control over The German university does not air to give them. The most of them were founded by general culture, but seeks to furnish special sovereigns, who, in the paternal order of gov- preparation in a narrow field of learning. Its ernment, felt the obligation resting upon them, students have had their general training in the as fathers of their people, of providing for the secondary schools. The mediæval character of intellectual needs of their subjects. Many of instruction, when famous scholars like Abélard them owe their existence to the feeling of riv- gathered their pupils about them, is retained alry and separation which was formerly so here to a considerable extent. The students keenly felt and zealously fostered by the vari- study under particular professors as disciples ous States now forming the German Empire. around the master. They form groups accordThe largest States founded institutions in which ing to their special lines of work rather than a their young men could receive the highest cul- general body of students. ture and at the same time be nurtured in pa- The two characteristics par excellence of triotism and in the religion of the particular the German universities are the Lehrfreiheit, State. This feeling of separation has now for- freedom of the instructor, and Lernfreiheit, tunately yielded to one of equality. All the freedom of the student. The Germans are universities have equal rank as parts of the justly proud of these qualities of their univergeneral system of education. The State patron- sities and lay great stress upon them, because age is a great advantage in giving them pres- they have been gained by a long struggle. The tige and relieving them from financial burdens. Lehrfreiheit guarantees to the professor absoBeyond compliance with certain statutes of lute freedom in carrying on his work. He may control they are left in practical independence. choose any subject in his department for his

The professors are of three grades, or- course of instruction, may treat it in any way he dentlicher professor, ausserordentlicher, and chooses, and divide it into any number of lecprivat-docent. The title does not indicate the tures, - in short the whole matter is left to his grade of work done by the instructors. Those discretion. His position is permanent, which of the lowest grade may have courses as ad- makes it attractive, even though the salary is vanced as those of the professors. All of them small. There is sufficient safeguard against an enter upon a career of teaching as a life-work. abuse of this freedom in the fact that the proThey have had a most thorough course of fessor's salary is largely dependent on the training and have distinguished attainments. tuition from his hearers. He has a certain perThe permission to teach rests upon certain rigid centage of the tuition and is therefore anxious requirements, and men of moderate ability are to make his lectures attractive. A professor at refused or discouraged from entering a pro- Halle expresses his opinion in a recent article fession requiring the very best talents. As a that 4,000 marks ($1,000) a year would be an rule the privat-docent receives no salary, so that average estimate of the professor's share of the such a position has no attraction as a stepping- tuition in any fairly popular department, alstone or for temporary employment. The fame though oftentimes it amounts to much more, and success of the docents depend on their own even to 60,000 marks in the case of two or three efforts and they are put on their mettle. They very popular professors at Berlin. In any case the professor cannot afford to disregard the dents. They treat one another with the stiffness drawing power of his courses.

and dignity of diplomats, to use the expression On the other hand the students are under so of a German professor. A stately bow accomlittle restriction that it amounts to practical in- panied by the lifting of the hat is the greeting dependence so long as they commit no flagrant to an acquaintance, and a short promenade in abuses. They may choose any course of lec- the corridors, or sober conversation during the tures, as many or as few as they wish, and are intervals between the lectures, is the recreunder no compulsion to attend them, to take ation. notes, or to read a single page in any book. They The absence of stately buildings and spacious have absolute freedom in the choice of rooms grounds is a marked feature. A large univerand in their manner of life. The university sity with complete faculties may begin its work authorities exercise no watch-care over these with hardly a building to call its own. The matters. This is the elective system carried to buildings at Strassburg and the new Augusteum its greatest extreme. The theory is that the and adjacent halls of the University of Leipsic student, being left to himself, will develop self- are among the most beautiful in the world, but dependence and strength of character. The boy usually the university buildings are old and is risked in order that he may become more of a plain. One looks in vain for a view like that man. The theory of individual freedom prevails of the «Yard » at Harvard. The air of in all the matters of academic life. For this rea- seclusion and quiet is entirely absent, for the son the students room alone. «Chumming) university stands on the street, perhaps in the would not be thought of, as one's personal free- midst of the stirring city life. One large builddom would be restricted by the presence of a ing is sufficient for most of the work of instrucroom-mate. The room may be bare and small, tion. As the lectures are distributed throughout but it is the student's castle in which he is su- the day from eight o'clock in the morning to preme, and that is worth more than better nine at night, a small number of halls suffice quarters with two to share them. One of the for the greater part of them. There will striking characteristics of German student life probably be other buildings for the library and to an American is the entire absence of an accessory institutions, but no dormitories, esprit de corps. There are no classes, no chapel laboratories, law schools, divinity halls, chapels, exercises, no commencements, no athletics, no or gymnasia. The universities pay no regard general meetings of all the student body. Con- to the spiritual, social, and physical needs of sequently there is no feeling of fellowship among their students, but they are well equipped to the students. They all exist as individuals, supply all the demands of the intellectual napursuing each his own course in his own way. ture. The libraries occupy a prominent place If he wishes to study, here are libraries and in this regard. They contain hundreds of thouevery facility at hand. He may study as many sands of volumes. The work of many a monk, hours as he wishes and live on black bread and the precious manuscripts of the mediæval moncoffee, if so inclined, and nobody knows or asteries, the poems of the ancient bards and

The conduct and manners of the Ger- minnesingers, as well as the most recent proman students are characterized by a dignity ducts of the printing-press, are contained in and stateliness that verge on the ridiculous. these libraries, which are veritable treasureThere is nothing of the mirthful, rollicking houses of learning. good-nature of our college boys, and little of

WILLIS ARDEN CHAMBERLAIN. the good-fellowship common among our stu- GRANVILLE, O.

cares.

COLLEGE PROFESSORS, OLD AND NEW*

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NE result was sometimes attained in the took on the shape and coloring of his mind.

old college which is less easily secured The result of this contact of a master with the in the great university of the present whole membership of a small college is gen

day, a result due, not to any superiority erally considered an indisputable advantage. in organization, but to the limited number of But it is perhaps open to dispute whether it is students then in attendance. It was the power- better for a whole body of students to be thus ful impression of a great teacher on the minds dominated by the doctrines of any one man, and characters of the great mass of students. however eminent, than to have the more cathWhen Eliphalet Nott, or Mark Hopkins, or olic discipline which flows from contact with Francis Wayland had a class of only thirty or excellent teachers of various attainments and forty students in daily contact with him, the temperaments. The great scholars of Germany stamp of the teacher was ineffaceably set upon habitually follow the practice of going from one almost every student, so that the whole college university to another, to sit at the feet of more

* From an address delivered by President James B. Angell, of the University of Michigan, before the TwentyNinth Convocation of Chicago University, July 1, 1899.

great masters than one. And just now the first scholars in this country are laying plans to facilitate the migration of our graduate students from one university to another, in order that they may touch the best teachers in more than one.

While the old college was made illustrious by some such famous teachers as those I have named, it is to be observed that the university of our time demands, as a rule, much larger attainments in its professors than were formerly asked. Fifty years ago many professorial chairs were filled by men who had not made much special study of the branch or branches which they were appointed to teach. I say branches, because in many cases, in scientific teaching generally, a man was expected to teach two or three, or even more, branches. Not infrequently a preacher, who had become weary of writing sermons, or whose parish had become weary of hearing his sermons, was appointed to a chair, because it was hoped he could teach respectably, while he could commend the college to the public by supplying pulpits of the

vicinity from time to time. Having this means of earning something on Sundays, he could af. ford to accept a moderate salary for his college work. One such gentleman applied for a chair in a college with whose faculty I was connected, and when asked what chair he thought he was fitted to fill, replied that he thought he could slide into almost any one of them.

But teaching in a college or university of the first rank has happily become a profession, for which long and careful preparation is now exacted. A man who has failed in another calling can no longer expect to slide » into a professorial chair. True, not all the learning which can be acquired in the best American and European universities will make a successful professor of the man who has not in him the divine gift of teaching. But even the possessor of this divine gift must bring to his work now a generous outfit of learning in his chosen branch. And the leading colleges and universities in our country may now well be proud of the brilliant generation of scholars who fill most of their important chairs of instruction.

ANOTHER WORD ON COLLEGE EDUCATION - WHAT IT REALLY IS

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He writer of A Word on College Educa- quirement of knowing two other «living lan

tion » in the August number of Self guages,” which the critic also suggests as an inCulture has well stated the funda- novation. At Columnbia he must have the two

mental principles of modern college edu- «living languages and English; he must have cation as it actually exists. All that he is history and a science course in his Freshman clamoring for has already been done, and the or Sophomore year; he must have «Political thing for his great spirit of irreverence » to Economy(a good live course in it too, rundo now would therefore be to clamor against ning from the science and history of governit-either for a return to more of the old-fash- ment to the management of millions ») in his ioned Greek culture (as Professor Harry Thurs- Sophomore or Junior year; and he may go on ton Peck did in the «Cosmopolitan » about two with these things all he pleases in the last two years ago) or for some new reform.

His years. This is fairly representative of other (Horace, Livy, and Greek” represent no col- college courses. And as for the still more lege of to-day. In the course at Harvard Col- “practical demands: every college of any lege, for instance, not a word of Latin, Greek, importance now has its (scientific school » or or Mathematics is required; in Columbia no institute of technology) set down beside it, Greek, under certain conditions no Mathemat- to teach, literally, railroad-building, bridgeics, and after Freshman year no Latin, are re- building, electrical engineering, all sorts of quired. Cornell, Yale, Princeton, and the rest, building and engineering, mining (one of the are rapidly granting the same freedom, or have chief subjects at Columbia), etc.; and often, as already done so. I know of no college where at Harvard, these subjects are freely interany one of these subjects is required after the

changeable with the usual college » work for Sophomore year.

college degrees; at Columbia they may occupy Now as to what the writer calls for in place the whole Senior year, etc. Really, the plea of this imaginary mediævalism, -«the philos- should be, if anything, for the old-fashioned ophy of history; the simple scientific reasons of (mediæval» studies,- at least we should give things; governments and how they are formed

those who want the good old classical culture and how they work.” A man at Harvard may a chance to get it, for it is a real and good be studying all these in his Freshman year,- thing in its place, and is no longer usurping and, if he pleases, nothing else for all four years, too large a share of the curriculum. except English, provided he has fulfilled the re

C. H. PAGE.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.

THE SHEEP-EATING PARROT *

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HE kea, the large and beautiful mountain

parrot of New Zealand, proved so de-
structive to sheep that special measures

were taken to destroy it, there being a standing offer of one shilling per head for its destruction.

These birds had developed (as is mentioned below) a carnivorous habit of attacking sheep - generally the weaker members of the flock. Having overcome and worried the animal by force of numbers, the keas would proceed to eat their way into the intestinal cavity, generally directing their principal energies toward securing the kidneys and the fat surrounding them.

On the Tasman Glacier they are fairly numerous. Atan altitude of about 4,000 feet, keas may be seen soaring like eagles far overhead, uttering their cry, Kiiaa! Kiiaa!) A party camping on the glacier describes the birds as becoming anxious to inspect them closely, finally gathering close about the hut.

« At length they began to drop down, some upon the slopes of the mountains, others on the moraine, on the ice of the glacier itself, or among the shrubs in the narrow intervening valley. All the while they seemed to be talking in their strange tongue to each other, from point to point, and gradually closing upon us. Their language became more animated, they mewed like cats, howled like dogs, chattered like monkeys, and made many various sounds, the favorite being a yelping like that of a pleased puppy.

" We did our best to imitate these sounds, and had no difficulty in getting individual keas to answer us. evening approached, their desire for a nearer acquaintance increased. The notion of fear never at any time seemed to enter into the question. They approached

slowly, hopping, flying, and walking, not with caution, but rather with circumspection, as if everything on the road had to be examined. On the high flat, just opposite the house, they were very busy. Here they found meattins, old rags, bottles, and other camp refuse ; these were examined with the greatest care. A sardine-tin would occupy a bird for half an hour; it had to be turned over and over and thrown first one way and then another, then up in the air. A glass bottle-head was tossed about, apparently because it made a ringing sound; the same bird tossed it up in the air dozens of times. Some of the newer tins contained bits of meat, and these had to be carefully examined, but I could not see that they ate either this or the good meat and bread given them. Pieces of wood of considerable size were bitten into small fragments, apparently in search of grubs, but possibly only as pastime; the operation showed the great strength of their long, hard beaks.

« All the while they were whistling and chattering in their own fashion. We counted sixteen in all, and this lot, with occasional changes, hung about for the four days we spent there. Gradually they closed up to the hut.

As we sat at meals inside they came to the open door, and in turns looked in. They did not enter, as they sometimes do, but stood in the doorway. Then our fire, which was made in a large nail-can, with a draughthole, attracted much attention. The fire was carefully examined through the draught-hole. Then one bird, overcome with curiosity, put his beak in the hole and got it burned. He hopped away with an air of indignation, but this did not prevent two or three others from making the same mistake. It was very interesting to stand among the stones at dusk, and turn from bird to bird as they walked up to us to see what was going on, sometimes hopping and sometimes flying from one boulder to another. One of the party held out a letter in his hand to a bird on a boulder; the kea nibbled the other end of it. This intense curiosity is enough to account for the kea learning to eat sheep; the old rags and sucks near the camp were riddled with holes torn by them. No doubt they have explored dead sheep in the same way, and, liking the meat, have thus learned the trick of eating their way into live ones."

As

THE CARE OF GOLD-FISH

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| EW people are aware that the secret of Should the fish become affected with the keeping gold-fish in health is the main- fungus growth mentioned, they may sometimes tenance of an even balance between ani- be saved by a careful brushing with a camel's

mal and vegetable life in the aquarium. hair brush, and restoration of the balance of Plain water alone will soon develop a fungus life in the tank as speedily as possible. which attacks the fishes' gills and skin and Fish are very often injured by excessive causes death. Some water-weed, like the feeding. More food is thrown into the tank Vallisneria, should be planted in the tank, but than they can dispose of, and it speedily sours it must not be allowed to spread too rapidly. If and taints the water. The best food is inthis is permitted, the glass will take on coat sects, worms, and fresh-water crustacea, as of green slime, showing that vegetable matter caddis worms, with small quantities of breadis in excess.

crumb or small dough-balls. Bran is someAbout the best method of keeping this bal- times given, but all forms of bread or grain ance is to introduce into the tank some water- must be fed sparingly in order to avoid the snails, which will keep the glass clean, and, in souring mentioned above. proportion to their numbers, will keep the

ELFORD E. TREFFRY. balance even.

AKRON, O.

* Condensed from «The Leisure Hour.”

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Come and Rest Awhile.

N ONE of the busy thoroughfares of on one side, in further explanation, these

London there has been raised, words:
through private generosity, a

« Passengers Through the Busy Streets of London, chapel that when finished is to be open all Enter this Sanctuary for Rest, and Silence, and Prayer, day for rest, meditation, and prayer.

The Let the Pictured Walls within Speak of the Past

Yet ever Continuing Ways of God with Man.” weary and troubled are ever to see its doors open, are ever to read its yearning, On the other, these : pleading invitation, and when they enter

« Is it Nothing to You, All Ye that Pass by ? are to find there the holy silence, the high thcught, the strength of faith, and Commune with Your Own Hearts, and Be Still,

Jesus Christ, the Same Yesterday, To-day, and For Ever.» the divinely tender pity that shall ease them of their burdens. It is not designed The lunettes at the side entrances also that there shall be service or sermon in have an interpreting verse of Scripture. the chapel. The beauty of the paintings This Chapel of the Ascension, as it is is to offer the inspiration and the comfort. called, stands on Bayswater Road, as the Art is to speak to the soul with no human approaching realization of the hope and voice. Over the left door there is painted, dream of a wealthy London woman who in a small lunette on the outside wall, th ha not lived to see the fulfilment of her returning prodigal; over the right, the plan. Mrs. Emilia Russell Gurney, after father seeing him afar off and eager to many discouragements in failure to secure seal the penitent's pardon with a kiss. desired sites, and in the doubt and disapThe scenes are emblematic of the purpose proval of friends whose advice she valued, of the chapel. The central doorway has persevered, and finally, in the latter part Copyrighted, 1899. by THE WERNER COMPANY. All rights reserved.

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