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it could be accomplished at all. Nor has One of the century's most gratifying this advertising benefited the seller only. achievements in business is the universal It has brought to the knowledge of the realization on all hands that, regarded buyer the hundreds of improvements and merely as a matter of policy, honesty articles by which life can be made more pays best in the end. The recognition of pleasant; by which the health can be pre- this fact has made merchants chary of served, the palate gratified, the intellect selling to customers articles which they fed and satisfied. It is no exaggeration cannot recommend, or of putting forth to say that no force has conduced more claims which cannot be substantiated. As to knit the world closely together, nor a result the general exaggeration which made our mutual interdependence more prevailed in trade announcements in the apparent. “It is but the simple truth to early part of the century has almost enassert,” says a recent writer, «that the tirely disappeared, while methods which loss of the information which the adver- tended to deceive and rob the customer tisements furnish would be one of the have fallen into deserved desuetude. greatest imaginable misfortunes to civil- Among other things, the practice in reization.”

tail circles of having no definite price for A phase of trade that has differentiated an article, but depending on the clerk to the century from others is the tendency get as much for it as possible, giving him to combine forces, everywhere apparent as a reward one half of all he secured in the business world. This tendency is above a certain sum, appears to have been due to the increasing magnitude of com- entirely eliminated. The best mercantile mercial transactions requiring a large out- ethics to-day provide for plain pricemarks. lay of capital. Corporations, syndicates, This is largely due to the influence of the and trusts are the result. That the num- department store, which was the first estabber of these will greatly increase in the lishment to base its claim for patronage future admits of little doubt. Without upon a comparison of values offered for them business as to-day conducted could specified amounts. not exist. This tendency to centralization Perhaps the most peculiar achievement has produced our great department stores, of business in the present century is that our great mills and factories, and other it has succeeded in outliving the stigma commercial enterprises. That there are which in former ages attached to commergreat evils connected with it no rational cial pursuits. To-day it is not at all infremind doubts; but at the same time it quent to find sons of wealthy and refined must be acknowledged that it is one of parents entering mercantile life. Business the crowning achievements in the world has been broadened so much within recent of business of the hundred years drawing years, that to succeed in it requires as to a close. To confine it within proper great if not greater mental capacities than limits, so that the entire extinction of the are called into requisition in the professions. small merchant may be averted, will be To manage an establishment employing the task of the twentieth century.

thousands of people; to correctly gauge One of the latest developments in the public wants and supply them at a profit; commercial world is the realization among to seek, discover, and develop new marbusiness men that south of us, in Latin kets,- all involve qualities of foresight America, we have a field for trade devel- and execution that the commander of an opment that has long been overlooked in army or the executive of a nation would spite of its promise. Those who have cul- find extremely useful. The recognition tivated this field have naturally made no of this fact has done much to lift mercaneffort to give others an inkling of its pos- tile life to the high estimation which it at sibilities; and thus it is that only at the present enjoys, and as commerce knits the end of the nineteenth century are the world more closely together business purAmericas about to enter into a close and suits will become of greater and greater profitable business alliance. The Spanish- importance, calling into service the highAmerican war has done much to draw at- est abilities of the best of our young men. tention to the commercial possibilities so Only the broadening of opinion regarding long allowed to lie dormant. The fact commercial life which is so distinctive an that Cuba and Porto Rico will be prac- achievement of the present century makes tically under United States control will do this a possibility. much to develop trade in tropical regions.

OSCAR HERZBERG.

NEW YORK.

EDITORIAL COMMENT

The Dreyfus As we go to press news port their trumpery affirmations and

Court-Martial has been received of the gratify their class and racial hatred. close of the Dreyfus trial and of the de- To those familiar with the legal methods cision of the judges. The verdict is of English and American courts it will be guilty, though the court admits extenu- difficult for a moment to suppose that the ating circumstances, but sentences Drey- mass of irrelevant facts, hearsay statefus to ten years' imprisonment. The ments, and arbitrary deductions retailed nadir of injustice and wrong has in this day by day by partisan witnesses for the case been reached: infamy could hardly prosecution could in any degree have have descended to greater depths. That made for the guilt of the accused or the sentence will be acquiesced in by have had any weight with the court as France we can hardly believe, unless she evidence. What shreds of fact came is willing to see civil right put under the to light in the trial, in the evidence of heel of an odious military oligarchy, jus- the strutting generals and other adverse tice dethroned and dishonored, and tyranny witnesses,

so far

as they implicated of the most contemptible and menacing Dreyfus, were, under the examination of kind smugly triumph.

his able counsel, M. Labori, torn in pieces For six weeks the re-trial dragged its as worthless testimony. Among this slow length at Rennes, to the humiliation hash of so-called evidence, the, untrustof the French army chiefs and the dis- worthy character of which was revealed credit of French justice. Nothing through- by the interrogating counsel, were the out the entire investigation seriously boasted revelations of the bitterly preconnected Dreyfus with the crime with judiced Mercier and his fellow-generals which he was charged; and though there and the maunderings of the handwritwas a surfeit of testimony for the prose- ing expert, Bertillon. On the other cution, and an infinitude of asseverations nd the testimony was direct and on the part of the army generals, not an weighty of credible witnesses for the iota of it was of any incriminatory value, accused, who fearlessly asserted the inbut much, on the contrary, that made for nocence of the army chiefs' victim, and Dreyfus's innocence. The six weeks' gave proof that not Dreyfus, but Esterproceedings at Rennes before Colonel hazy, was the culpable party. The aniJouaust, though devoid of anything like mus of the court in curtailing this exculreal evidence, were set round with that patory testimony and in interfering with rigid regard for the buckram proprieties counsel when interrogating witnesses for characteristic of a French court-martial, the prosecution, immensely increased the with its slavish deference to high military difficulties of an effective defence. The rank, however great may be its antics spirit of hostility toward the accused and idiotic its retailing of tattle put also signally manifested in the soberly forward as material for convic- diabolical act — whether suggested by tion. It was upon this tattle—the retailing military malevolence or race fanaticism of which by a pack of old women generals it would be hard to say - which at one Colonel Jouaust never restrained—that the time threatened to deprive Dreyfus of the court dragged out its proceedings and services of his counsel. The shooting of heaped up a case of the flimsiest character Labori happily, however, miscarried, and against Dreyfus. The animus against the dastardly act only recoiled on those the prisoner, even on the part of the pre- who, if they were not vile enough to insiding officer, shows the extent of the con- stigate it, at least hoped to profit by it. spiracy against him, as well as the The army system of France was, with obsequiousness, even of justice, to mili- Dreyfus, on its trial; yet despite the lack tary figureheads and the set purpose of of incriminating evidence of any real or the army chiefs, at whatever cost, to sup- substantial character, the conspiracy went

was

so far and so fatally committed itself, that people, and his primitive community are the court could hardly have been expected threatened with submersion under the to set the accused at liberty, as to do fast oncoming waves of alien immigration. so would have covered the army generals In these practical modern times it may and some ministers of State with confu- not be ideal statesmanship to haggle over sion. The appeal of the prisoner's counsel concessions and trifle with ultimatums, to Emperor William of Germany and King particularly when put forward by a Power Humbert of Italy to permit their mili- that means business and, in its regard for tary attachés who were in Paris in 1894 the weal and material interests of its subto testify before the Rennes court-martial jects, is not to be trifled with or put off by was futile, as for State reasons they could the devices of paltering or of ill-concealed not appear, and as, under the circum- cunning. But allowance should be made stances, the court could not have admitted - and on England's part we believe it has or suffered itself to be influenced by testi- been made — for the hard and even pamony from such a quarter. The import- thetic lot of the Boers, driven by the force ance of their depositions, had they been of circumstances to repeated «treks” to permitted to appear, would no doubt have get out of the way of the on-treading Outbeen vital to the accused, as the attachés lander, and, now that the last possible are understood not to have known Drey- trek has been made, fain to make a firm fus or to have received from him any stand for independence and the right treasonable documents. Thus the ac- maintain their own racial integrity and cused, with his counsel, had to be content even aloofness. It is to the pressure of with what defence - sadly handicapped their unfortunate situation that they have as it was — it had so far been possible to hitherto withheld from the Outlander the make. How poor comparatively was the rights and liberties of citizenship, while effect of this defence when set against the still resisting, despite the menace of war, lies, villanies, forgeries, perjuries, and concessions in regard to the franchise the devilish machinations of the army which, they conclude, imperils their indechiefs, brutally bent on torturing and pendence. If the Boers feel aggrieved eternally defaming a cruelly injured and and show it, in their obduracy and stubinnocent man- to save their own hypo- born attitude, and in their anti-British critical face and the tarnished honor of hostility and sullenness, much — if not France - every dispassionate and right- all — may be forgiven them. thinking man who has followed the case But the picture has another and less exwell knows. Dreyfus has again been con- culpatory side. It is the view practically demned, but in the opinion of any sane put forward by the Outlanders, who, as man out of France has he been convicted? the toilers for their Dutch taskmasters

and the enrichers of the once bankrupt Britain and the The relations between Republic, have a right also to have their Transvaal

England and the Trans- case stated and to make their voice heard. vaal continue strained, and war would It is the view that takes us back historicseem, after all, to be more than a proba- ally to the troubles of 1881-84, when Engbility. Late accounts, it is true, indi- land interposed against the Zulu foes of cate that the Boers are willing to meet the oppressing Republic and saved it from English representatives in conference at bankruptcy and overthrow. The condiCape Town; but this, it is feared, is only tions on which England then withdrew to gain time for continued war prepara- from the occupation of the country and tions in the South African Republic, and gave the Boers their autonomy were that to prolong a controversy in which neither equal rights should be granted to white side means to give way, or can really men of all nationalities- a pledge which do so with due regard to the antagonis- the Boers distinctly granted but have tic interests involved. With his wonted practically and persistently failed to fuldirectness and perhaps excusable im- fil. This it is that gives Britain the moral patience, Mr. Chamberlain charges Presi- as well as the legal right now to interdent Kruger with shuffling; but the pa- vene, added to the right which she also triarchal head of the Boer Republic can undoubtedly has as suzerain and the parhardly be blamed for fighting stubbornly amount Power. A sinister aspect is at for his own hand, especially when the the same time given to Boer injustice odds are heavily against him and his toward the Outlanders and the withholdhour,

The Kaiser

ing from them of their rights as freemen, British Cabinet. This action has been by the grievous taxation to which the taken in consequence of the continued English-speaking peoples in the Transvaal obduracy of President Kruger and his are subjected, and the iniquity of the advisers at Pretoria, and especially in dynamite impost,-a monopoly in Dutch consequence of Boer unwillingness to hands which, it is affirmed, President admit imperial suzerainty or to confer Kruger and his misgoverning oligarchy with England as to the franchise and use as a personal enriching fund and the other concessions to the Outlanders save secret means of putting the screw upon on the status of an independent, selfthe unfortunate aliens who have made governing State. This is precisely what and who sustain the grasping Republic. England will not, and cannot with national It is these and like facts, which are only self-respect, agree to, and hence the further too well known to the British authorities, gravity of the situation. A loophole for - not to speak of the hardships and in- further parley has, as we write, been justice which the Outlanders have long opened by the cabled intelligence that borne,- that have brought the Transvaal the position taken by the Boers has been to the present crisis in its affairs; and not misinterpreted, and that the Transvaal cupidity on the part of the English gov- government still desires to avoid a conernment, which has carried forbearance flict and will accept a joint inquiry. The and moderation to the extreme in its dip- latter refers to a proposed conference delomatic dealings with the Boers, and is signed to satisfy England as to the bona unquestionably loth to take up the sword. fides of the concessions which the TransBut English forbearance is not to be vaal agreed to make to the Outlanders; construed as weakness; and President and on this the matter now rests, with Kruger should be careful to recognize the prospect, happily even at the twelfth this and not indulge his stubborn humor of peace. too long.

British interests in South Africa, as we A Setback for To the indefatigable energy have previously remarked, are now too im

and patriotic ardor of the portant, as well as too vast, to brook longer Kaiser Germany owes much of that comdelay in the settling of this matter. Boer mercial, industrial, and maritime develprocrastination, moreover, only intensifies opment which in recent years has in her the war feeling in England and in the case been so phenomenal. Whatever region of the trouble, and increases race may be thought of William II's personal antipathies, which, if exasperated too idiosyncracies and his semi-feudal ideas much, only bloodshed will quell. The of governing, there can be no question situation in South Africa bears some re- that he possesses many of the charactersemblance to the state of affairs on this istics of a great modern ruler, ardently Continent during the Seven Years' War, desirous to promote his country's wellpopularly known among us as the French being, and keenly alive to all that as a and Indian war. The question then was, nation makes for her power and influence. Shall dominion in the New World be exer- Restless the Emperor may be, but he is cised by the French or by the Anglo- active as well as alert for his own and his Saxon race?—in other words, Shall the country's benefit; and especially is he lilies or the rose prevail ? In like man- eager to place Germany and the German ner, though in a smaller issue, is the name high on the roll of modern nations. question asked in South Africa whether Nor is his the eagerness of fuss without a the dominant Power is to be British or motive and of activity which lacks either Dutch? What the answer will be, no one ability or power. Masterful as he is, and can doubt; meanwhile the Boers have bound to assert himself as a real rather their day of grace, and they will be wise than a fainéant king, he is, however, somenot to precipitate the inevitable, or, as a times reminded that he governs not people, make their lot harder than it is. wholly by divine right, but by the grace

As we go to press the trouble has reached and humor of his people. The other day a still more acute stage, the tokens of which His Majesty had a rather brusque reare the dispatch of large bodies of British minder of this when the Prussian Diet troops and a new military commander to rejected a measure, vital to the country's the Cape, the exodus of the English from commercial interests, and on which he the Transvaal, and the summoning of the had warmly set his heart. This was the

now

Yacht Race

projected canal to unite the waters of the to strengthen the personal influence of two chief German rivers — the Rhine and the Kaiser, and for this reason may withthe Elbe. For a generation past the hold support to the measure. The Em„scheme had been repeatedly talked of, but peror, however, is not easily to be balked, nothing practical had come of it until it and, in spite of the political parties, he is was taken up by the Emperor, actuated, likely in this matter, as in much else on no doubt, by the success of that other which he sets his heart, to have in the project which had long languished, but long run his own way. was

an accomplished fact - the water-connection between the Rhine and The International The fascination of yachtthe Ems.

ing is, in the main, not As a preliminary to the carrying out known to the landsman, nor are the deof the new and larger undertaking, a bill lights of sailing to be easily told in print. authorizing the construction of the canal The pleasures and exhilaration of the was introduced in the Prussian Chamber pastime are matters mostly of personal and received the hearty support of both experience. « To feel the heaving deck the Emperor and his ministers. Unfor- beneath your feet, to watch the swirling tunately, however, the Diet did not regard eddies curling away astern; to look aloft the matter with William's broad vision; at the swelling sails and know that you indeed, it looked at the project from a have made the winds your servants, narrow and local standpoint, seeing only dangerous though they be and apt at the personal view of it and the great times to overcome their master; to battle burden it would entail upon the section of with and defeat the seething seas, dependthe community which, it was claimed, ing often for your safety on the soundness would have least practical interest in car- of a timber or a strand of rope; and again rying it through. In taking this provin- to float lazily for days and perchance cial rather than a national view of the weeks, sailing always toward the dim, enterprise the Diet seems to have made a distant line dividing the sky and sea,serious mistake, for the canal, it is as- these are the joys that the landsman may serted, is a necessity, and, were it built, not know.” The picture we have here would be certain to benefit the country culled and set before the reader may be a sectionally and as a whole. It would, for trifle highly colored, but the pleasures of instance, enable the iron and coal of yachting are real and genuine — to those Westphalia and Rhenish Prussia to be especially who have been brought up by cheaply transported to the eastern half of the sea; while the physical tonic and the kingdom, while the agricultural pro- moral effect of the sport are not the least duce of the east would be as cheaply sent of its many and enduring attractions. It in return to the western half. Whatever is the misfortune of yachting, as it is of all influences were at work, the scheme was our amusements in these feverish, money. indifferently regarded by the Chamber, lusting days, that it has become in large and, after several ominous indications of measure a sport rather than a pastime, hostility, the measure was at length over- and that a great yacht race is now mainly whelmingly defeated. The rejection of a great betting affair and the lure chiefly the bill has been a severe blow to the of gamblers. This is true especially of Emperor, and is likely materially to alter international yacht races; though there his relations with his conservative min- are many, no doubt, who take interest in istry. What hope may be expected for these noble contests from real love of the defeated measure from a reconstruc- the sport rather than from love of lucre. tion of the Cabinet, or from some alliance Thanks to Sir Thomas Lipton, we are (distasteful as it must be to the Emperor) once more on the eve of witnessing in with the Liberals, it is as yet impossible to

American waters another great yacht-sailsay. The latter are known to be favor- ing contest, this time between the Columable to the canal, and in this respect are bia and the Shamrock, A double interest opposed to the Agrarian party in the centres this year in the race, owing to the Prussian House of Deputies, which objects special sportsmanlike qualities, fair-mindto anything being done for the manufactur- edness, and affable bearing of the present ing interests of the country at the expense Anglo-Irish challenger for the America's of the agricultural interests. But the cup, and to the reported superiority of Liberals are at the same time not anxious the notable Clyde-built yacht which Sir

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