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We are all imitative beings, and our habits of thought, modes of expression, moral sentiments, and intellectual character, are no less influenced by the books we read, than our social habits and common deportment are by the . company we keep. Both exert a powerful influence over the

young. The one on the embellishments of the mind; the other, on the urbanity of manners.

The rules and observations designed to promote correct reading are the same as found in Reader No. 2. In addi. tion to these however, are a few very concise Rules, for the benefit of young writers in their first efforts in composition. These should be committed to memory and ren. dered entirely familiar.

In the latter part of this Reader are a few selections suitable for declamation, or rhetorical reading. · Speaking is an important exercise, and is becoming somewhat common in the primary schools generally.

At the close of the Reader are ORIGINAL RULES, by which the true place of accent may be determined in most words in the language. Eleven of these Rules designate the accented syllable in entire classes of words, without even a single exception.

CONTENTS.

Rules for Reading, ....

7
Rules in aid of Composition,

17
LESSONS FOR READING.

Pre-eminence of our National Institutions. Bancroft, 19

Fate of the Indians. Story,

21

Western Movements of Civilization. Molley,

24

The Pilgrims. Mrs. Sigourney,

28

Ancient Rome, Pompeii and Herculaneum,

30

Ancient Rome, &c., concluded,

32

Westininster Abbey. Lester,

35

Falls of Niagara. Beecher,

41

Rural Life in England. Irving,

44

To a Star. Miss Davidson,

49

Eulogy on Washington. Otis,

50

Natural Bridge in Virginia. Simple Sketches,

54

Western Emigration. Humphreys,

59

Wier's Cave in Virginia. Simple Sketches,

60

Unwritten Music. Willis,..

63

A Summer Shower. Norton,

69

Life in Sweden. Longfellow,

70

The Sea. Greenwood,..

75

Song of the Stars. Bryant,

82

St. Peter's Church at Rome. Dewey,

83

Cultivation of taste for Beauty. Channing,

88

The Spirit of Beauty. Dawes,...

91

The Bereaved Sister. Unknown,..

91

Advantages of Temperance. Hitchcock..

Our Own Country. Every Body's Book,

101

Our Country. Pabodie,

109

The Mammoth Cave, Ky., Unknown, .........

110

Mammoth Cave, concluded,.

114

The Last Night of the Voyage. Shaw,....

117

Return and Reception of Columbus. Irving,

120

The Leaf. Goodrich,

124

The Wife. Irving,

125

Home. Unknown, .

130

Mount Monadnock. Peabody,

132

Exalted Character of Poetry.Channing,

134

Mental Discipline. Todd,.

136

The Indian as he was, and as he is. Sprague,

140

The closing of the Year. Prentice,.

142

The Death of Napoleon. McClellan,

.......... 145

Sorrow for the Dead. Irving,.

Integrity. Unknown,

A Scene at Sea. Leggett,

151

Melancholy. Unknown,.

158

Eruption of a Volcano. Coan,

160

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do... Allingham,

A Scene in the Catskill Mountains. Mellen,

To Seneca Lake. Percival ,...

Rules for Pronouncing,..

... 274

280

282

283

RULES AND OBSERVATIONS ON READING.

a

To become a good reader is a valuable attainment. To ensure success, the first step is decision on the part of the scholar. The second is effort, and the third perseverance. The purpose of mind must be as firmly fixed to break up and abandon bad habits, as to establish and confirm good ones. Therefore,

1. Avoid a dull and drawling manner.
2. Avoid too rapid an utterance of words.
3. Avoid a thick and cluttered pronunciation.
4. Avoid clipping words by imperfect utterance.

5. Avoid a mechanical variety-sliding the voice up and down in a kind of sing-song tone.

6. Avoid beginning a sentence on a high and strained key, and gradually sinking the tone till it tapers off in apparent faintness.

7. Avoid careless blunders in the pauses of punctuation. 8. Avoid reading every character of style alike.

GENERAL HEADS. All the essential requisites in order to become a good reader or speaker, are comprised under three general heads, viz:

1. Articulation.
2. Inflections of voice.

3. Modulation of tones. 1. Concerning good articulation. Definition. Good articulation consists in giving every letter its appropriate sound, and every syllable and word a proper and distinctive utterance.

Rule 1. Take special care to give clearness of expression in the utterance of such consonant sounds as mark the distinction of words.

EXERCISES. Times and Seasons. Wastes and deserts. For Christ's sake. His sister hates study.. The beasts straggled

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throngh the wastes and forests. The winds strike the ship's sails. It was the severest storm of the season, but the masts stood through the gale. The steadfast stranger grasps the thistle's stalk; When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw.

Rule. 2. Give each vowel under accent that distinctive elementary sound the word requires, and avoid such a half-suppressed utterance of the unaccented vowels as leaves the letter unknown, or assimilates the sound to some other.

EXAMPLES. I mean to say “ government,” but seem to say “gove ermunt.'

I mean to say “proceed," but nothing is heard but prcede ;" leaving it uncertain whether it was

proceed”

precede.” I mean to say “wholly," but actually do say. “hully."

Ryle 3. Pronounce each word so as not to transfer the sound of its last letter to the succeeding word.

EXAMPLES.

“this is an ice house ;" but from an indistinct articulation I am understood to say, “this is a nicehouse." I mean to say,

That lasts till night.
Am heard to say, That last still night.
I mean to say,

Şuch an ocean exists.
Am heard to say, Such a notion exists.
RULE 4. Each syllable on which the several accents fall
must be marked by its proper distinctive stress of voice.

Note. The figure 1 denotes the full accent, and 2 the half accent.

EXAMPLES. 2 Ac-ri-mo-ni-ous . Vál-e-dic-to-ry

. Ex-pi-a-to-ry.

p1.
Velocity is the swiftness of motion.
Bob Fletcher the plowman and Judy his wife.
Illustrious deeds and memorable names.
Slowly and sadly we laid him down.

I wish to say

2

2

1

1

1

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