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Let me tell you that Hitler didn't let that incident go unnoticed. He recognized that if the United States shows a lack of concern for Jews as Jews miles off the shore of Miami, it means in fact he can almost do what he wants with Jews and it would not then expose him to the wrath of the United States.

So, in August of 1939 in a periodical called Der Welt Kempf he said: We are saying openly that we do not want the Jews while the democracies keep on claiming that they are willing to receive them, and then leave the guests out in the cold. Aren't we savages better men after all?

Now, I have come here today not to discuss or tell you about the plight of Soviet Jewry. I was hopeful when I came that you were well aware of the fact but I must say I am totally alarmed and appalled by the statement of Mr. Richard Davis concerning the plight of Soviet Jewry. It indicates to me an avoidance of the problem. Čertain key issues, certain key problems that Soviet Jews face are clearly unfortunately not mentioned. It was only last year in Pravda that the Communist newspaper stated anyone who espouses to be a Zionist will be considered an enemy of the Soviet state. All you have to do is read the statements of President Nixon and the statements of Secretary of State Rogers and one becomes appalled at the fact that here the President made his statement on January 11, only days after the first Leningrad trials were being completed.

A WORSE SITUATION

Yet I find here no specific mention of the Jewish problem when in fact that is what precipitated the statement in itself. It was made after three Jewish leaders saw the President. How can anyone say that the situation of the Jew has not perceptibly worsened. The Jew has to walk around not with a passport but a birth certificate that has to say he is a Jew. How can anyone say the situation is not bad when we know of thousands of people literally who want to get out who simply want to exercise a certain sense of independence and freedom?

Mr. FRELINGHUSEN. Rabbi, Mr. Davis did not say the situation wasn't bad. In fact he pointed out the situation was more stringent with respect to Jews than other minorities. What he said was that it has not worsened. Are you saying it has worsened?

Rabbi Weiss. I am saying that during the past year the situation has worsened because more and more Jews are now attempting to leave. In attempting to leave they are fired or told that they must leave the universities and leave their jobs. In that sense the situation is not getting better. The situation in that sense is worsening as more apply, they suffer more from the Soviet Government.

My main thrust is not discussing the Soviet Jewry itself. I basically have come to tell you that there is a large segment of the Jewish and non-Jewish community who believe that the indifference and the apathy of our Government is largely contributing to the spiritual genocide of Soviet Jews as it has greatly contributed to the physical holocaust of 6 million Jews. We duck chance after chance to save lives there and we are avoiding chance after chance to save Soviet Jews now.

FOUR PROPOSALS

Let me put before before you four proposals, four questions.

First, why hasn't the President and top-level Government officials spoken out on the issue in strong and precise terms? We propose that he do so. We propose that the President on his forthcoming visit make sure to visit Soviet Jews. In that way he himself can find out through firsthand information exactly what their plight is.

Second, why hasn't the United States raised the issue of Soviet Jewry on the General Assembly floor itself, raising it in the Third Committee is insufficient. Certainly, when Representative Malik of the Soviet Union claims that all Jews are Fascists and he is speaking to me and 512 million other Jews, certainly it should move Representative Bush to jump to his feet and clearly say it is not so. All Jews are not Fascists. The fact remains that anyone representing a country that does not permit its citizens independence and freedom of movement cannot point an accusatory finger at anyone.

Third, if the Voice of America broadcasts in Latvian and Lithuanian to nationalities that are far smaller than the Jewish in the Soviet Unon, why can't the broadcasts be done in Yiddish, why can't the broadcasts be done in Russia with particular programs of Jewish interest?

We have been rejected in this proposal time and time again.

Fortunately, last Wednesday the New York Times reported that the United States is about to aid in the development of factories in the Soviet Union where trucks would be produced. Must we embrace those who are so morally corrupt?

It was Eichmann who was prepared to trade a million Jews for trucks. We rejected the proposal then and bear the burden of the death of hundreds of thousands of Jews. Economic pressure on the Soviet Union to allow Jews to leave before the factories are built are, therefore, in order. In very short order. What I am saying is this, I propose the four-step solution. One, that the President speak very clearly and unequivocally on behalf of Soviet Jewry, that he visit Soviet Jewish families himself. If he does so, I am convinced that this kind of statement issued by the State Department could never become a reality. Two, the Voice of America should be broadcasting in Yiddish. The issue should be brought up on the General Assembly floor. Certainly we should tell the Soviet Union that we care enough about Soviet Jews that we would go a bit more slowly, not embrace them so quickly on the truck issue. Because the Soviet Union is only going to respond if we are to show them that we care. If we are going to keep Soviet Jewry in the Third Committee of the United Nations, then they are going to think we don't care.

JEWISH DEFENSE LEAGUE

May I say one more thing about the JDL which everybody seems excited about. I come from an established synagogue, I am a responsible rabbi.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. You should have made that point when Mr. Frelinghuysen was here. That is what I suggested you do. Three other people spoke about the Yiddish problem. It is a matter we are going to try to take care of.

Rabbi WEISS. About what?
Mr. ROSENTHAL. About the broadcasting in Yiddish.
Rabbi Weiss. I said I would mention that very briefly.

I just wanted to say what is happening is that a group of responsible rabbis, due to the inaction of our Government. Unfortunately, fast year five of us, after speaking with Representative Bush in the American Mission were physically manhandled and thrown out of his office under his instructions. We later returned, 15 rabbis once again, from responsible organizations, with large constituencies, some from the largest synagogues in New York. We were arrested in front of the American Mission after a protest and we were later acquitted.

My point here is that we in fact find ourselves, and I echo the sentiments of these people, we find ourselves driven to the kind of action that we really do not want to put forth. We are driven to this kind of action because we find ourselves frustrated at what to us appears to be the apathetic stand of the United States on this issue.

When I come to Washington the first question that people ask me is what can you do about the JDL, can you control violence? We want to have the détente with the Soviet Union.

Our response is invariably the same, if you want to stop the JDL, don't look to us to stop them. We can't control the JDL or people who aspire to violence but it is you who can stop the JDL, if you would only do a bit more.

My goodness, I am on campus, I have hundreds of students. They are coming to me and saying, “Tell me, is our Government more interested in economic consideration, in political expediency, are they more interested in that than the moral idea of helping minorities and now, particularly, Jews in the Soviet Union who are being distressed ?"

(The prepared statement of Rabbi Weiss follows:) STATEMENT OF AVRIAHAM WEISS, MEMBER OF THE BOARD, CENTER FOR RUSSIAN

JEWRY, NEW YORK The press reported that the ship St. Louis, laden with hundreds of Jews, came close enough to Miami for the refugees to see the lights of the city. The press also reported that the United States Coast Guard under instructions from Washington followed the ship to prevent any landing on our shores. The failure to take any steps whatsoever to assist these distressed persecuted Jews in their hour of extremity was one of the most disgraceful things which has happened in American history and leaves a stain and brand of shame upon the record of our nation.

WEST REJECTED JEWS The United States' rejection of the St. Louis passengers was only one of the many indications to Hitler that his treatment of Jews would not expose him to the wrath of the United States. The August 1939 issue of Der Welt Kempf commented upon the issue. "We are saying openly that we do not want the Jews while the democracies keep on claiming that they are willing to receive them, and then leave the guests out in the cold. Aren't we savages better men after all?"

I have come here this morning not to describe the religious and cultural genocide of Soviet Jews, the terrible plight you are all too well aware of. I have come to tell you there is a large responsible segment of the Jewish and nonJewish community who believes that the indifference and apathy of our government is largely contributing to the spiritial genocide of Soviet Jews just as it greatly contributed to the physical holocaust of 6 million Jews.

We gutted chance after chance to save lives then as we're avoiding chance after chance to save Soviet Jews now. We have certain questions: firstly, why hasn't the President and top level government officials spoken out on the issue in strong and precise terms? We propose that he do so. We propose that on the President's forthcoming visit to Moscow, that Soviet Jewry be at the top of his priority list. We specifically propose that the President bring along a leader of the Jewish community who would specifically deal with the Soviet Jewry issue.

Secondly, why hasn't the United States raised the issue of the Soviet Union's transgression of the Declaration of Human Rights on the General Assembly floor? Raising it in the third committee is insufficient. Certainly, it is representative now of the Soviet Union who label all Jews fascists. Our representative should spring to his feet and state clearly, “You are speaking of 5 and onehalf million Jews in the United States who are not fascists. One who represents a country who doesn't allow Jews to emigrate freely and spites human dignity and independence, certainly has no right to point an accusatory finger at anyone."

VOA BROADCASTS

Thirdly, why doesn't the Voice of America broadcast in Yiddish as it does in the language of smaller nationalities in the Soviet Union?

Fourthly, last Wednesday the New York Times reported that the United States is about to aid in the development of factories in the Soviet Union where trucks would be produced. Must we race those who are morally corrupt? It was Eismann who was prepared to trade a million Jews for trucks. We rejected the proposal then and bear the burden of the death of hundreds of thousands of Jews.

Economic pressure on the Soviet Union to allow Jews to leave before the factories are built are therefore in order. There we forfeit the freedom of Soviet Jews for economic advantage. If the President speaks out forthrightly, if he's accompanied by a Jewish leader to Moscow, if we raise the issue on the General Assembly floor, if the Voice of America begins to broadcast in Yiddish, if we apply economic pressure on the Soviet Union to release Jews, it would indicate for the first time an overt commitment on the part of our government to the plight of Soviet Jews. We would be indicating to the Soviet Union that the United States is vitally concerned. The only way the Soviet Union will care is if we show we care.

As a rabbi from a large synagogue in Rockland County and one who teaches on a college campus, and a board member of the Soviet Jewry Organization which has thousands of constituencies, I voice our frustrations at the inaction of our government. Our government has not been responsive to our peoples, and we have therefore been forced to adopt more forceful tactics.

RABBIS TOSSED OUT

A group of five responsible rabbis from large synagogues were physically tossed out of Representative Bush's office after discussing the Soviet Jewry issue, and fifteen rabbis and college professors were later arrested only to be acquitted after participating in a demonstration at the Soviet Mission. It is this type of action that we dislike, but the type of action we've been forced to take.

In Washingon, when speaking to officials on Soviet Jewry, I'm immediately asked about the JDL. My response is invariably the same. I can't stop the JDL, only you can. Your inaction and passiveness on the issue has moved people to adopt the JDL tactics.

Many of my students assert that expediency and economic gain takes precedence over human lives in this country. They are shocked at the inaction and passivity of our government on this issue. They contend that our government is callous and apathetic toward Soviet Jews. Indeed I do not know how to answer their questions. For how can we turn our back on Rita Gluzman, a Soviet Jewess sentenced to ten years simply for her desire to go to the state of Israel. Laboring in a Soviet camp, permitted but one visitor per year, allowed one third the normal diet, close to death-how can we turn our backs?

I spoke to Rita this morning; she left the Soviet Union a month pregnant. Her son is close to two years old today, and has never seen his father. She asked me to ask you to speak out on her behalf.

How can we turn our backs on Anita Frulla? A 9 and 12 year old girl who left the Soviet Union with her mother and brother, but whose father was forced to remain behind. Anita wrote to Comrade Kosygin, that she and her brother would very much like him to permit their father to come to us. She writes it is very hard for us without him, and we are longing to see him again. All children have a father. Only we have none. We love him very much and he too loves us. Please help him to come to us. My birthday is on April 4, and I very much want our father to be with us on that day.

ANOTHER FAMILY TRAGEDY

How can we turn our back on the Palatnik family? A family of four, in Pashtnk, who has been denied the right to go to the state of Israel three times, whose relative, a congregant of mine, flew down to Washington this morning with me to speak on their behalf.

How can we turn our back on 47 prisoners whose only crime is they desire to leave for Israel, who are living in the most inhumane conditions, many close to death. How can we remain silent to the hundreds of thousands of Jews whose only desire is to leave the Soviet Union and to go to the country of their choice?

The late Martin Luther King wrote, “I cannot stand idly by, even though I live in the United States and even though I happen to be an American Negro, and not be concerned about what happens to my brothers and sisters who happen to be Jews in Soviet Russia, for what happens to my brothers and sisters who happen to be Jews in Soviet Russia. For what happens to them happens to me and you, and we must be concerned. We dare not remain silent at this time.”

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Thank you very much, Rabbi.

The subcommittee stands adjourned until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning.

(Whereupon, at 3:55 p.m., the subcommittee adjourned, to reconvene at 10 a.m. Wednesday, November 10, 1971.)

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