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from within, and not from without. And this brings me to the topic assigned me for discussion in the present paper. And I must ask whether, in their zeal for setting right what they deem amiss, these good males of our race have not given so much heed to our duties as to forget their own.

How if, when Napoleon said “ France needs mothers," it was equally true that France needed fathers, and is equally true to-day that the civilized world needs them?

Paternity as well as maternity has its real and its ideal side. The love of offspring, most passionate in women, is common to both sexes. But among the ideals of manhood, how is it that to-day the ideal of fatherhood is rarely held up to the sex as one especially worthy of attainment. We love to speak of our fathers, and in this Centennial period have made ourselves almost tiresome with emphasizing their merits and services. We have exhumed their rusty arms, their faded ornaments, and our fashion delights to masquerade in their cocked hats and knee-breeches. But how do we deal with those noble traits of manhood which make men the spiritual fathers of a clean and clear society, a society energetic, rational, inspired by art, and not corrupted by luxury ?

I will not say that these traits have faded from the race to-day, nor will I declare them to be less frequently met with than in times less distinctly known to us. But I will say that much of the public teaching, with which I am familiar, puts them out of sight. Especially is this the case with that sort of dogmatism of which I have spoken, just above.

Tennyson in one of his poems accuses an unworthy mother preaching down a daughter's heart. But the fathers of criticism to-day preach down the hearts of mothers and daughters alike. They say to women : “ You must be self-denyingour convenience requires it.”' It does, indeed. But they say further: s. We will be what we choose to be. You must have endless patience in performing thankless offices, and faultless skill in tedious ministrations. Ours shall be the larger industries, the greater glories, the higher reward. You must be religious, and the clergy who instruct you must make it a part of your religion that you shall obey us. We are naturally skeptical, there is no help for it. But, above all, you must be chaste.” Why? Because unchastity degrades, and a degraded parent will bear degraded children? Not exactly; that argument would prove too much. Under that head, what man of us would be a candidate for holy matrimony? No, you must be chaste because men wish to be sure that the children they are to bring up, principally through your labor, have been in the first instance begotten by them. This is the supreme reason which binds you to the conditions of chastity. Nature has no counter obligation to impose upon us.

Therefore while matrons must either be faithful to their vows, and maids to their traditions, or else submit to the extreme of public and social disgrace, a whole tribe of women without womanhood must be kept in the background of society, in order that we may indulge without inconvenience appetites whose very existence in you we should consider it a shame to recognize.

There is then, in these times, a great cry about maternity, and the stress laid upon, it by popular writers would induce one to suppose parentage to be an office whose solemn duties and responsibilities devolve upon one sex alone. The law of chastity, according to this view, is imposed by men upon women, partly because men determine to assure the parentage of the children whom they undertake to rear and educate, partly because lawless sexual indulgence is inimical to the moral influence and responsibility of mothers. With all this, society which, even in its progress, vacillates from its true standard, shows to-day lapses and deficiencies which do not seeni to be wholly chargeable upon the mothers of the community. The sins which destroy the public credit, the breaches of trust which honey-comb the wealth of American society, these are not committed by women.

In the generality of homes throughout the land, the mother lives and works to-day as mothers have ever been wont to do. The compulsion of the waxen fingers, the tyranny of tender beauty and clinging dependence, the slavery, in short, of the wooden cradle, maintains its sway. Women, wise and foolish, are its thralls; the lowest, lifted by its infallible discipline, the highest learning a truth beyond their own guessing from the lips of their babes, before those lips can form articulate sounds. What is wanted in those homes in which motherhood is vigilant, tender and unwearied? If anything is wanting, it is fatherhood. It is not usually the mother who comes home reeling with the fumes of liquor. It is not the mother who beats and stamps and tramples. It is not the mother who follows the lewd person home, who accepts her service and pays her fee. It is not from the mother, usually, that a child inherits the results of syphilitic disease, or the nervous debility and suffering which mark the children of intemperate parents. I have seen a young mother, fresh and innocent as a flower, poisoned with loathsome disease by the wretch who received her candid marriage vows, uttered in a language whose meaning had ceased to be intelligible to him.

In fashionable life, the varnish of polite surroundings heightens the darker features, instead of concealing them. We sometimes see here an offending wife, sought and ruined by some man of her own class, who keeps his position while she loses hers. Or we observe a gay group of young ladies and gentlemen at a party in which the forms of ceremonious intercourse are, for the moment, relaxed. We are struck by the low level upon which the young people come together. Down, down, they lead each other, ever more silly, ever further from reason and dignity. The girls cannot strike low enough to reach the plane of the young men’s habitual thoughts and emotions, or rather sensations. Why is this? It is because the young men are simply dissolute. The women who are their familiar associates are as vicious as they. The habits which disgrace their private lives color the tenor of their social intercourse, and their influence, in so far as they have any, drags society down to a low plane of feeling and of motive.

In the pursuit of purity, society is mistaken in laying the principal stress upon that portion of the community least inclined to the excess of sexual passion and best shielded by nature from its covert and irresponsible indulgence. The laws and institutions which are in force to-day, openly recognize the fact that men are more inclined to sexual license than women. Even poets express this in a more subtle form: “I am Man and she is Woman, and her passions unto mine are as moonlight unto sunlight, or as water unto wine.” An entire system of what may be called indulgences is based upon this natural difference between the sexes. Laws that crush and dishonor the offending woman mildly admonish the offending man, who must be reckless indeed if he cannot sin to his heart's content without bringing himself within the domain of the obliging statute.

Independently of human laws, moreover, the laws of nature lay upon the women the burdens of those pains and inconveniences which usually result from the sexual relation. Where this has been unlawsul in its character, and threatens danger in its result, the father slips out of sight, and often cannot be guessed at, while the sad mother must choose between the crime of infanticide and the reprobation of Christendom. These various circumstances combine, independently of legal action or provision, to hedge round the paths of women with difficulties hard to be overcome, while their

so.

natural tendencies hold them closely at hand by the very intensity of the domestic affections.

Yet society to-day utters its diatribes against women who neglect or undervalue the reserve of maidenhood and the dignity of matronhood. Writers who occupy the high seats of popular criticism cry out to women : “ You might as well make up your minds to it, whether you like it or not. You must be chaste, because we will have it

We shall be such as we choose to be whether you like it or no." I for one am willing to take these gentlemen at their word, in so far as concerns the first part of their statement. Let women be chaste, hy all means. But let the verdict go forth for all alike. Let there be no exceptional class, isolated, shut off from the happier associations of their own sex. Let there be no back door through which the husband, having preached chastity to his wise, may steal out to teach the opposite doctrine to a woman who has at least one inalienable right--the right to her own womanhood. Let women he chaste—all women, under deadly penalty in case of failure. And let this penalty rest on men and women alike.

When people dwell with great emphasis upon the necessity of educating women to be mothers, and of educating them for very little else, it sometimes occurs to us to ask why so little is said about educating men to be fathers ? I myself have sometimes asked this question with a satirical intention, but I resolve never to ask it again except in the most sober earnest.

In the duties of parentage, men have properly as great a part as women have. To fulfil these duties in any higher sense, and with completeness, men as well as women require a certain education. It is true that the birth of a child usually surprises the father as well as the mother with the sudden development of an unselfish affection. But parents of either sex do not deserve the name unless they follow up the revelation of Nature by careful study and effort to know and to do the best that can be done for their child. The building of a home is one of the most important tasks of the architecture of human society, and it would be strange indeed, if in the plan out of which the building comes, the man were not intended to supply a moral as well as a material half. In a masculine college, as these are to-day administered, our sons are educated to consider themselves superior, to what? To Nature, to home duty, to the requisitions of family life. As a consequence of this, they are usually deficient at the outset in the qualities needed to lay the foundation of a happy home.

The Reforiners of to-day are mostly fond of calling themselves Christian. Let us observe a little, with relation to the family, what doctrines are distinctly taught by the Divine Master of Christendom. Christ does not define a wife's duties, but he does say that a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall cleave unto his wife. He does not assume that women, as a general thing, especially need to have the maxims of purity impressed upon them by men. But he does say that a man who casts a licentious look upon a woman has already committed in his heart the sin whose outward consummation, if detected, would under the Jewish law cost the woman her life.

Christ does not find it necessary to exhort mothers to love their children. His own household Saint had taught him that they do. A great fact in his teaching nevertheless remains to-day unappreciated. It was by holding up the ideal of fatherhood that Christ chiefly expected to revolutionize the world. The universal brotherhood brought to view by Christianity is the result of this great primary relation. The supreme ideal of the human race, the divine, in short, is a father. The infinite, omnipotent God watches over His children with tireless affection, with never failing compassion and forgiveness. The Father-Philip asks to see him, and is admonished.

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The sp ritual nurure, the sacrifice and forgetfulness of self, the vigilance and painstaking which their life with the Master has shown them, these traits constituted the fatherhood of humanity, and Philip, even in that rude age, and by that indulgent Chief, was blamed for not having known it.

To-day the case is somewhat different. In one of the reactions which attend the world's progress, this tender and sublime ideal is distanced from the minds of men by the love of license and of power, as well as by one-sided and impersect culture. The men, some of them beardless boys, who dogmatize about maternity, without the smallest understanding of its conditions, may pardon us if we look away from the weak, slavish model of motherhood, which is all they are able to present, and say to them, • Show us the father, and it sufficeth us."

I will show you the father in the simplest mode of family life and in the highest form of human attainment. Fatherhood and motherhood, the two most steadfast and intense forms of affection known to the human race, will never die out from the depths of its life, even if partially lost sight of for a time in its fashions and litera

But as the powers of human society develop, the dignity of human relations becomes more evident. As the standard of cuiture rises, that of moral and social obligation rises also. You will find in all ages sublime fathers and mothers among the lofty and the lowly. But towards this special ideal, the fatherhood of the race, our young men of to-day need especial training. A few rare spirits, froin age to age, take upon themselves this high office, with its ceaseless care and unremitting burdens. We call them heroes and philanthropists, but while we admire their exceptional gifts, we fail to see in them the rare and special trait which makes these gifts a blessing to mankind. This is that very spirit of fatherhood which busies itself with the needs of others, and with the vital interests of the community.

These illustrious instances of merit have usually had their source in the education of the domestic hearth. And this is the very gold mine of a nation's wealth and happiness, the care with which its children are trained at the fireside. From noble, equal mating to noble, equal parentage, the transition is as natural as that which brings summer out of spring.

If women need education in order to appreciate this fullest glory of womanhood, how can we suppose that men need it less, men in whom opposite traits and passions often obscure and almost efface the domestic ideal ? And if it must be, as is assumed, that men shall teach women to measure the grandeurs of womanhood, may it not be just as necessary that women shall teach men the true significance of paternity, its supreme dignity, its momentous responsibility, its surpassing reward ? Mindful of this, when Harvard, Yale, and other one-sex colleges turn out their yearly crop of youthful omniscients, and when friends and teachers recognize in one a soldier, in another a statesman, in a third a banker, and so on, let the women of the community seek in these young recruits for the germ of those dispositions and sentiments which make it possible for a man, with the aid of a true woman, to build what may truly be called a home. In this view, let them say to the instructors of youth: “You have shown us in your pupils the trained intellect, the well-stored memory, the cultivated imagination. Take us further into the merit of your work. Tell us how this generation of men is fitted to introduce the next. Show us the father.”

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION OF WOMEN.

BY ELIZABETH K. CHURCHILL.

OF This paper only a synopsis will be given. It urged, in view of the vicissitudes of life, the thorough training of every girl, whatever her station in life, in a profession, trade, or special pursuit, by which she may be self-supporting in case of need. Society should for its own protection demand this. At present it discourages systematic industrial education wherever women have a present competence and good social position, or are believed to have a natural claim for support upon any man. The effect of this mistake is to make all wage-producing industry discreditable to women, and to offer a premium for helplessness, at the cost of future suffering. It was not claimed that the earning of money is the ideal condition for women, but it is a present necessity, perhaps to cease in a more perfect condition of society. The employment of wives and mothers outside their homes was deprecated, but if they had received practical training in any business they had resources which made them independent of reverses, able to baffle temptation, and which added interest and dignity to life.

An essential preliminary to more general and thorough industrial education is that the world should recognize this need and adapt its theories to it.

We should at once disabuse our minds of the notion that the opposition or indifference of men to enlarging the field of women's labor, or qualifying them for remunerative work, proceeds from unworthy motives. Many laboring men oppose

it on the ground that the competition of women at lower prices will prove ruinous to themselves. Others sincerely believe that the necessary conflict with the world involved in the labor of women outside the home is incompatible with womanly delicacy, and the highest morality and happiness. This feeling is not confined to

but as many of the more delicate sex cannot marry, and as some who do are obliged at one time or another to contribute to the family support, it would seem a common-sense precaution to insure to them the practical education without which women are helpless in times of emergency. We have no practical concern with an ideal state of society, but with the facts of our present condition.

The problem is not concerning women with exceptional abilities and eager aspiralions, but how to stimulate and direct those who have no positive tastes, no inward necessity for action. One of the first necessities is that we should demand the best work. Mediocrity should not be tolerated, nor success overpraised. Women can not compete with men unless they accept the standards by which masculine work is tested. Work that commands the highest pay is judged as work, and no allowance is made for sex. Where women compelled by necessities enter late in life, or at any period, without accurate knowledge, the labor market, their work is too often of the make-shift order, and is paid accordingly. The over-estimated intuition of women will not serve them instead of the careful development of powers of observation and judgment, and acquired skill of the hand, by which alone one becomes of value as an artisan.

Knowledge of the laws of trade and capital are essential to the successful conduct of most enterprises.

Industrial and technical schools, in which girls can acquire a practical acquaintance with industries suited to their tastes and strength, are greatly needed, and will be established whenever an educated public sentiment shall demand them. Europeans

men,

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