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against his brother Abel, and slew effectually to guard them from a him." And even after the Divine relapse into the poisonous opinions denunciation, notwithstanding the whice had caused the destruction of pangs of conscience, and the terrors the antediluvian world. When Noah, of remorse, which haunt the blood. who was duly impressed with the stained murderer, he still persevered superior dignity of man, above all in his mischievous opinion, that other animals, in order to express man and beast are on a level, that his gratitude to his Great Preserver, both perish alike, and that the intel- brought an offering of animals, it lectual soul of man gives him no was graciously received: As it is superiority over the brute creation. said, And the Lord smelled the This tenet he promulgated among pleasant odour ;” and immediately his descendants; and it was general afterwards the permission on earth until the birth of Seth, who granted to man to kill animals for felt and acknowledged his supe. his food : As it is said, “Like grass riority, as a man, and whom Holy and herbs have I given all to you." Writ declares to have been born in (Genesis ix. 3.) This permission is, the shape and likeness of Adam, however, followed by the strict inthat is to say, knowing that he was junction, not to shed' human blood, in the likeness of the superior intel- distinctly marking the superiority of ligences, because, like them, he has man: For while all the beasts of the a purpose peculiar to his idiosyn. earth are placed at the disposal of crasy. The pernicivus error of Cain man, in order to supply his wants, still continued prevalent; and even he is strictly commanded to respect at the present day, it is still enter- the dignity of his fellow.man, betained by many; for, unfortunately, cause man is made in the image of we see but too often that avarice, God,” (Genesis ix. 6,) gifted with an ambition, and lust of power, cause intellectual soul, and with an indivithe slaughter of thousands, as if the dual purpose. Thus it appears perfectly life of man were of no greater value consistent, that what was prohibited than that of beasts. The few, who to Adam should be permitted to with Seth duly appreciate the dignity Noah. of man, resist the promptings of When the law was given to the their evil passions, and devote Israelites, its principles, spirit, and themselves in love and humility to tendency, were evidently founded on the purpose assigned to them by the great truth, that man is at the their Creator.

head of the terrestrial creation, and The better judgment of Seth was, infinitely superior to mere animals. however, not generally received even There, consequently, could be no by the mass of his own descendants; fear that the observers of this law and, with the exception of some few could ever adopt the opinion of illustrious and heaven-inspired indi. Cain. Therefore, the flesh of some viduals, the bulk of mankind ad- animals was permitted as nutritious hered to the destructive tenets of and healthy, while that of many Cain. The consequence was, that others was prohibited as exercising violence and brutality increased a pernicious influence on the qualiamongst men, who, copying the ties of man. Thus it is made the ferocious habits of brutes, oppressed duty of every man who feeds on and crushed those who were too flesh to remember, that as he is suweak to resist or defend themselves, perior to brute beasts, (on which until at last their evil deels so com- superiority alone his right to feed pletely debased humanity, that Di. on them is founded,) it behoves him vine justice immersed the corrupt to vindicate the dignity of his sperace in the waters of the deluge. cies, by subjugating those animal Noah, and his family, (and the ani- passions and propensities, the inmals to which he had given shelter dulgence of which sink him to a in the ark,) were all that Divine level with the subordinate animals. mercy permitted to survive the awful This investigation likewise proves, visitation ; and when they left their that a certain observance may at one asylum, it pleased an All-merciful God time be prohibited, and subse.

quently permitted, and vice versa ; in the words of the law. Our next
and that it, consequently, is possible care will be to investigate which are
that Divine laws may in their minor the commands of the law that may
and temporal enactments become become subject to modification ;
subject to alteration, as the wisdom which with the help of God we shall
of the Most High may dictate. Nor do in this division of our work
have we any proof to the contrary

(To be continued.)

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THE MORNING SERVICE.

*

IV. THE DAILY SERVICE IN THE SECOND TEMPLE AT

JERUSALEM.
FROM THE 771397 470, BY R. SALOM cohen.
Extracted from the Sinyn 1979, an Hebrew periodical, published at

Vienna, for 5581, (1821,) p. 38.
(Continued from page 316.)

proceeded to the receptacle for lambs, At break of dawn, as soon as ob

(where those intended for sacrifices jects could be distinguished at a cer

were kept four days before they were tain distance, * the captain of the

offered,) and brings a yearling lamb, temple caused one of his officers to

bound, to the slaughtering-place at proclaim aloud, “Priests, come to

the northern side of the altar, where your service! Levites, prepare for

all burnt-offerings, as the most holy your duties! Israelites, occupy your

sacrifices, were slaughtered ; (the station !" Every man, thus sum

sacrifices of a lower degree could be moned, instantly went to his appoint

killed in any part of the court ;) the ed place, and the service of the

• Station-men” then laid their hands morning commenced in the follow

on the lamb; a Priest approaches, ing order :

turns its head to the west of the The Priests wash their hands and

temple, and slaughters it. Another feet.

Priest approaches with a basin, and A Priest enters the temple with

receives the blood, which he conprofound veneration ; goes into the

stantly stirs, in order that it may holy,ll takes the broom which lay

not coagulate, but may, at the proin a golden dish, and sweeps toge- per time, be fit for sprinkling. ther the ashes on the altar from the

After the lamb had been sacricenser which had been placed thereficed, the Priests prepared to offer on the preceding evening. He then incense. The ingredients and burnperforms his prayers, and, gathering

ing coals were brought in costly vesthe ashes, he withdraws backwards, sels, and placed ready at hand.' The in order not to turn his back on the Priests, who by lot had been appointMost Holy, and leaves the interior

ed to perform the sacred office, enter of the temple.

the temple and the Holy. During Another Priest brings two logs of in the outer court, as a signal to the

their procession, a little bell is rung wood, and places them on the burning pile on the great altar of burnt- people there assembled, who comofferings.

mence their prayers. A Priest takes Another Priest has, in the interim, the censer from the altar, and goes

out of the temple backwards. As * As it was unlawful to immolate the soon as he enters the court, another morning sacrifice before day-break, a “CapPriest takes the blood of the lamb), tain of the time” was specially appointed, which till then had been continualwhu carefully watched the coming dawn. ly stirred, -and begins to sprinkle. For this purpose he caused some Priests to

He commences at the foot of the mount the barbican of the temple, who, as soon as they could recognise the priestly then to the west ; and, having closed

altar at the east, goes to the north, city of Hebron, (which lay high on a mountain to the east of Jerusalem,) called out,

his round at the south, pours the “ The morning is so light that we can see

remainder of the blood into a gutter Hebron."

placed at the foot of the altar. || Vide Hebrew Review, page 172.

Another Priest next extinguishes

THE DAILY SERVICE IN THE SECOND TEMPLE AT JERUSALEM,

335

coals ;

EVEXING SERVICE.

fiveout of the seven lights of the gold- the High Priest, on which he strews en candlestick in the Holy. Another salt, and throws them in the fire. enters, places the censer with burn. Lastly, a Priest approaches with the ing coals on the altar of incense, drink-offering of wine in a golden performs his prayer, bows, and with- flagon. He mounts the altar, and draws. The Priest who is appointed pours the wine into a silver ewer, to offer the incense then enters, takes through a hole, in the bottom of the censer from the altar, and gives which it runs down the foot of the it to the Priest who had extinguished altar into the brook Kedron. the five lamps. He holds it while Immediately afterwards, twelve the former puts the incense on the Levites, accompanied by instrumental

then takes the censer, and music, chant the psalm appropriated offers the incense and his own prayers to the service of the day, and two with profound devotion. As soon as

Priests blow the silver trumpets. he has concluded, he bows and with- This is followed by the priestly draws. The Priest who had previously benediction, which, in the second extinguished five of the lamps, now temple, was preceded and followed likewise puts out the remaining two, by short prayers. This concluded and is the last who leaves the Holy. the regular morning-service. If any

The lamb which has been sacri- additional public or private sacrifices ficed is then flayed, the entrails are were offered, it was done immeditaken out and washed, and the car- ately after the regular morning sercase cut up. The former are placed vice was closed. in a dish, the latter on a marble slab, and both are salted. The meat-offering is next prepared. This consisted of a certain quantity of the finest flour, inixed with a measure of the

Ar three o'clock in the afternoon, best oil, and strewed with incens?. another yearling lamb was sacrificed, The drink-offering is then got ready,

under observance of the same order consisting of a certain measure of and ceremonies as have already been wine, which is brought out in a described. Meat-offerings, drinksplendid golden flagon. All this was offerings, and incense, accompanied done in the interval between day- this sacrifice, similar to those which break and sun-rise.

were brought with the morning serWhen the sun has risen, the sacri- vice. fices are carried to the altar of burnt- The seven lamps in the golden offerings by nine Priests, each of candlestick were then lighted, and whom bears the piece apportioned burnt till morning. to him by lot. These Priests form a The afternoon sacrifice was kept regular procession, and exhibit the burning, on a moderate fire, throughvarious offerings, by holding them out the whole night. At sun-set, ihe up in sight of the assembled people, Kerialh-Schmang was again pronouncwho then pronounce the Keriath ed, and the evening prayers read. Schnang.* The sacrifices are then The Levites cleansed the utensils, received by other Priests, and placed and placed every thing in due order on the burning pile, where they are for the service of the next day. They, consumed. A Priest then ascends together with the Priests and “ Stato the altar, takes the meat offering, tion-men,” awaited the arrival of (which has already been described,) their successors.

Thus the daily strews it with salt and incense, takes service was continued without intera handful thereof, and throws it into ruption, even on the Sabbath and the flames, retaining the rest as his high holy days; on which occasions, perquisite. He is succeeded by ano- however, additional offerings and ther Priest, with the twelve cakes of ceremonies took place.

(To be continued.)
* Vide Hebrew Review, page 13.

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SHEM.

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V. ESSAY ON THE ANCIENT SCHOOLS OF THE ISRAELITES.

FROM THE Sinynt 9959: Fôr 5582. (1822.) A History of the schools of the antiquity, and which, though flitting ancient Hebrews can only be offered and uncertain, still, in some degree, to our readers in fragments and de- illumine the earliest annals of human tached portions, as the sources from civilization. whence our information is derived are not only very scanty, but forsake us when most we need their

Ninety-eight years before the aid. We shall, however, submit deluge, this son of Noah was born. such traditions as have preserved

His father instructed him in the esamong our people a faint trace of sential principles of religion, which their most ancient schools

he again promulgated among his According to the pious legends of descendants and pupils. For this the Rabbies, the first schools are of purpose he erected a school on

Mount Tabor. a date anterior to the deluge. In these, both religion and the sciences

According to the Rabbinical le. were taught. At the head of these gends, Shem is identical with Mel.

chi-zedek. Abraham was one of his schools were Adam, Enoch, and Noah. Subsequently, Melchi-zedek disciples. The ceremonies which he became the founder of a school in observed at his sacrifices had been Kiriath-Sepher," the city of books.”

communicated to him by his tutor ; Abraham is said to have been the

who also taught jurisprudence and disciple of Eber, and promulgated dius considers him as the inventor

astronomy in his academy. Methothe learning of his tutor among the Chaldeans and Egyptians, who are

of astrology.* Nay, he is even by said to be indebted to him for their

some held up as the first of monknowledge of arithmetic and astro

archs and founders of cities. It is

said that Ceuta in Africa, Salerno || nomy,-sciences in which the latter were subsequently more fully in

in Italy, and Salem in India, were structed by his grandson Jacob. The

built by him. Targum, or Paraphrase of Onkelos, Scipio Sgambati in his work entitled, renders the words, “ And Jacob was

Archivorum Veteris Testamenti, seu de on w'n, a perfect man, who dwelt Scriptoribus Hebraicis," asserts that Shem

was the author of a treatise on medicine, in tents ;” (Gen. xxv. 27 ;) by, “ Ja.

of which a manuscript in Hebrew was precob was a perfect man, who studied

served in the library of the then (1600) in the schools.” In these schools, Elector of Bavaria. Shem and Eber, according to the || The singular and improbable idea that Rabbies, were the principal tutors. Shem is the founder of Salerno has, how

We will here collect such details ever, been adopted in the religious worship respecting these tutors as are pre

of that city. In a missal of the church at served in the Talmud and the Me Salerno, the following stanza is inserted, to drashiin. However imperfect and

be sung on certain feast-days: even improbable, they nevertheless “O Salernum, civitas nobilis, afford the only gleams of light which

Quam fundavit Sem, Noe fertilis.penetrate the obscurity of remotest

(To be continued.)

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NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. A LEARNED Correspondent, whose signature is J. C., requests us to furnish him with some biographical account of R. Joseph Albo, the author of Sepher Ikkarim. We confess our acquaintance with this great man's life is most scanty. All that we know of him is, that he was born at Soria, resided at Saragossa, and was present at a great theological conference held with Bishop Hieronymus in the year 1412. Should any of our readers be able to furnish us with a more detailed account, we shall feel obliged to them.

LONDON :-Printed by James Nichols, 16, Hoxton Square.

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I. ON THE CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS IN THE COUNTENANCE

AND BEARING OF NATIONS, ARISING FROM MORAL CAUSES.

(Concluded from page 326.) For illustrating the proposition rejoice, I will divide Shechem, and we had undertaken to discuss, it mete out the valley of Succoth. Gilead was necessary to trace the Israelites is mine, and Manasseh is mine; throughout their history. This has Ephraim also is the strength of mine been done, however, to no greater head; and Judah is my lawgiver.extent than was requisite for deve- And existing circumstances do in a loping the subject; and we shall most remarkable manner confirm pursue the same course by taking an this view of it. Though the tribes equally rapid view of that part of of Judah and Benjamin are undertheir history which remains to be stood to constitute the whole body noticed.

of the Israelites of the present day, Though the captivity may be said it would be difficult to point out into have terminated at the end of the dividuals among them as belonging seventy years foretold by Jeremiah, certainly to the tribe of Benjamin, yet, independence did not succeed to whilst there exists no doubt in the it; on the contrary, except during minds of the Israelites themselves as the period of the Maccabees, the to those that belong to the tribe of nation from the time of the destruc- Judah. And as respects the other tion of the first temple down to the ten tribes, there is reason for bepresent period has always been un. lieving that many descendants of der foreign sway:

theirs are still among us; for we find If the prediction of Jacob—“The that “ Asa gathered all Judah and sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Benjamin, and the strangers with nor a lawgiver from between his them out of Ephraim and Manasseh, feet, until Shiloh come; and unto and out of Simeon ; for they fell to him shall the gathering of the people him out of Israel in abundance, be,” is to be understood as referring when they saw that the Lord his to a temporal authority: That autho- God was with him.” And the rity ceased with Zedekiah, the last descendants of these were not inking of the house of Judah, and even volved in the fate of their brethren he was tributary to the king of Ba- who were subsequently taken capbylon. If the Maccabees be cited as tives by the Assyrian king and disinstances of native princes having tributed in the cities of the Medes ; reigned over the Israelites since Ze- but they participated in the fate dekiah's time, this would not alter of the tribes of Judah and Benjathe case, for the Maccabees were min, who were afterwards taken to of the tribe of Levi and not of Babylon and its provinces. Thus, Judab.

there may be among the body of We consider that the prediction Israelites of the present day several just quoted alludes to the spiritual individuals of all the other eleven authority contained in the Divine tribes, yet so merged in the predolaws; in support of which opinion minating numbers of the tribe of may be quoted Psalm 1x. 6,7: “God Judah, that when allusion is now hath spoken in his holiness; I will made to the Jews generally, that

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