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4. Other definitions. The term “ consul,” whenever the sense so requires, denotes any principal consular officer, or, if necessary, any consular officer. (Paragraph 14.) “Vice-consular officers," or "substitute consular officers," includes viceconsuls-general, vice-consuls, and vice-commercial agents. “Subordinate consular officers "includes deputy consuls-general, deputy consuls, and consular agents.-R. S., sec. 1674.


5. Consulates-general.-Consulates-general are established at Apia, Athens, Bangkok, Barcelona, Belgrade, Berlin, Bogotá, Bucharest, Cairo, Calcutta, Cape Town, Constantinople, Dresden, Frankfort on the Main, Guatemala, Guayaquil, Habana, Halifax, Honolulu, Kanagawa, London, Melbourne, Mexico city, Monrovia, Montreal, Nuevo Laredo, Ottawa, Panama, Paris, Port au Prince, Rio de Janeiro, Rome, St. Gall, St. Petersburg, Santo Domingo, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Tangier, Teheran, and Vienna.-R. S., sec. 1690, 29 Stat. L., 32.

6. Consular jurisdiction. All consuls-general are charged with the ordinary duties of a consul within the prescribed limits of their respective districts.

7. Supervisory powers.—Consuls-general, except as stated in the following paragraph, are also charged with the supervision of the consulates and commercial agencies, respectively, subordinate to them as hereinafter provided, so far as it can be exercised by correspondence. They will see that the provi

of law and of these regulations are complied with, and that the preparation of the consular correspondence and inclosures is in accordance with the regulations relating thereto. This supervisory jurisdiction, however, does not extend to accounts, consuls-general being in no sense auditing officers.

8. No supervisory powers. The consuls-general at Calcutta, Dresden, and Mexico are not charged with any supervisory

powers and have no consulates or commercial agencies subordinate to them.

9. Jurisdictional limits. The supervisory jurisdiction of other consuls-general extends over all of the consulates and commercial agencies, if any, in the country (but not including distant colonies), or in the colony where such consulates-general, respectively, are located, except as otherwise herein provided.

10. Germany.—The consul-general at Berlin has supervisory jurisdiction over the consulates and commercial agencies at Annaberg, Bremen, Breslau, Brunswick, Chemnitz, Glauchau, Hamburg, Ilanover, Leipsic, Magdeburg, Plauen, and Stettin. The consul-general at Frankfort over those at Aix la Chapelle, Bamberg, Barmen, Cologne, Crefeld, Düsseldorf, Freiburg, Fürth, Kehl, Mannheim, Mayence, Munich, Nuremberg, Sonneberg, Stuttgart, and Weimar.

11. Canada and Australasian colonies.—In the Dominion of Canada the consul-general at Ottawa has supervisory jurisdiction over the consulates in the Province of Ontario; the consul-general at Montreal over the consulates in the Province of Quebec; and the consul-general at Halifax over the consulates in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The consulates in British Columbia, Manitoba, and Newfoundland are excepted from the jurisdiction of any consul-general. The consul-general at Melbourne has supervisory jurisdiction over the consulates in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand.

12. Nuevo Laredo and Panama.—The consul-general at Nuevo Laredo has supervisory jurisdiction over the consulates at Chihuahua, Durango, Matamoras, Nogales, Paso del Norte, Saltillo, Tampico, and Piedras Negras. The consul-general at Panama has supervisory power over the consulate at Colon.

13. Inspections.-Upon application to the Department of State, and if it shall be deemed proper, authority will be given to the consuis-general at Berlin, Frankfort, London, Paris, Vienna, and St. Petersburg to visit the several consulates Rome, and commercial agencies in their respective jurisdictions for the purposes of inspection and report. These visits will, however, not be authorized to be made more frequently than once a year, and only upon the permission of the Department previously obtained. A like permission may also be granted to other consuls-general if circumstances shall at any time seem to require it. The actual and necessary traveling expenses incurred in these visitations will be paid.


14. Two meanings. The word “consul" is ordinarily used, in a specific sense, to denote a particular grade in the consular service; but it is sometimes used also, in a generic sense, to embrace all consular officers.15 C. Cls. R., 74.


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15. By the laws of the United States.—Commercial agents are by the laws of the United States full, principal, and permanent consular officers.R, S., sec. 1674. As respects their powers and duties in the consular service of this Government, no distinction is made by statute between them and a consul.

a They differ from the latter only in rank or grade. They derive their functions from the same statutes as consuls-general and consuls, and are entitled to enjoy all the powers, immunities, and privileges that under public law or otherwise are accorded to the consular office. The title of the office as representing a distinct grade in the consular service is peculiar to the service of the United States, and usage has established the appointment directly by the President. It is usual to ask formal recognition and an exequatur for a commercial agent from the government to which he is accredited, as in the case of other principal officers.

16. In international law.-Commercial agents in the consular service of the United States are to be distinguished from certain officers described in international law by the same title, who are not usually regarded by other powers as entitled to the full rank and privileges of a consular officer. The exigencies of the public service of the Government have from time to time made necessary the appointment of commercial agents of the character and with the restricted functions and privileges of such officers as known to international law, and this right is at all times reserved. In those instances, however, in which officers of this title and character have been appointed, the appointments have usually been made to countries the governments of which had not been recognized by the United States, or into which it was desired to send a confidential agent whose recognition need not be asked from the local government. Previous to the act of Congress of August 1, 1856, which reorganized the consular service, the officers appointed with the title of commercial agent were usually of this limited character. That act, however, not only established their rank as consular officers, but also superadded to their former powers the functions that appertain to the office of consul.


17. Vice-consuls and vice-commercial agents are consular officers who shall be substituted, temporarily, to fill the place of consuls-general, consuls, or commercial agents when they shall be temporarily absent or relieved from duty. They have accordingly no functions or powers when the principal officer is present at his post. Their functions, however, are coextensive with those of the principal when the latter is absent from his district and in all cases where they are lawfully in charge of the office.-R. S., sec. 1674; 3.3 Fed. Rep.,


18. Deputy consuls are consular officers subordinate to their principals, exercising the powers and performing the duties within the limits of their consulates at the same ports or places where their principals are located. They may perform their functions when the principal is absent from his district, as well as when he is at his post; but they are not authorized, in the former case, to assume the responsible charge of the office, that being the duty of the vice-consul.-R. S., sec. 1674.


19. The substitute and subordinate officers of consulsgeneral are by statute simply designated as vice-consuls and deputy consuls. It is customary, however, and the practice is indirectly recognized in the statutes, to designate such officers as vice-consuls-general and deputy consuls-general. Their powers and duties are the same as specified for vice and deputy consuls in the two preceding paragraphs.-R. S., secos. 1674, 4130.


20. Subordinate officers.-Consular agents are consular officers subordinate to their principals, exercising the powers and performing the duties within the limits of their consular agencies, but at ports or places different from those at which their principals are located.-R. S., sec. 1674. Their functions are not, in all respects, as extensive as those of the principal officer. Though they act at places different from the seat of the principal office and their duties are in substance the same toward persons desiring consular services, they act only as the representative of the principal, and are subject and subordinate to him. They are not authorized to correspond with the Department of State, unless through

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