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the Tone Drills. In analysis, when in doubt as to the name of a feeling, consult the Tone Drills. Where, however, a student finds a phrase that will more effectively call up the tone than those given in the table, let him use it. Also he may sometimes find more than one word necessary to describe some of the mingled emotions. In such cases phrase freely.
5. Exercises in Toning.-Proceeding from the easy to the hard, let the student take representative selections and set down as accurately as he can the states or tones demanded.
6. Interpretative Conception. For actual delivery the student must realize that the simple setting down of the tones demanded by a selection is not sufficient. A student has not a true and complete interpretative conception of the feeling in a piece of literature until he has likened it in some way to his own experience, to something he has seen, or heard, or done, or felt, or said. Thus, in William Tell, an effective conception of the feeling accompanying the words "Place there the boy" is not realized by merely saying the state is one of command. He must know command. In effect he must say to himself, "The state is about like my own when I have told some person I have control over to 'do as I bid you,' or 'put that down,' or 'go there at once," " and the words "the tyrant said" (if indignation be the state decided upon) are not conceived interpretatively until the student, consciously or unconsciously, shall have said, "That's like my own feeling when I have seen some outrageous act—a woman struck, or the like-and have burst out, that's a shame,' 'that's an outrage,' 'you cur.'" This process of likening may not necessarily be a conscious one, but, conscious or unconscious, an effective conception demands it. If it be contended that this is debasing or cheapening literature the answer is that such contention is based on the absurd notion that everyday experiences are necessarily vulgar. It is surely not degrading literature to arrive at an interpretation of
Hamlet's love for his father by going into our own experience and realizing our love for our own father.
7. Aids to Interpretative Conception.-Interpretative conception is aided to a marked degree by the practice upon the Tone Drills. In most cases these examples cause in the student just such a process as we have demanded, leading him at once into his experience and enabling him vividly and responsively to know the desired emotion and its tone.
THOUGHT IN EXPRESSION
1. All good reading and speaking implies not only a right rendering of the feeling, but also a recognition of the true groups-Grouping or Phrasing, and an appreciation of Prominence.
2. Group the Words That Make an Idea.-In speaking naturally words fall into groups. Thus: "If it is wet there will be no meeting." Here "If it is wet" is one group, "there will be no meeting" is another. To say "If it is wet there" would confuse the listener, and any other arrangement but the one given would also confuse. Grouping helps to make clear the meaning.
3. Give Prominence to the Words That So Treated Make the Important Idea Stand Out.—In speaking naturally that which is important receives such utterance as to make it prominent. In "It is not only hot but red hot" we make the first "hot" and "red" prominent because so treated they bring out the main idea.
As a rule, prominence is given to the word or words that contain the new idea, the words containing the old idea being delivered as if in parenthesis. Thus in our example the first "hot" is a new idea and is given prominence. The second "hot," being an old idea, is delivered parenthetically.
In the following sentence the main ideas desired to be conveyed to the listener are, that "Belshazzar . . . made a great feast," "and drank wine," and these words, therefore, constitute the groups demanding prominence, the subsidiary groups being "the king," "to a thousand of his lords" and "before the thousand." The words connected by hyphens
make up the group-word, and are to be delivered as if one polysyllabic word, with the emphasis on the accented syllable of the emphatic word:
(the-king) — made-a-great-feast-(to-a-thousand-of-his-lords)-and-drank-wine-(before-the-thousand).
In the selection that follows,
a. Indicate the groups.
b. Indicate the words or groups that demand prominence in delivery.
c. Read aloud with careful regard to grouping and promi
Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords-and drank wine before the thousand. Belshazzar, – while he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar, his father, had taken out of the temple-which was in Jerusalem; that the king and his lords,-his wives and his concubines, might drink therein.
Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of the house of God-which was at Jerusalem; and the king and his lords, his wives and his concubines, drank in them.
They drank wine-and praised the gods of gold and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood-and of stone. In the same hourcame forth the fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the king's palace, and the king saw part of the hand that wrote.
Then the king's countenance was changed in him," and his
thoughts troubled him; and the joints of his loins wer and his knees smote one against another.
The king cried aloud to bring in the enchanters, the Che deans and the soothsayers. The king spake and said to th wise men of Babylon: "Whosoever shall read this writing. and show me the interpretation thereof shall be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold-about his neck, and shall rule as one of three in the kingdom." Then-came in all the king's wise men, but they could not read the writing nor make known to the king the interpretation.
Then was King Belshazzar greatly troubled, and his countenance-was changed in him, and his lords were perplexed.
Now the queen, by reason of the words of the king and his lords, came into the banquet house. The queen spake and said: "O king,-live forever;-let not thy thoughts -trouble thee, nor let thy countenance-be changed. There is a man❤ in thy kingdom-in whom is the spirit of the holy gods, and in the days of thy father-light-and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him and the king Nebuchadnezzar, thy father the king, I say,thy father,made him master of the magicians, enchanters, Chaldeans and-soothsayers forasmuch as an excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and show-" ing of dark sentences, and dissolving of doubts, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar. Now let Daniel be called-and he will show the interpretation."
Then was Daniel brought in before the king. The king spake and said unto Daniel: "Art thou that Daniel which art of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the kin my father, brought out of Judah? I have heard of thr that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and und standing and excellent wisdom is found in thee. And rs fore the wise men, the enchanters, have been brought in be me, that they should read this writing and make known un