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Government's articulated position is that they have a great investment in these citizens. They are well educated by international standards and highly trained, have a great contribution to make to Soviet industry and technology, and in some cases recently, in order to repatriate those who have been given permission, have had to pay back for their education. I think that the going rate is around $950 set by the Soviet Government. This is not a problem that I see as a serious one because I am confident from the track record of the Jewish people that they can raise as many millions of dollars as is necessary to ransom out their own.

But the Soviet I think has many reasons besides this supposed economic loss. I can only speculate that one of those is that the population, not only the population but the industrial might of Israel, would be vastly increased if all these people transferred. I must say that I asked Vír. Villa Lujinsky, a very impressive man, about 40, and who has seen most Soviet jails from the inside and nevertheless continued undaunted; “Just assuming speculatively that you did not have to file an application in Russia, Russia just dropped the Iron Curtain for a period of 2 weeks, how many Soviet Jews would go out of the 3 million ?” He said, "Three million; and also 20 million Russians."

So perhaps that is not the only problem they have.
Mr. FINDLEY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. ROSENTHAL. Congressman Buchanan.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I have no questions, Mr. Bailey, but I appreciate very much your testimony which will be a valuable contribution to our hearings.

Mr. BAILEY. Thank you very kindly.
Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Vander Jagt.

Mr. Vander Jagt. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. I would like to add my appreciation of the committee, especially having to come here from Detroit. Thank you.

Mr. BAILEY. Thank you.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Let me ask one or two other questions. I think you suggested central European intermediaries. Were you talking of Government officials or nongovernmental officials?

CENTRAL EUROPEAN INTERMEDIARY

Mr. BAILEY. Actually, I would prefer not to identify the specific parties because I think it might inhibit what we are trying to do. In other words, I think they might be immediately eliminated if they were publicized. But they are quasi-Government officials of a minority party in a central European country that seem to have a degree of credibility at Moscow that would lend integrity to any statement we might make to negotiate in good faith and not for the purpose of international embarrassment or seeing who can get the most startling headlines but to really sit down and solve the problem in a reasonable manner.

We think to carry that message forward as it was apparently carried forward on a prior occasion when you will recall we were able to swap Gary Powers for Colonel Abel through someone's negotiations. We think that that has a possibility of recurring, but the approach is delicate and must be made by someone who at least is listened to. We

think that this, I would say partly official group within central Europe, may be just that intermediary.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Let me ask one last question. Many people intellectually raise this question: Is the plight of the Soviet Jew so devastatingly bad that they would uproot themselves from tradition, home, leave their families, leave their friends and communities, give up what many people suggest is a high educational opportunity, is the situation so deplorable that these people would want to move into an area in the Middle East that is fraught with conflagration and difficulty and where the future is not uniformly bright?

Mr. BAILEY. I would have to answer very affirmatively yes. I put that question almost precisely as you have put it, Mr. Chairman, because it seemed to me that compared with some of the problems in the home nation, economic and other problems, that perhaps one might be leaving at least a reasonably comfortable situation for one that is going to require a lot of hard work. I do not think that the drive behind the movement is in any sense economic. I think these people coming out expect to enjoy a lower standard of living in many cases when they do come out. I think it boils down to one very simple fact. They do not believe in the way they are living. They do not believe they should suffer the deprivation of an expression of their own religious faith. They are patently determined to go home. I don't know what it is that drives a man home, but certainly it is not entirely based on logic or reason. I think that the strength is in the feeling, and that the feeling is logically to continue for a long time. The people with whom I spoke are both passionate and strong. If they are representative of those inside who are knocking at the gate, they are going to come out even if it costs them in every other sense except the right to enjoy the freedom which they consider paramount. Mr. ROSENTHAL. Thank you very, very much.

Mr. Findley.

PROPRIETY OF "REPATRIATION"

Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Chairman, I have one further question. You keep using the word "repatriation," which means return to the fatherland, I presume. I am sure it is a very accurate term in the minds of the Soviet Jews as well as people in this country, but is it not possible that the repeated use of that word raises hackles with the Soviet officials, and perhaps may be one of the blocks to a greater exodus of Jews from the Soviet Union? Is this one of the problems we have?

Mr. BAILEY. I don't know. It could be as applied to this situation that is a misnomer. I recall a paroled lifer telling me, "Will you stop telling me about rehabilitation in the prison because if you rehabilitate me, you bring me back to what I was, and that is not very good."

The name was taken from the title of the International Conference which first retained me to try to go to Leningrad. I asked about it, and the Chairman of the International Conference put it to me very simply. He said these people were in their judgment spiritually born in Israel, they always belonged there, and they use the word "repatriation" to keep reminding the Soviet Government as far as they are concerned, they are still citizens of Israel and not allowed to go home. Their attitude in large measure has not been one of crawling to any degree or attempting to be conciliatory to a very large degree.

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While not being militant in the sense that we have visualized in this country in recent years, perhaps, they nonetheless display a great deal of pride and a great deal of indignation in their approach to the Soviet Government because in their judgment, rather than look for a soft term, it is better to throw the cards on the table, “This is exactly what we mean, and the fact that we are saying repatriation ought to convince you that we mean business. We are not just looking for a better place to live. We want to go home. We want you to be aware of it."

I don't think that they are likely to substitute another word. I only heard the leaders recently released who were put through the wringer in the Soviet Union use the word "repatriation."

Mr. RosENTILAL. Thank you very much. We are very grateful to you, and again please thank the court for permitting you to join us this morning.

Mr. BAILEY. I will do so, Mr. Chairman; thank you.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Our next witness is Congressman John Buchanan, a distinguished member of this subcommittee, accompanied by Rabbi Mark Elovitz of Birmingham, Ala.

Congressman Buchanan, you may begin with your statement, or join together with Rabbi Elovitz, or proceed in any fashion you see fit.

Mr. BUCHANAN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

May I begin by expressing my appreciation as a member of the subcommittee for your leadership in holding these hearings and my confidence that we shall emerge from them with some resolution which at least hopefully will be of help in this situation.

Mr. Chairman, I am extremely delighted today, prior to my own statement, to present to this subcommittee Rabbi Mark H. Elovitz of Temple Beth El, Birmingham, Ala., the city which it is my privilege to represent here in Congress.

Rabbi Elovitz is an outstanding young religious leader in our community with an impressive academic record and a distinguished background. He was a Jewish chaplain in the U.S. Air Force. He has to his credit more than 40 critical essays, book reviews, and articles published in national scholarly and popular periodicals. He is highly regarded as a lecturer and scholar. I believe he will contribute much to these hearings.

Mr. Chairman, I have a more extensive biography which I ask unanimous consent to include in the record at this point.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Without objection, it is so ordered. (The curriculum vitae follows:)

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STATEMENT OF RABBI MARK H. ELOVITZ, TEMPLE BETH EL,

BIRMINGHAM, ALA.

BIOGRAPHY

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Rabbi Mark H. Elovitz was born in Pittsburgh in 1938. He was an undergraduate at the University of Pittsburgh and received his B.A. Degree in History/Psychology from New York University. He was ordained in 1964 by the Jewish Theological Seminary of America from which institution he also holds a Masters Degree in Hebrew Literature. Currently he is preparing his dissertation for a Ph.D. in Hebrew Studies at New York University.

From 1964 through 1967 Rabbi Elovitz served as a Jewish Chaplain in the United States Air Force. He was stationed in Europe, was responsible for Jewish

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While not being militant in the sense that we have visualized in this country in recent years, perhaps, they nonetheless display a great deal of pride and a great deal of indignation in their approach to the Soviet Government because in their judgment, rather than look for a soft term, it is better to throw the cards on the table, "This is exactly what we mean, and the fact that we are saying repatriation ought to convince you that we mean business. We are not just looking for a better place to live. We want to go home. We want you to be aware of it."

I don't think that they are likely to substitute another word. I only heard the leaders recently released who were put through the wringer in the Soviet Union use the word "repatriation."

Mr. ROSENTIAL. Thank you very much. We are very grateful to you, and again please thank the court for permitting you to join us this morning.

Mr. BAILEY. I will do so, Mr. Chairman; thank you.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Our next witness is Congressman John Buchanan, a distinguished member of this subcommittee, accompanied by Rabbi Mark Elovitz of Birmingham, Ala.

Congressman Buchanan, you may begin with your statement, or join together with Rabbi Elovitz, or proceed in any fashion you see fit. Mr. BUCHANAN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

May I begin by expressing my appreciation as a member of the subcommittee for your leadership in holding these hearings and my confidence that we shall emerge from them with some resolution which at least hopefully will be of help in this situation.

Mr. Chairman, I am extremely delighted today, prior to my own statement, to present to this subcommittee Rabbi Mark H. Elovitz of Temple Beth El, Birmingham, Ala., the city which it is my privilege to represent here in Congress.

Rabbi Elovitz is an outstanding young religious leader in our community with an impressive academic record and a distinguished background. He was a Jewish chaplain in the U.S. Air Force. He has to his credit more than 40 critical essays, book reviews, and articles published in national scholarly and popular periodicals. He is highly regarded as a lecturer and scholar. I believe he will contribute much to these hearings.

Mr. Chairman, I have a more extensive biography which I ask unanimous consent to include in the record at this point.

Mr. ROSENTHAL. Without objection, it is so ordered. (The curriculum vitae follows:)

STATEMENT OF RABBI MARK H. ELOVITZ, TEMPLE BETH EL,

BIRMINGHAM, ALA.

BIOGRAPHY

Rabbi Mark H. Elovitz was born in Pittsburgh in 1938. He was an undergraduate at the University of Pittsburgh and received his B.A. Degree in History/Psychology from New York University. He was ordained in 1964 by the Jewish Theological Seminary of America from which institution he also holds a Masters Degree in Hebrew Literature. Currently he is preparing his dissertation for a Ph.D. in Hebrew Studies at New York University.

From 1964 through 1967 Rabbi Elovitz served as a Jewish Chaplain in the United States Air Force. He was stationed in Europe, was responsible for Jewish

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