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Mr. Denby to Mr. Blaine.

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, January 30, 1892. (Received March 21.)

No. 1464.]

SIR: In my dispatch, No. 1451, of December 31 last, I submitted a copy of a circular issued by the French minister, referring to a proclamation posted by the magistrate at Ping-chuan Chou, wherein the said magistrate excused the atrocities committed against native Christians by the rebels. In my dispatch No. 1454, of the 11th instant, I reported the action of the diplomatic body thereon. In response to the representations of the Doyen the yamên stated that Li Hung-chang had been ordered to investigate into the conduct of the said official and report thereon.

Nothing further has been heard from the yamên on the subject, but the Peking Gazette of the 28th instant contains an imperial decree wherein the Emperor states that he has received a report from Li Hung-chang and Kueipin on the officials at Chaoyang and vicinity, the scene of the recent rebellion. He states that long before actual warfare began that locality was infested with bands of robbers who inflicted serious injuries on the Mongol and Christian population. The officials took no measures to subdue them, and the outbreak assumed large proportions. The Chih-hsien or district magistrate at Chao-yang is charged with remaining in his office writing verses and drinking wine, indifferent to his duties toward his people. His record also shows that at a previous post he had borrowed money from wealthy citizens, and had made so many debts as scarcely to be able to get away.

The district magistrate at Chien-chang is charged with inaction, and with issuing false reports as to outrages committed by rebels in his jurisdiction.

The magistrate at Ping-chuan, however, the object of the French minister's remonstrances, comes in for the most serious charge of all. He is stated not to have afforded protection to Christian chapels in the streets of his own city, with having issued exaggerated reports of the numbers of the rebels, and with lightly giving heed to false reports regarding Christians and basing thereon proclamations calculated to arouse the popular feeling against them.

Li Hung-chang and Kueipin had recommended that these officials be deprived of rank and office, but the Emperor remarks that such punishment is inadequate to their offense, and orders that they be degraded and banished to the forts on the frontier.

A translation of this decree is inclosed herewith.

I have the honor, etc.,

CHARLES DENBY.

[Inclosure in No. 1464.]

Translation of decree from Peking Gazette, January 28, 1892.

Li Hung-chang and Kueipin have presented a memorial setting forth the result of the investigation which, in obedience to our instructions, they made into the official misconduct of the magistrates at Chao-yang and other places.

Long before the evil-disposed persons of Jeho had created disturbances at Chao-, yang, the departments of Ping-chuan and Chien-chang were overrun with robbers. The Mongols underwent at their hands great cruelties, and the Christians suffered the burning of their chapels and the murder of their people. The magistrates of these departments were guilty of such carelessness and neglect that bands of rowdies

profited of the occasion to excite the populace and bring about a serious outbreak. Remissness in control is an inexcusable fault.

In the report now before us it is stated that Liao Lunming, district magistrate at Chao-yang, though not charged with running away at a warning of danger, was guilty of passing all his time in his yamen writing verses and drinking wine regardless of the interests of his people. Furthermore, he was continually borrowing money of wealthy citizens and running deeply into debt. When he was transferred from Chih-feng to Chao-yang, the merchants did their utmost to hiuder his departure. His conduct has been most disgraceful.

As to Chang Tsou-kai, district magistrate at Chien-chang, it is charged that when the outbreak was just commencing he took no measures to guard against it, and after the trouble was over he failed to report the truth concerning the murders and destruction of property at San-shih-chia-tzu. With his heart bent on deceiving, he hoped by concealment to shirk responsibility.

Wen Pu-neng, acting department magistrate at Ping-chuan, has a reputation for trickery. He was dilatory in the performance of his duties. He was even unable to protect the neighboring chapels in the very streets of his city. In his official reports he vastly exaggerated the number of the rebels. In speaking of the burning of Christian chapels and the murder of Christians he lightly gave credence to false stories and fabricated a proclamation calculated to stir up the popular mind.

These three officials, by their covetousness, lying, and inability, have brought an inheritance of evil to the places under them. They are truly worthy of contempt.

The memorialists pray that Liao Lun-ming be degraded from office, and be forever disqualified for official employment, and that Chang Tsou-kai and Wen Pu-neng be degraded from office. This penalty seems inadequate to their offense. We command that Liao Lun-ming, Chan Tsou-kai and Wen Puneng all be degraded and banished to the frontier forts. Let them by their exertions there atone for their offenses, and serve as an example to others.

As to the other matters in the memorial, let it be as the memorialists suggest.
Let the proper board take notice. Respect this.

Mr. Denby to Mr. Blaine.

No. 1470.]

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES, Peking, February 1, 1892. (Received March 21.) SIR: I have the honor to inclose, herewith, a clipping from the North China News, which contains an account of the recent Mongolian insurrection, written by a Chinese priest.

I have the honor to be, sir, etc.,

CHARLES DENBY.

[Inclosure in No. 1470.-From the North China News.]

The rebellion in Mongolia.

We append a translation of a letter written by a Chinese priest from the center of the terrible scenes which have been enacted in the north. The letter is dated 15th December, and has just reached Shanghai.

There are in Mongolia two sects, the Taoists (Tsai-li) and the Rationalists (Kintan-tao) whose members, gathered from every class of people, literati, merchants, laborers, officials, and the like, have long been infamous in the country for their injustice and wickedness. One of their leaders, named Hu-Yong had, in particular, become, the terror of the inhabitants on account of his burglarious habits. Finding himself watched by the local mandarins, who waited for a good opportunity to seize him, he fled away to Sankiatz in the district of Kienchang, where he had many partisans and could, with their help, continue his life of rapine.

The crop last year having been almost destroyed, the people of that district were soon reduced to misery. Impelled by hunger they applied, about the beginning of Angust, to the petty magistrates and to the rich merchants for grants of rice, promising to repay them in the autumn. Every one in China knows what such promises are worth. The merchants promised to comply with the request, and a day was ap

pointed on which an equal distribution of rice was to be served out to every person, whether a native or a stranger. In the meanwhile, however, the crafty merchants secured the help of Hu-Yong, and when two days after a long file of men and women, bag in hand, walked up to the rice shop they found the brave standing by the front door. There was a moment of hesitation, but hunger was stronger than fear. They rushed on the man who, knocked down and trampled under foot by the crowd, was soon a corpse. Fearing the consequences of their act and anticipating retaliation from the dead man's confreres the people agreed to lay the blame on the Christians, and the rumor was soon circulated throughout the town that the Christians were guilty of the crime. Without inquiring into the facts of the case, the Rationalists took up the cry; threats of death were freely uttered against the Christians, and a riot became imminent. Message after messago was sent to the yamên, but the appeals for protection were disregarded by the local mandarin, who contented himself by saying the reports were unfounded and there was nothing to fear. In short, help was refused.

This was the state of affairs when, on the 16th of the tenth moon (November 17), a violent mob rushed to the residence of the missionaries at Sankiatz, broke into the house, seized the Chinese priest, Ling, stole all they could lay their hands on, and burnt church, house, and orphanage. Of all the persons living there, men, women, and orphans, not a single one was left alive; some were burnt in the house, others killed on the spot. Some who escaped from the building were soon overtaken and slaughtered. Then the mob scattered in all directions in search of new victims, and wherever houses of Christians were found the inhabitants were murdered, their property stolen, and the houses burnt to the ground.

The fiendish work is not over yet. Two victims are still captive. Father Ling is dragged to a temple and tied fast to one of the two masts in front of it. He is called upon to apostatize, but threats are vain; he remains firm. Guns are then leveled at him and he is shot dead; his body is immediately ripped up and pulling from the still panting body the heart, liver, and lungs, the murderers fix these ghastly trophies to the top of the mast. There remains a woman with child. Kerosene is poured over the poor mother and they burn her alive.

After this first exploit, in which some hundred Christian families were thus slaughtered, the rioters proceeded to Pingchünchow. Another appeal for protection was made to the subprefect Wen Pu-ni, but though renewed several times, it was always in vain. The rioters, however, were not yet so bold as to act openly. They sent a message to the mandarin. They had not, they said, taken arms against the Government; they only asked him to carry out their revenge against the Christians by burning and destroying their houses. This strange license being granted them, they entered the town, sacked and burned down the church, the orphanage, and houses of the Christians. Far from opposing them, the officials and soldiers of the yamên, in the hope of sharing in the booty, kindly invited the plunderers to search out all the Christians, and proclaimed that any person who should give shelter to Christians would be treated as such. The complaisant Wen Pu-ni in the meantime was spreading the rumor that in the residence of the missionaries there was hid a huge heap of bones-bones of children devoured by cannibal foreigners, of course-and sent this piece of news by letter to Gen. Yeh, who is said to be one of the Kin-tan-tao.

Gen. Yeh no sooner received the letter than he issued a proclamation against Christians and sent copies of it everywhere. The calumny was believed, and equally exasperated against the Kin-tan-tao men, the Tsai-li man, and the Christians, the people rose up against them, the former rioters openly declared themselves, and a regular rebellion now broke out.

Ch'aoyang Hsien was soon occupied by thousands of rebels; the prisons were broken open, all criminals were let loose, and the rage of the rebels was turned against the inhabitants. Their property was seized, and themselves butchered. Several noble families were massacred and so few people escaped in that great town and the surrounding districts, that for a distance of several hundred li not a family has been spared.

A certain Chu, one of the ringleaders, assumed the title of emperor, and to give himself greater prestige, took as wives and concubines several of the wives and daughters of the massacred nobles.

Another leader named Wei Lao-tao, renowned for magic art, gave his soldiers a spell which was supposed to preserve them from death. Every morning they were to swallow a magic pill intended to give them courage. On their flags was written "Hsing Ta Ming" (let us raise the dynasty of the Ming), "Mich Ta Ts'ing" (and destroy the present dynasty of the Ts'ing); and also "Yong hwa fu kuei tsai men (honor, riches, dignities are to us).

""

In every town or village through which the rebel forces passed they proceeded to kill all the inhabitants.

Fortunately, after a time, Li Hung-chang sent troops against them. On the 20th of the tenth moon (November 21), the first battle was fought. The rebels numbered upwards of ten thousand men. Wei Lao-tao had taken up his position on an imperial

chariot formerly given by the great Kang Hsi to the temple of Kuanti, and on which chariot the idol is seated for the annual pageant. Whilst the troops of Li Hungchang attacked the rebels in front, the soldiers of the subprefect of Kinchang Hsien fell on their rear; they were thus defeated, four hundred and seventy men were killed, more than a hundred made prisoners, and Wei Lao-tao himself was slain. The remainder escaped to Sankiatz, but the Jeho forces followed them up, slaying some forty of them

The rebels of the Kintantao sect still numbered upwards of ten thousand men. Several more battles were fought. The rebels, though superior in number, being badly drilled and too confident in their magic, were defeated and their sham emperor made prisoner. Two mandarins were also killed.

I hear that among the rebels there are many rioters who came here from Kiang-nan after the disturbances.

Among the Imperial troops there are also many wicked men doing great harm to the populations they have come to defend. This year the crop failed again and the number of the poor has considerably increased. The few families who are still well off have been robbed by the Imperial soldiers of all the provisions they had in store. They can not obtain protection from the mandarins, as these only care to get rich at the people's expense.

Here is a new instance of the cruelty of the rebels. A mandarian, unable to oppose them, had piled up on several carts his family, his provisions, and his riches. He had just arrived at the foot of the mountains when he was overtaken by the rebels, despoiled of all he had, and slain. The next morning, wishing to make certain that they had left nothing unplundered, the rebels came again to the spot and there discovered an infant crying for food. Unmoved by this pitiful sight, they caught hold of the child, seized it by the legs and pulled them apart, tearing the poor infant in two. Would to God that this may be the end of our calamities.

Mr. Blaine to Mr. Denby.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

No. 701.]

SIR: I inclose for your information a copy of a letter from the board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States and the resolution therewith, recognizing your services in aid of the missionaries at Chinanfu.

I am, etc.,

Washington, February 11, 1892.

JAMES G. BLAINE.

Mr. Ellenwood to Mr. Blaine.

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

53 Fifth Avenue, New York, February 8, 1892. (Received February 9.) SIR: The board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian Church, United States of America, having received communications from its missionaries in north China concerning the good offices of Hon. Charles Denby, United States minister at Peking, in securing due protection of the interests of its missionaries in the Shantung province, and also favorable recognition of their benevolent work and the granting of such facilities as would enable them to prosecute that work, desires to make formal acknowledgment of his services through the Department of State, and to express its thanks through the proper channels for the same. The action taken by the board is here with inclosed.

Respectfully

F. F. ELLENWOOD,

Secretary.

[Inclosure.-Extract from minutes, February 1, 1892.]

On receipt of letters from Rev. Gilbert Reid, of the Shantung Mission, calling attention to the services rendered to the mission by United States Minister Denby in securing from the Chinese Imperial Government certain favorable concessions with reference to the purchase of property for missionary purposes at Chinanfu, the board desires to record its high appreciation of this official service, which opens the way for the erection of missionary residences, school and chapel buildings, and hospital. The property thus gained will become a center for the diffusion of a widespread educational influence and the untold blessings of medical and surgical relief to thousands of the needy and suffering, to say nothing of the higher spiritual influences to be exerted upon the people. It was resolved that the board transmit, through the Department of State at Washington, a copy of this action, together with a unanimous vote of thanks to Hon. Charles Denby, United States minister at the Imperial Court of Peking, for his kindly intervention in behalf of the mission. (Letter of Rev. G. Reid, December 7, 1891.)

Mr. Denby to Mr. Blaine.

No. 1484.]

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Peking, March 5, 1892. (Received April 18.)
SIR: I herewith inclose a copy of a compilation called "A Complete
Picture Gallery."

This publication is designed to reproduce for circulation among western peoples and powers exact copies of the vile and indecent pamphlets and pictures which are being distributed all over China and are believed to have been powerful causes of the recent riots.

If you examine this brochure you will see that it is full of the most abominable charges against foreigners. They are charged with kidnapping children, bewitching grown people in order to obtain their eyes and brains, and with every conceivable immorality. These papers are circulated by the millions with the tacit consent, if not open encouragement, of the local authorities. When the masses see that their of ficials and literary men believe, or affect to believe, that these charges are true, they are easily stirred to riot. It seems that we are face to face with a conspiracy to drive the foreigner out of China; and the plan of operations embraces the common use of libel and slander. In these pamphlets the populace is urgently advised to use all manner of personal violence to get rid of foreigners. No western country could permit obscene publications directed against foreigners resident in its borders to be circulated. It is admitted that the prohibition of such pamphlets is difficult, but while fair arguments against Christianity must be tolerated, direct appeals to murder and riot should be, as far as possible, prevented by the Chinese Government. I am satisfied that these publications have an immense influence on the masses; the greater, because there is a widespread belief that the Government secretly favors this plan of checking foreign residence in China. On the side of the foreigners, their trade, their property, their lives, are all at stake. It can not be wondered at, therefore, that they are disposed to adopt almost any method which may conduce to self-protection. Lately, at Hankow, the British residents made a direct appeal to Lord Salisbury in this matter. They passed stringent resolutions and demanded the active intervention of the home Government.

You will notice that the introduction and "Review" inserted in this brochure abound in attacks on the foreign representatives in China. It is scarcely necessary to say that these attacks are unwarranted. The diplomatic body here has always been engaged in efforts to secure the

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