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Her case is a lucky one, because she was able to leave for Israel in 1970, but I would dedicate my efforts today to her experiences.

Hers is not an isolated case. She said to us, “What happened to me is the biography of thousands of people”. Discrimination continues in the Soviet Union. Officially promoted discriminations against the Jews last year culminated in a series of trials and sentences for the Leningrad group. World reaction in this trial was effective, and it did bring some results.

World leaders urged that the sentences be reduced. Such pressure saved the lives of two people, but it must be continued to keep alive the humanitarian conscience of the world on the plight of the Soviet Jew.

Although this series of trials appears to be ended, the oppression continues. It continues to be an explosive problem. The Jewish voice within the Soviet Union has inspired a reawakened Jewish consciousness and determination.

This is a problem which should reawaken the humanitarian consciousness of all people and we in this country owe it to these people and to the cause of freedom throughout the world to try to get to the bottom of this suppression and see what can be done with respect to the problem in this country.

Thus, it is important for Congress through this legislation to stand up for action to improve the condition and plight of the Soviet Jews.

The world must not stand by in silence while conditions which are similar to those which existed in Nazi Germany continue.


Our diplomacy with respect to the Jews of Europe before and during World War II was one of utter moral bankruptcy; it must not be permitted to happen again.

We must make every effort to publicize what is happening within the Soviet Union and use every tool which we have to work for the improvement of conditions there.

As Lyuba said of her efforts to leave the Soviet Union, "We would not have had the courage if we were not supported by the Free World.”

"Any time we heard letters over the radio from England, America, Israel, we become greater.” Therefore, I hope Mr. Chairman, you will report to the floor of the House of Representatives a complete package of strong bills to direct the entire range of our available resources to the solutions of the problem.

I would recommend, particularly, the legislation which I mentioned earlier. I think we should also think in terms of using our trade policies to help implement the relief that we seek to bring about to the Jews in the Soviet Union.

Mr. Chairman, the action of this committee can provide solutions and revitalize the hopes of this suppressed people and the aspirations and gains of this minority will spread to other downtrodden people.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Thank you very much, Congressman Vanik.
Mr. Frelinghuysen!

Mr. FRELINGIIUYSEN. Thank you Mr. Chairman. I have no questions.


I would like, however, to compliment our friend, Mr. Vanik, for a very thoughtful presentation.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Yatron?
Mr. YATRON. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I, too, have no questions, but I want to compliment you on a very fine presentation, Congressman Vanik.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Buchanan?
Mr. BUCHANAN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I, too, thank you for your fine contribution and am pleased that while there is not specifically one of the resolutions before our committee, as was the case when I testified yesterday, you did mention our efforts toward supporting the Voice of America broadcasts in Yiddish to the citizens of the Soviet Union.

It would appear to me that anything we could do to bring encouragement and recognition would be important and I appreciate your including this in your testimony as well as your efforts in general toward doing what we can to help the plight of Soviet Jewry.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Murphy?
Mr. MURPHY. No questions, Mr. Chairman.


Mr. ROSENTHAL. I have one question, Mr. Vanik. You touched on it but it might be worthy of further examination.

Do you think the awakening that the Jews have had in the Soviet Union, the demonstrations they have had and the public support they have had throughout the world, have had an effect on other minorities in the Soviet Union?

Does it stimulate others to seek out their fundamental rights as citizens?

Mr. VANIK. I think it is contagious. I think when appeals are made for freedom by one group, it is a contagious thing and spreads throughout the whole colony of the oppressed people.

Last summer it was my privilege to visit a great many of the satellite countries and everywhere that I went I talked with people on a local level and I found a very, very warm reception.

They all felt benefited and helped by the activities that we are making on behalf of the Soviet Jews. I think that the cause of freedom is helped everywhere.

It gave these people a little bit of encouragement. It is suprising how many other people, how many non-Jews have this feeling of confinement and suppression under the Soviet pressure and I think our efforts for Soviet Jewry gives all of them a symbol of freedom, a hope. I think that it is a service for the liberty of all mankind that this effort is being made.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Thank you very much for a very thoughtful presentation.

Our next witness is Mr. Richard Maass, chairman, American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry. I might tell my colleagues, Mr. Maass, that you are anxiously awaiting your prepared statement which is expected to arrive soon. It will certainly be in the record.

Hopefully it will become before you have concluded your testimony. We are also very anxious to hear from Mrs. Rita Gluzman, a recent emigrant from the Soviet Union. I know through your work and your dedication to this subject that you are adequately versed in the subject matter to proceed with vigor and eloquence without a prepared statement. So why don't you go ahead. STATEMENT OF RICHARD MAASS, CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL CONFER


BIOGRAPHY Has an impressive record of experience in the field of international and human relations, sometimes as leader and sometimes as participant. He has traveled to virtually every sector of the world Jewish community on overseas missions. He is deeply concerned with the welfare of Jews throughout the world and especially with the plight of Jews in the Soviet Union. In June 1971, he was elected chairman of the National Conference on Soviet Jewry (formerly the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry).

Mr. Maass is also a member of the board of governors of the American Jewish Committee and immediate past chairman of the organization's Foreign Affairs Commission. He has served as a national vice president of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) and as chairman of the Community Affairs Committee.

In June 1968 he was a member of a community leadership delegation to East and Central Europe, meeting with government officials and Jewish community leaders in Rumania, Yugoslavia and Germany.

In July 1967 he was a member of the AJC leadership mission to Israel to survey the country's immediate and long-range needs growing out of the Arab-Israeli War.

Mr. Maass is also active in a wide variety of human rights organizations and efforts close to home. He is a member of the Housing Advisory Council of the New York State Commission on Human Rights and formerly chairman of the Mayor's Committee on Minority Housing of the White Plains Urban Renewal Administration.

He is president of the White Plains United Fund and was president of the White Plains Senior Personnel Employment Committee.

He was a member of the board of the Crban League of Westchester County and served as president and as treasurer. He was first president of (age Teen Center in White Plains and serves as board member of this organization which operates a drop-in program for delinquent youths, a high school for drop-outs, and a narcotics treatment and prevention program.

Mr. Maass is president of the Lederer Foundation, Inc., past president of the Manuscript Society, member of the Grolier Club of New York City and of the Federal City Club of Washington, D.C. Mr. Maass, who is in investment management, is married to the former Dolly Lederer. They reside in White Plains. They have two sons-Douglas and Andrew, both married.

Mr. Maass. Mr. Chairman; I hope you have not overstated my abilities. The statement, which is an eight-page statement, originated with me and Mr. Goodman who is executive director of the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry of which I am chairman.

It was to be brought down from New York this morning. I came in last night from Florida and the two of us have not as yet gotten together. I understand Mrs. Gluzman is coming in with Mr. Goodman.

Mr. Chairman, I would like to say a few words first about the Voice of America and broadcasts in Yiddish which relate directly both to the remarks that Mr. Buchanan made earlier and those which were made by Mr. Polansky in testimony yesterday. I think that there is a misunderstanding, or certainly a lack of knowledge, of the number of Jews in the Soviet Union who consider Yiddish to be their mother tongue and I would point out an article which appeared in the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.


Mr. Polakoff of that agency is in the room here and this was an article that appeared April 28, 1971. It was an analysis of the census of Jews in the Soviet Union in the 1970 census. It was curious to note that there was a drop between 1959 and 1970, of approximately 117,000 in the number of individuals in the Soviet Union who declared themselves to be Jews and there was a drop which was almost equal in number in the number of those who considered their mother tongue to be Yiddish

That drop was 107,000 and I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, that it is quite possible that the reduction both in the number of declared Jews and in the number of Jews who declared Yiddish to be their mother language was a deliberate attempt to downgrade the number and was simply the dropping of 100,000 in each case.

In any event, Mr. Chairman, in 1970, there were 488,000 just in the Soviet Union who declared Yiddish to be their mother tongue. If you assume that this is only a percentage of the total who will speak and/or understand Yiddish, then the number is quite substantial so broadcasts to the Soviet Union in Yiddish would reach a much larger number of people than was indicated in testimony yesterday by Mr. Polanski.

Mr. Chairman, this is Mr. Goodman with my statement.
Mr. GOODMAN. With apologies, we missed the flight.
Mr. Maass. Mr. Chairman-

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Do you want to bring Mrs. Gluzman up and introduce her after you have finished ?

Mr. Maass. Mr. Chairman, I would call to the attention of the committee the news story in today's issue of the New York Times, which, as I understand it, is a rather gross misrepresentation of the testimony of Mr. Richard Davies before this committee yesterday. It is my understanding that the emphasis which was placed on the story yesterday that conditions in the Soviet Union were not much worse for Jews than they were for other religious and/or national minorities is picking up only a small portion of Mr. Davies' testimony, which really went to the heart of the matter in a different direction. In fact it stated that hearings such as this before the most important legislative body in the world were very important, particularly since there was a great sensitivity in the Soviet Union to charges of violation of human rights.

On this human rights issue, we know that the Soviet Union is sensitive and that is one of the reasons, of course, that our organization is pushing for broadcasts in Yiddish to the Soviet Union and for actions taken both legislatively and by the executive powers on behalf of the Jews of the Soviet Union. I think it is important to call attention to the fact that perhaps a disservice was done not only to this committee and to Congress but to Soviet Jews and the world at large because of the emphasis that was shown in the story in the New York Times today. It was my understanding it was not emphasized in the Washington Post story on the same subject.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. It is also a misrepresentation of the number of members at the committee yesterday. The Times indicated that at the time a certain colloquy took place between Mr. Davies and myself, I was the only member of the committee present, which was not so.


Mr. Maass. I don't quite understand it. I understand Mr. Gwertzman was in the hearing room for part of the hearing. Mr. Chairman, I have this eight-page statement by the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry. Before introducing it in evidence, I would like to say that the conference itself is a coordinating body for 34 national Jewish agencies interested, and a sincere and dedicated interest, in the cause of the rights of Jews in the Soviet Union. This organization came into ezistence in 1964. I am the current chairman. We have offices in New York and I am speaking on behalf of all of the agencies as well as the officers of the conference itself.

Mr. Chairman, as indicative of the situation in which Soviet Jews find themselves now, I would like to read a portion of the statement into the record.

Since Joseph Stalin destroyed the remnant of Jewish institutional life in 1948, Soviet Jews have been denied religious and cultural freedom and deprived of their basic human right, particularly the right to emigrate to Israel or elsewhere where they can live as Jews.

For the record I am submitting a conference fact sheet on Soviet Jewry,' to indicate the scope of the problem today. What is apparent is that many national minorities in the Soviet Union suffer different forms of discrimination but that Jews, as a religious community and as a national group have special discriminations not aimed against the other people. This could lead to spiritual and cultural extinction.

In addition, there has been an increase in discrimination against individuals on the job, in schools and in neighborhoods where they live. The situation has changed somewhat recently in that there has been an increase in militant assertion expressed by Soviet Jews, among young Jews particularly.

I might add that this liberation movement relates in some way to what is going on in our country among young people seeking identity. In some cases young Soviet Jews have also recruited parents who were afraid to be vocal because they remembered the repressions of the Stalin regime. The reaction among Soviet officials has been widespread harrassment to counter this militancy. The series of trials of Jews last December and this past spring was designed to break the back of the movement and especially the group of Jewish activists in Leningrad. These have simply been harrassment trials. The Soviet Union punished these Jews by firing them from their jobs, by humiliating them, and in some cases by having neighbors organize hostile acts.


But the Soviet Jews have not given in. They persist and we in this country are responding. For years Jews and non-Jews in the United States have participated in a wide variety of activities of a public and private nature. These have escalated in the last year in response to developments—both the resurgence of Jewish identity among Soviet Jews and Soviet hostility toward this phenomenon. Recently there were demonstrations of solidarity on the Jewish holiday of Simchath

1 The fact sheet referred to appears on p. 207.

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