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MODULATION. Definition. Modulation is judiciously applying all those significant inflections of the voice, which constitute the main excellencies of utterance in the accomplished reader and speaker.

Rule 1. In addition to the foregoing instructions on the inflections, a clear perception of the sentiments uttered, and the emotions implied in the language, are in. dispensable guides to a correct modulation of the voice.

RULE 2. The pitch of the voice, and the volumes of sound, must not only be regulated by the spirit and import of the language, but with reference also to the occasion, place, and circumstances.

Note. The voice has three pitches: the high, in calling aloud; the low, a little above a whisper; and the middle, or conversational voice. Each admits of various degrees, more or less intensive.

RULE 3. The pitch of the voice must be such as to give the most natural range of slide, above and below the key tone.

MONOTONE. DEFINITION. Monotone is a sameness of sound on successive syllables or words.

RULE 1: Monotone is seldom allowable except in grave description, where emotions of sublimity or deep reve. rence are to be expressed.

EXAMPLE He bowed the heavens also, and came down, and dark.. ness was under his fèet. And I saw a great white throne and Him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away and there was found no place for them.

RULE 2. The monotone requires a deliberate, grave and dignified emphasis.

EXAMPLES. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened

RHETORICAL PAUSES. DEFINITION. Rhetorical pause is a suspension of voice where grammatical punctuation does not require it

.., EXAMPLES. Industry is the guardian of innocence. Prosperity gains friends; adversity tries them. Some place true bliss in action, some in ease, Those call it pleasure, and contentment these.

Note. Rhetorical pauses are known by the emphatic words. The stress of voice and length of patise must be governed by the impressiveness of the thought to be im. parted.

OF READING POETRY. RULE 1. The metrical accent and grammatical pauses in poetry must be so managed as to preserve the sense, without impairing the harmony of composition.

RULE 2. When the sentiment is delicate, or the language plaintive, the inflection must be soft and sympathetic.

Yes—my native land! I love thee;

All thy scenes I love them well;
Friends, connections, happy country;

Can I bid you all farewell ?
Can I leave thee,

Far in heathen-lạnds to dwell? RULE 3. When the thought is sublime, the language bold and energetic, the utterance and inflections must correspond in character.



Thou kingly spirit thron'd among the hills,
Thou dread Ambassador froin Earth to Heaven,
Great Hierarch! tell thou the silent sky,
And tell the stars, and tell yon rising sun,
Earth, with her thousand voices, praises God.

CÆSURAL PAUSE. DEFINITION. The cæsural pause in poetry is to render the sentiment more emphatic, and make the versification sound more melodious.

Warms in the sun || refreshes in the breeze,

Glows in the stars || and blossoms in the trees. Note. In reading blank verse there should be a very slight suspension or protraction of voice at the end of each line, although the grammatical construction requires




Who made you glorious as the gates of Heaven
Beneath the keenfull Moon? Who bade the sun
Clothe you with rainbows ? Who with living flowers
Of loveliest blue, spread garlands at thy feet ?-
God! let torrents like a shout of nations
Answer! and let the ice-plains echo, God!

TRANSITION. Definition. The transition of the voice, unlike the inflections, is a sudden change of the key from low to high,

a or from high to low, or to such intermediate tone as shall best accord with those emotions of the mind implied by the language.

Note. Good taste must decide when and where to in. troduce transitions of the voice; on what key of tone, and with what degree of intensity.

RULES FOR COMPOSITION. A few suggestions to aid those who desire to improve their

style in composition. The brevity of the Rules is such, that any student may casily commit them to memory, and avail himself of such benefits as they may afford. 1. Select a subject within your comprehension.

2. Reflect on it much, and render yourself familiar with the ideas, before you commence writing.

3. Never write in a loose, or careless manner.

4. Be careful to use such words as shall convey your thoughts most clearly to others.

5. Avoid low or vulgar expressions. 6. Remember that a good sentence requires these four following properties, viz. 1. Clearness. 2. Unity. 3. Strength. 4. Harmony.

OF CLEARNESS. 1. The words you employ must be so chosen as to convey your idea, without the least ambiguity.

2. The words and members of the sentence should be so arranged, as to show their precise relations of significant import to each other.

OF UNITY. 1. Unity implies, that the sentence contains but one leading idea, distinctly expressed.

2. The main idea, or leading thought in the same sentence, should be changed as little as possible.

3. Whatever would essentially disturb the unity of a single sentence, should be divided into iwo.

4. Avoid, as far possible, a parenthesis in the sentence.

5. Bring the sentence to a natural close. That is, when the idea is distinctly expressed, the sentence ends.

STRENGTH. 1. To promote the strength of a sentence, lop off all un. necessary words.

2. Use great care in placing the relatives, conjunctions, adverbs and prepostions, precisely where the sense requires them.

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3. The principal word or words on which the strength of thought depends, must be placed where they will make the strongest impression.

4. If there are several members of the sentence, place the less important first.

5. Never close the sentence with a preposition, or any unimportant word.

HARMONY. 1. Harmony implies the use of such words and combinations, as fall on the ear with an agreeable sound.

2. Whatever is easy of utterance to the organs of speech, is commonly most agreeable to the ear.

3. A due intermixture of long and short sentences promotes harmony.

4. The longest member of the sentence, and the most sonorous words, should, if practicable, fall at the close.

5. It is a great beauty to embody such words in a sen. tence, as shall in sound, correspond with the sentiment expressed.

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