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cases, the regimen ascertains the sense. Thus, To EvayyeλLOV TYS upnuns, Eph. vi. 15, can be no other than "the good news of peace. The addition plainly indicates the subject. For the same reason, το ευαγγελιον της χαριτος του Θεου, Acts xx. 24, is “ the good news of the favour of God;” το ευαγγελιον της σωτηρίας vuov, Eph. i. 13, "the good news of your salvation." The words in the common version, "the gospel of your salvation," are mere words, and convey no meaning to English ears. The second case, wherein the word always may, and commonly should be rendered good news, and not gospel, is, when it is construed with κnovσow, I proclaim or publish. The justness of this observation will be manifest, from what I shall afterward observe on the import of that word in the Gospels and Acts.

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17. The third case is, when it clearly refers to a different subject from what is commonly with us denominated the gospel. Under this, perhaps, may be ranked some of the examples which also come under the first case mentioned. For instance, To εvayγέλιον της σωτηριας ύμων, “the good news of your salvation. For here the tidings to which the apostle refers was not the embassy itself of peace by Jesus Christ; but it was the cordial reception which the Ephesians had given to that embassy, and which was to him who loved them good news, because a pledge of their salvation. Under the same case also, in my opinion, we ought to class that famous passage in the Apocalypse, (xiv. 6, 7,) “I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting'gospel,” (so are the words εχοντα ευαγγελιον αιωνιον rendered in the common version,) "to preach to them that dwell on the earth; and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgment is come, and worship him," &c. My reasons are, first, We are expressly informed what the angel had to proclaim, Kηovσσεv, which is all contained in the 7th verse, and relates to a particular event long posterior to the first propagation of the gospel, namely, the vengeance God would take on the persecutors of his church, expressed in these words, "The hour of his judgment is come." The rest of the verse is to be understood merely as a warning naturally suggested by the occasion. Nor let it be urged, that the approach of the hour of judgment looks rather like bad news than good. It frequently holds, that the tidings which to one are the most doleful, are to another the most joyous. The visions and prophecies of that book are all directed to the churches of Christ, and intended for their use. To crush their enemies was to relieve the churches: the defeat of the one was the victory of the other. Secondly, What the angel had to promulgate, is not called To Evayyeλtov, as the word is almost uniformly used when referring to the Christian dispensation, but simply evayyeλtov; not the gospel, the institution of Christ-not that which is emphatically styled the good news but barely good

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news. It is styled aviov, everlasting, with the same propriety, and in the same latitude, as things of long duration, or of permanent consequences, are often in Scripture so denominated.

18. Again, let it be observed, that by the English word gospel, we do not always mean precisely the same thing. The predominant sense is doubtless the religious institution of Jesus Christ. But this is not invariably its meaning. Early in the church the word Evayyedov was employed to denote, and in one passage of the New Testament actually denotes the history of the life, teaching, death, and resurrection of the Son of God. It is in this sense that the four histories or narratives, written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, containing memoirs of that extraordinary Personage, have, from the earliest antiquity, been titled Evayyedia, gospels. The word is thus used by Mark, (i. 1,) Apyn тOU εvayyeALOV INσov XOLOτov, "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ." I confess, however, that it would not be easy to decide, whether this ought to be accounted part of the sacred text, or a title afterward prefixed, (as were the names of the penmen by some of the first transcribers,) which may have been inadvertently admitted into the text. But whether this application be scriptural or not, it is very ancient, and has obtained universally in the church. The English word has precisely the same application. It may be proper here to remark, that though the Greek word εvayyɛdiov has been adopted by the Syriac interpreters, yet, in the historical part, they admit it only into the titles of the Four Gospels in the sense last mentioned, and into the first verse of Mark's Gospel, where the sense is the same. Their use of the Greek word in these places is exactly similar to the use which our translators have made of the words of the Septuagint, Genesis and Exodus, which serve for names to the two first books of the Pentateuch, but which they have never employed in the body of the work, where the words yeveois and εodos occur in that version. Thus, in every other passage of the Gospel and Acts, evayyελtov is rendered no sabartha, a plain Syriac word of the same signification and similar origin. In this the Syriac interpreters appear to have acted more judiciously than the Latin, as they have been sensible of the impropriety of darkening some of the plainest, but most important declarations, by the unnecessary introduction of an exotic term which had no meaning, or at least not the proper meaning in their language. In Paul's Epistles, I acknowledge, they have several times adopted the Greek word; but let it be observed, that in these the term Evayyɛλov is frequently employed in a different sense. This has in part appeared already, but will be still more evident from what immediately follows.

19. The fourth sense of evayyeλtov in the New Testament is the ministry of the Gospel. In this acceptation I find the word used oftener than once by the apostle Paul. Thus, Rom. i. 9, "God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit, in the gospel of

his Son," Ev TQ Evayyed, that is, in the ministry of the gospel, or in dispensing the gospel of his Son. This is one of the passages in which the Syriac interpreter has retained the original word. In another place, "What is my reward then? Verily, that when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel of Christ, TO EVAYYEλιov, without charge," 1 Cor. ix. 18; that is, that the ministry of the gospel of Christ may not by me be rendered chargeable. This the context plainly shows; for this is the only expense he is here speaking of. I think, for perspicuity's sake, the word ministry should have been used in the translation, as the English name. gospel hardly admits this meaning. Nor are these the only places wherein the word has this signification; see 2 Cor. viii. 18, and Phil. iv. 15.

20. I observe also, in the Epistles of this apostle, a fifth meaning, or at least a particular application of the first general meaning, good news. It sometimes denotes, not the whole Christian dispensation, but some particular doctrine or promise specially meriting that denomination. In this sense Paul uses the word, writing to the Galatians, (ii. 2.) The particular doctrine to which he gives the pertinent appellation, evayyeλtov, good news, is the free admission of the Gentiles into the church of Christ, without subjecting them to circumcision and the other ceremonies of the law. This, considering the Jewish prejudices at that time, accounts for the reserve which he used at Jerusalem, where, by his own representation, he imparted privately to the disciples of chief distinction, and consequently of the most enlarged knowledge and sentiments, that doctrine which he publicly proclaimed in Gentile countries. I think it is this which the apostle sometimes, by way of distinction, denominates his gospel. For though there was no discordancy in the doctrine taught by the different apostles, yet to him and Barnabas, the apostles of the uncircumcision, it was specially committed to announce everywhere among the heathen, God's gracious purpose of receiving them, uncircumcised as they were, into the church of Christ. Accordingly, as he proceeds in his argument, the gospel or good news, evayyedɩov, sent to the Gentiles, is expressly contrasted with that sent to the Jews; Gal. ii. 7.


This seems also to be the sense of the word in another passage, (Rom. xvi. 25,) where what he calls To Evayyeλiov μov, he describes as μυστηριον χρονοις αιωνιοις σεσιγημενον, kept secret for ages," but now made known to all nations for the obedience of the faith. For in this manner he oftener than once speaks of the call of the Gentiles. In all such passages, it is better to retain the general term good news in the version. This appellation is, in some respect, evidently applicable to them all, whereas the term gospel is never thus understood in our language.


OF THE PHRASE ἡ καινη διαθηκη.

ANOTHER title, by which the religious institution of Jesus Christ is sometimes denominated, is ʼn kaivη diaĺnên, which is almost always, in the writings of the apostles and evangelists, rendered by Yet the word Sianên by our translators "the New Testament." itself is, except in a very few places, always there rendered not Testament, but Covenant. It is the Greek word whereby the Seventy have uniformly translated the Hebrew n berith, which our translators in the Old Testament have invariably rendered Covenant. That the Hebrew term corresponds much better to the English word Covenant, though not in every case perfectly equivalent, than to Testament, there can be no question: at the same time it must be owned, that the word Stann, in classical use, is more frequently rendered Testament. The proper Greek word for Covenant is ovv≈ŋên, which is not found in the New Testament, and occurs only thrice in the Septuagint. It is never there employed for rendering the Hebrew berith, though in one place it is substituted for a term nearly synonymous. That the scriptural sense of the word dankη is more fitly expressed by our term Covenant, will not be doubted by any body who considers the constant application of the Hebrew word so rendered in the Old Testament, and of the Greek word, in most places at least, where it is used in the New. What has led translators, ancient and modern, to render it Testament, is, I imagine, the manner wherein the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews argues, (chap. ix. 16, 17,) in allusion to the classical acceptation of the term. But however much it was necessary to give a different turn to the expression in that passage, in order to make the author's argument as intelligible to the English, as it is in the original to the Greek reader; this was not a sufficient reason for giving a version to the word in other places, that neither suits the context, nor is conformable to the established use of the term in the sacred writings.

2. The term New is added to distinguish it from the Old Covenant, that is, the dispensation of Moses. I cannot help observing here by the way, that often the language of theological systems, so far from assisting us to understand the language of holy writ, tends rather to mislead us. The two Covenants are always in Scripture the two dispensations, or religious institutions; that under Moses is the Old, that under the Messiah is the New. I do not deny, that in the latitude wherein the term is used in holy writ, the command under the sanction of death. which God gave to Adam in paradise, may, like the ordinance of circumcision, with sufficient propriety be termed a Covenant; but it is pertinent to observe, that it is never so denominated in

Scripture; and that when mention is made in the Epistles of the two Covenants, the Old and the New, or the first and the second, (for there are two so called by way of eminence,) there appears no reference to any thing that related to Adam. In all such places, Moses and Jesus are contrasted, the Jewish economy and the Christian, Mount Sinai in Arabia whence the law was promulged, and Mount Sion in Jerusalem where the gospel was first published.

3. It is proper to observe further, that, from signifying the two religious dispensations, they came soon to denote the books wherein what related to these dispensations was contained; the sacred writings of the Jews being called ʼn waλata dialŋkn, and the writings superadded by the apostles and evangelists, kain diaSnkn. We have one example in Scripture of this use of the former appellation. The apostle says, (2 Cor. iii. 14,) speaking of his countrymen, "Until this day remaineth the veil untaken away in the reading of the Old Testament,” επι τη αναγνώσει της παλαιας Sianens. The word in this application is always rendered in our language Testament. We have in this followed the Vulgate, as most modern translators also have done. In the Geneva French, the word is rendered both ways in the title, that the one may serve in explaining the other, "Le Nouveau Testament, c'est à dire La Nouvelle Alliance," &c., in which they copied Beza, who says, "Testamentum Novum, sive Foedus Novum." That the second rendering of the word is the better version, is unquestionable; but the title appropriated by custom to a particular book, is on the same footing with a proper name, which is hardly considered as a subject for criticism. Thus we call Cæsar's Diary, Caesar's Commentaries, from their Latin name, though very different in meaning from the English word.


OF THE NAME ὁ Χριστος.

THE only other term necessary to be examined here is ὁ Χριστος, the Messiah, or the Christ, in English rendered, according to the etymology of the word, the anointed; for so both the Hebrew Meshiach, and the Greek Xpuoroç signify; and from the sound of these are formed our names Messiah and Christ. What first gave rise to the term was the ceremony of anointing, by which the kings and the high-priests of God's people, and sometimes the prophets, (1 Kings xix. 16,) were consecrated and admitted to the exercise of their holy functions; for all these functions were accounted holy among the Israelites. As this consecration was considered as adding a sacredness to their persons, it served as a guard against violence, from the respect had

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