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of the body in this way, often without disturbing the heart and the great arteries which may continue to beat on with steady uniformity,

Now what must be the effect of this incessant local regulation of blood vessels ? Briefly this. Men having more active and larger muscles, distributed near the surface of the body and to the extremities, the nutritive elements will be largely used by them, and by those related portions of the frame which are intimately concerned with the muscular economy. Hence there will arise a distinctively masculine type of modified nutrition. I will call it the peripheral type of organic activity.

In the feminine organism, cn the contrary, the vaso-motor nerves are impelled to furnish the larger share of supplies to internal and more central organs, including the uterus, the mammary glands, and the vast extent of internal organs and viscera which are more or less actively involved with the comprehensive feminine reproductive functions. Another and a very different type of modified nutritive action is the result. I distinguish this as the central type of organic activity.

No physiologist will deny that these unlike tendencies in growth and automatic action of functions, do characterize the sexes respectively. And who will prove that they are not of equal value, if estimated quantitatively in terms of physical force ? and not of equal utility to the world when estimated in terms of social force ?

But the peripheral type carries with it not only greater automatic, but also voluntary exercise of the muscles. It must provide for movement of all the heavy extremities and of each separate muscle. Muscular contraction is effected not through the vaso-motor filaments which enlarge or contract the blood vessels, but through the bundles of cerebro-spinal nerves which are distributed to every striated, voluntary muscle. The brain is the great nerve ganglion in this system; and the brain is the organ of the will. The movement of any limb may arise automatically through the spinal cord; but its voluntary motion can be effected only through the brain and at the expense of brain tissue.

This means action within the cranium, which will tend to increase the growth of the brain; it means a large brain to work the large muscles. Thus every brain becomes to a greater or less degree a storehouse of physical force, accumulated, not to promote intellectual processes, but to carry forward mechanical action within the muscles.

Even a chiefly automatic use of the muscles, as when a wood-chopper swings his arm ceaselessly, almost without consciousness, or when a pedestrian walks on, wholly unconscious of the successive steps which he is taking, must be the result of nerve action and at the cost of nerve force. In the end it must 'draw


great reservoir of nervous energy, the brain. Those who habitually overtask the muscular system cannot expect to be at the same time extremely active mentally. There is an overdraft of brain force.

Mr. Darwin enumerates, among other class differences between men and women, these :—Men are taller, heavier, stronger, have squarer shoulders, more plainly pronounced muscles, larger jaws, vocal cords a third longer, more projecting brows and a broader base of the skull—characters all of them which must arise from the peripheral type of activity. They suggest the co-operation of brain force expended in other ways than those of pure intellectuality.

Dr. Ferrier has made some very curious experiments upon several classes of animals of the Mammalia, by applying electricity to different parts of their brains when they are in a state of insensibility from chloroform. Dr. Ferrier finds that certain portions of the brain, when “ Faradized,” excite motions of specific kinds, always in the same adapted members of the body.


Corresponding parts in the brains of cats, dogs, rabbits and monkeys produce similar movements in them all; making due allowance for the unlike habits of these animals.

The noteworthy fact in this connection is that those divisions of the brain which are thus proved to take part in muscular activity “ are all located in the anterior lobes and the anterior portions of the middle lobes,” « the part of Man's cerebrum,” says Dr. Carpenter, “which corresponds with the entire cerebrum of the lower mammalia.” Here there is experimental evidence that just those parts of the brain which are more prominent in men than in women are the portions whose function, in part at least, is to contract and move the several muscles with which they are correlated. “ The nervous mechanism forms itself in accordance with the modes in which it is habitually called into action.” Hence the form and size of the male brain.

Dr. Ferrier found also that stimulation of the posterior portion of the middle lobe in brains like those of cat and dog, or of that part together with the whole of the posterior lobe in the monkey, as well as those front portions of the anterior lobes which distinguish men and monkeys from the lower mammalia, produced no responsive movements in any muscles. The inference is that these divisions of brain tissue are concerned with other functions; what they are, we can as yet only conjecture, though we know that the brain as a whole is the organ of the intellect, the emotions and the will. It is a comfort to learn that the feminine brain is not necessarily deficient as the instrument of proper psychical energy. We must especially note that in the distinctively central type of organic activity, volition effect nothing directly. In the feminine constitution, all the special and typical functions are as much outside of the direct action of the will as the digestion, the beating of the heart, or the general circulation. The brain is not largely brought into action in these steady processes which absorb and utilize or divert the large surplus of nutritive elements. The efficient minute local nerves are competent to regulate and distribute supplies as they are needed; and the great sympathetic system which ministers to all organic life, acts on in the line of general organic tendencies with out the direct intervention of either the volition or the intellect.

Let me suggest here, in passing, as a hint to Evolutionists, that the very different relations which the voluntary powers have to the male and female types of organic activity, may, in the absence of external modifying influences, account in some degree for the much greater variability of the male than of the female among all classes of beings, the human races included. The individual Will, choosing and modifying to suit itself the various classes of muscular action, its choice must largely determine the growth of all the correlated parts of the system. But the central type, besides lying outside of all direct interference from volition, may be supposed to use up that redundant physical force which is represented in the larger and more active brain and muscles of the male.

This type, on the other hand, is easily affected by varying mental states, especially by all classes of emotions. The involuntary processes, apparently, are more closely related to emotional changes than voluntary processes which are directed by the will. But the automatic centers of nearly all of the motor nerves are comparatively low down in the spinal cord. When stimulated they habitually react mechanically from their spinal axes without exciting any form of consciousness. And when the influence travels up to the brain, it more readily excites sensations or volitions. The proper emotional centers are not directly or closely allied to the motor system, and they are not brought into action to a very great extent in its habitual and most useful modes of exercise, whether voluntary or involuntary.

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But the great Cerebro-spinal nerves which are distributed to the internal organs, including the heart, all the vaso-motor nerves which thread their way with the bloodvessels to the same central organs, and the great “intercostal nerve” of the sympathetic system, distributed also to the central organs and viscera, all take their rise within the cranium and in close neighborhood. They are in close neighborhood also with what is termed the sensorium; the organic seat of all the special senses. Of course, therefore, they are not far away from the upper brain, conceded to be the organ of all mental operations, including the emotions. Any influence which very powerfully excites either of these contiguous centers of nervous action, may be

very readily communicated to the others. Thus, mental emotions exert a very marked influence upon the entirely automatic secretions of many of the glands, and notably on the tear glands and mammary glands.

As Woman has a muscular system, with an adapted nervous structure, so Man has, in common with her, a central automatic nervous system which carries on all the operations of life without the intervention of the Will. But it is relatively less active, at least in several special directions, and the entire mental and physical character is undoubtedly much modified in consequence.

One result of this modification seems to lie in the direction of a more active emotional nature and a more frequently automatic form of intellection in women than in men. Every kind of nervous influence, even in the voluntary system, easily spreads till it involves some of the emotional and intellectual centers. But in the involuntary type of nervous action, a communal state of activity so often prevails that even thought and feeling seem to have become more closely associated in one sex than in the other. This fact may be structurally accounted for by the relatively greater activity in women of many functions whose chief nerve centers lie in close contiguity and within the cranium. Thus they can the more readily involve all cerebral operations.

Women have been largely credited with quicker and higher intuitions than men; and that form of hidden automatic brain work which Dr. Carpenter calls unconscious cerebration must be the proper organic basis of all simple intuition. Much feminine brain work seems to be done in this way, not only without volition but even quite unconsciously. In this way the physical brain is probably largely stimulated and developed.

Dr. Flint notices the accelerated action of the heart in women as a class, " which continues,” he says, “even into old age.” He estimates that there is an average of seven to ten more pulsations per minute in women than in men. Respiration is thought to vary proportionately. The deeper and more frequent blush, the readier flow of tears, and other like differences indicate that the sexes are mentally and physically differentiated very widely.

If the vocal cords in men are a third longer; in women they vibrate more than twice as rapidly in all ordinary speech or in singing. According to Prof. Blanchard, the several classes of male voices range from 173 vibrations per second in the bass, to 976 in the tenor; but female voices range from 387 vibrations per second to 2,069 vibrations. What a wide dissimilarity must there be in all the shades and grades of emotion, if the voice is any indication of the varying mental states of the sexes. The broad chest, the deep breathing, and the slow, strong heart-beats of a muscular man in his prime, are typical of his sex and condition physically and mentally. Active muscular exercise and a sudden warmer glow of feeling will alike quicken every breath and every pulsation. All motion and all emotion for both sexes are registered in the aetion of the heart and other central organs.

But the intellect has an almost complete little organic system of its own which lies so far out of the track of other processes that it can learn to carry on its pure thought operations without a perceptible quickening in any other active organic process. One may think and think for hours, yet not one pulse be stirred or disturbed; the brain only is actively exhausted. The more abstract lines of thought, and indeed all impersonal thinking, when the brain has become accustomed to its exercise, has a positive calming and sedative influence; it stills the restless nervous perturbations of an excitable organization; it carries the mind and the body both up into a region which is at once serene and equable. It is worry and emotion which weary and over-freight the nervous system. It is automatic, emotional thinking which is the bane especially of womanhcod. Woman is taught to suffer her mind to drift hither and thither without a rudder, borne on passively by every current of outward sug. gestion.

The feminine muscles cannot quite so advantageously break stones or lay down railroad tracks; but what feature is there in the feminine brain which incapacitates it for promoting any and every form of thought? Nothing is lacking but courage, perseverance, resolution applied as diligently in the new higher direction as it has been applied century after century to endless petty needle and lace-work, and similar traditional accomplishments.

In whatever they have deliberately attempted hitherto, women have emphatically succeeded. They need only to bring the voluntary machinery of thought into steady action, to become successful investigators and to develop the inventive genius which must be latent in the unconscious cerebration, (mechanical action and reaction within the brain] which, as we have seen, is especially stimulated in the feminine constitution. Not one feminine function need be disturbed by these intellectual processes. They are even more necessary than increased muscular exercises for the promotion of really good health. I find nothing in physiology which indicates that the woman's intellect is organically inferior to to the man's intellect. It has simply drifted, with. out the highest self-control and direction; yet there is no manifest deficiency of voluntary power. In morals aud in the practical conduct of life the self-guiding tendency has been even greater in women than in men, There is therefore no primary defect in the feminine Will.

We may be obliged to look for the cause of any suspected deficiency wholly outside of physiology, in the steady dissuasive pressure of external influences. These are certainly more than sufficient to account for every form of short-coming.

So far as I can learn, no one has estimated, from comparative weights and measurements, that the average woman's brain is smaller in proportion to her size than the average man's brain. On the contrary it is found that the man's frame is about one-fourth larger than the woman's, bnt his brain is only about one-eighth or tenth larger. This estimate can be only approximate; the proportions varying considerably in the different races. But one point is fully settled. In uncivilized tribes, as the rule, the woman is nearer the man in size and weight than in civilized communities; very often also she is more active in her habits, and it is a most suggestive fact, that her brain is much nearer his in size than is the case in any of the more refined and cultivated communities. I believe it will be found that this rule holds also among the working classes both of Europe and America, as compared with the class of idlers or of brain workers. It is highly probable that brain and muscle must rise and fall together in every grade of life; and no class of men has become as physically inactive as many classes of women.

Brain and mental power are as closely allied as brain and physical activity; but in mental action, habitual use, and other influences which modify the nervous structure, must become of more importance than any increase in mere dimensions. Size of brain alone could never help one to decide whether nervous energy is expended in thought, in emotion, or in voluntary muscular activity. That average womanhood represents vastly different types in the different ages and races, we know. What woman might become with equal freedom for normal development, let Christendom see to it that she be allowed herself to determine from henceforth.

Modern science has laid much stress upon that law of inheritance which transmits ancestral traits to the same sex only. Within certain limits this form of heredity can be demonstrated. The type of organic or automatic activity appropriate to the sex, with all the outgrowing modifications developed in the immediate ancestors, must be transmitted from sather to son and from mother to daughter.

But another law of inheritance, one which has “ commonly prevailed,” provides for “the equal transmission of characters to both sexes." Women have deliberately applied themselves to vigorous and original mind work so little in the past, one is forced to agree with Mr. Darwin, that, but for this more general form of inheritance, man might have become as superior in mental endowments to the woman as the peacock is in ornamental plumage to the peahen.”

However, since there is no such stupendous difference as this in the mental character of the sexes, it is not preposterous to suppose that intellectual force may have been, somehow, transmitted in equivalent measure to the two balanced halves of humanity. It is popularly believed, and not disproved by Mr. Galton, that most great men have had superior mothers or grandmothers. Tradition teaches us also, that in features, complexion, relative stature, in little tricks of manner and gesture, and in mental traits, daughters more often resemble the fathers, and sons the moth

After consulting a number of well-known standard works which record marked and curious facts concerning inherited characters, I became convinced that, exclusive of strictly sexual characters, primary and secondary, paternal traits tend somewhat oftener to reappear in female descendants, and maternal traits in male descendants.

This law of crossed inheritance, if it can be shown to exist, must go far towards establishing the theory that equivalent resultant qualities are entailed to each sex. Every child, physically, is as truly a blended type of both lines of ancestry as a compound motion is the product of the prior motions which determine its direction and composition. The endless complexity of forces must give an endless series of unlike resultants; but the a priori inference would seem to be that equivalent antecedents must produce equivalent consequents.

Limited time would not allow me to offer evidence sufficient to establish this theory, even if it were possible to do so; but this is a line of inquiry which any one can pursue for himself. With the assistance of friends, I have noted more than fifty families in which the parents are extremely unlike in mental character or in such traits as stature or complexion. The law of crossed inheritance undoubtedly produces a marked influence on the descendants. Both in physical and mental peculiarities, more of these girls strongly resemble fathers or grandfathers, and more boys mothers or grandmothers. How large this proportion, may be uncertain. There is room for difference of opinion in the generally conspicuous blending of family characters.

A similar test can be readily applied to the different nationalities which abound and intermarry in this country. I think it will be found that here also the law of


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