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Report of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 1st January, 1835.

Read, February 16, 1835.

To the Speaker of the House of Representatives, of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

The subscribers, duly appointed to audit and settle the accounts of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, under the provisions of the third section of the supplement to the act incorporating the said society, passed on the fifteenth day of March, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, having been duly sworn or af firmed according to law, respectfully Report:

That in the performance of the duties assigned to them, they have diligently and carefully examined and audited the books and accounts of the Philadelphia Saving Fund society, for the year ending the thirty-first day of December, 1834; that they have examined and ascertained the amount of certificates of stock, the bonds and mortgages, and other evidences of the property and effects of the said society,and agreably thereto have made out the subjoined statement, exhibiting the situation of the said Philadelphia Saving Fund society, on the first day January, 1835.

The auditors, in the course of the present, as well as of previous examinations made by them, again derive great satisfaction in being able to express their opinion in favor of the continued good management of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, and in their renewed conviction of the safety and advantages it guarantees to the industrious and frugal, however small their means may be, not only of improving their condition, but of cherishing a spirit of independence, which is the parent of many virtues.

All which is respectfully submitted.

THOS. P. ROBERTS,
C. N. BANCKER,
HENRY TOLAND,

Philadelphia, 12th Feb. 1835.

Auditors.

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PHILADELPHIA AND TRENTON RAIL ROAD.

The travelling on this important work is rapidly increasing. During the week ending last Friday there were Twenty-seven hundred and twenty-three passengers carried upon this road. A survey of the straight turnpike between Trenton and New Brunswick has just been complete previous to the commencement of grading and laying down the rails, in order to complete the chain of communication to New York. From New Brunswick to Newark the road will be completed in all this year, and from Newark to Jersey City, it is now completed, and 2,500 passengers were carried on it last week. Within 15 months from this time, passengers will probably be conveyed by this route between Philadelphia and New York, in FOUR HOURS and a HALF. A large depot 60 by 90 feet is now building by the Philadelphia and Trenton rail road Company at the corner of Front and Ilarrison sireets, Kensington.-Commer

State of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, 1st Janu- cial Herald. ary, 1835.

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From Miners' Journal, May 2.

THE WEATHER.

We have had a long series of cold wet, cloudy, damp disagreeable weather. Beyond controversy, a more unpleasant spring thus far has not occurred within memory. On Tuesday the 28th inst. a considerable quantity of snow fell, which, however, was rapidly dis solved owing to the torrents of rain which preceded and followed it. On Thursday, the sun shone out with brilliancy, and the temperature was mild and springlike. This continued throughout the day, but yester day morning, (Friday) a change again occurred, the weather becoming unsettled, damp and cloudy.

THE REGISTER.
PHILADELPHia, May 9, 1835.

The Delaware and Atlantic Rail Road Company have completed a single track of Road as far as New Lisbon, a distance of 14 miles from the Delaware river. The road has lately gone into operation with flattering prospects of business. It is the intention of the Company to continue the Road to the Atlantic, terminating on the bay shore opposite Long Beach.

Printed every Saturday morning by WILLIAM F. GEDDES, No. 9 Library street.

The publication office of the Register has been removed from Franklin Place, to No. 61, in the Arcade, Western Avenue, up stairs.

HAZARD'S

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD.

VOL. XV.--NO. 20.

PHILADELPHIA, MAY 16, 1935.

REPORT OF MAJOR BACHE. Rail road-Williamsport, Penn., to Elmira, N. Y. Letter from the Secretary of war, transmitting a copy of a report of the preliminary survey of a route for a rail road from Williamsport, Pennsylvania, to Elmira, New York.

January 28, 1834.

Referred to the Committee on roads and Canals.

WAR DEPARTMENT, Jan. 27, 1834. Sir:-In obedience to the direction of the resolution of the House of Representatives, passed the 14th inst., I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of Major Bache's report of the preliminary survey of the route for a rail road from Williamsport, Pennsylvania, to Elmira, New York.

Very respectfully

Your most obedient servant,

Hon. A. STEVENSON,

LEW. CASS.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

No. 384.

portant lines in the net of internal communication which is in progress of being spread out over the face of the country. On its completion, in connexion with the canals of the two States, new markets would be opened for the vast products of the growing population lying west, and upon the fertile shores of the great northern lakes. A choice of a market would thus be presented among the three principal Atlantic cities, yielding reciprocal advantages to the interior and seaboard. These advantages would be further extended by the execution of the contemplated rail road from New York to Lake Erie, which, taking Elmira in its route, will traverse the southern range of the counties of New York, and open a new drain for the superabundant productions of that portion of the State.

So far as the defence of the inland frontier depends upon the rapid transfer of troops from the sea board, the projected route is one of much importance. An examination of the leading features of the country will show that the first principal route, west of the Hudson, from the coast to the lakes, is by the valley of the Susquehanna; and that the movement of troops from any point south of the Delaware to that region, by striking the Erie canal at Montezuma, would very considerably reduce the distance and time required to reach the lake at Buffalo, via New York and Albany. Thus, TOPOGRAPHICAL BUREAU, Jan. 27, 1834. from Philadelphia to Montezuma, the point common to Sir:-I have the honor to transmit, herewith, a copy both routes, by the Hudson River and the Erie canal of the report of Major Hartman Bache, topographical the distance is 440 miles, whereas, by the Columbia engineer, of the preliminary survey of the route for a rail road and Pennsylvania canal to Williamsport in rail road from Williamsport Pa., to Elmira, New York, connexion with the proposed rail road, and thence in compliance with a resolution of the House of Repre- from Elmira by the canals and Seneca lake, it is but 350 sentatives of the 14th instant, "that the Secretary of miles. As regards the waters of the Chesapeake it is War be directed to communicate to this House the re-apparent that the comparison will prove still more port of Major Bache,of the corps of topographical engi favorable to the route by the Susquehanna, so soon as neers, of his survey and estimate of the Williamsport a means of rapid conveyance is afforded between Baltiand Elmira rail road, in the States of Pennsylvania and more, or the head of tide, and Columbia-connexions New York." already in contemplation.

Copies of the drawings referred to in Major Bache's report will be transmitted to you as soon as practicable after the originals are received.

Respectfully submitted,

GEORGE D. RAMSEY,

Lt. in charge of T. B.

Hon. LEWIS CASS, Secretary of War.

Report of Major H. Bache, Topographical Engineer, on the survey of the Williamsport and Elmira Rail

Road-1833.

Lieut. Col. J. J. ABERT, Topographical Bureau:

These are some of the principal advantages which would be derived by the community at large by the successful prosecution of the Williamsport and Elmira rail road. There are others which are of great importance to the country in the vicinage of the work itself. The mutual exchange of the salt and plaster of New York for the iron and coal of Pennsylvania, forms of itself, no inconsiderable inducement for the proposed undertaking. It is estimated that 4,000 barrels of salt, annually find their way from Elmira, by the valley of the Lycoming, to Williamsport, under the most discouraging conditions of transportation, and which, in consequence thereof, are sold at the latter place for more than twice the cost at Elmira. Two thousand tons of bar and pig iron are returned by the same channel, at the cost of $18 the ton; making the enormous sum of $36,000 paid annually for the transportation of this single article between the two places, and which would be conveyed-upon a rail road for about a twelfth of that amount. It may, also, be fairly anticipated that lime would, likewise, become a fruitful source of reThe proposed road contemplates a connexion be-venue, for the supply of the wide belt of country south tween the internal improvements of the States of Penn- of the productive quarries of the State of New York, sylvania and New York, by uniting the Pennsylvania and including the head branches of the Susquehanna, Canal, at Williamsport, with the Chemung canal, at El-in which no limestone of good quality has yet been dismira, and seems destinedto become one of the most im-covered.

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No estimate sufficiently accurate, can be made of the quantity of plaster which is now conveyed by the present road from Elmira to Williamsport, nor do the means exist of ascertaining the quantity required by the country, which would then be open to supply from the plaster beds in New York. But to judge of the probable demand by the price now paid upon the west branch of the Susquehanna, ($14 per ton) compared with the cost at Elmira, ($5 50 per ton,) a large consumption may reasonably be anticipated. At present most of the supply is received from Owego, New York, by the descending navigation of the north branch to Northumberland, and thence is boated to the various points of demand. The full operation of the Pennsylvania canal, by affording a cheap and certain ascending navigation, for the introduction of this plaster, as well as that from abroad, will have the effect to reduce the present high price upon the west branch, but no far ther reductions can be looked forward to, until the proposed road, or equal facilities for transportation, shall be opened between that district of country and the New York beds, when this mineral, so important in agriculture, may be delivered at Williamsport for little more than half the sum now paid for it at that place.

branch of Towanda and south fork of Sugar creek; thence, by the valley of the south fork of Sugar creek, crossing the main stream just below Troy; thence by that of the north fork of the same creek, to the source of the south branch of Seeley's creek, generally called South creek; and lastly, by the valley of this stream, upon which the State line was crossed, to the Chemung, at Elmira.

By reference to the general topography of the country, it will appear that the route has in view to connect the west and north branches (Chemung river) of the Susquehanna, by a line somewhat, in relation to those streams, as the chord of a circle is to the arc, and that their tributaries, running in the direction of radii, furnish the means for the accomplishment of that object. In the route there are three summits to be overcome, namely, that of the Lycoming and Towanda, of the north branch of the Towanda, and south fork of Sugar creek, (the summit level,) and of the north fork of Sugar creek and South creek. These, forming the natural divisions of the route, will, for convenience of description, be adopted in the report; the first and third being further subdivided for the better attainment of that object. The following statement will show the distance and elevation of these summits, relatively to each other and Williamsport; from which it appears that, but for the necessity of conforming to the lesser accidents of the ground, these elevations could be overcome at moderate grades of inclination. These characteristics will be noted as they occur, in the order in which the different divisions are taken up.

and

Williamsport.

LOCATIONS.

But the strongest argument in favor of the proposed undertaking, and which of itself would seem sufficient for its early accomplishment, is, that it would make available the inexhaustible beds of iron and bituminous coal, which, besides being found at intermediate points of the route, lie stretching for miles along the valley of the Lycoming and its tributaries. These coal beds form a part of a region of considerable extent, which, includ-Statement of the distance and elevation of the summits of ing the district of country watered by the Tioga, the Williamsport and Elmira rail road route, relatively to each other Towanda, and the Loyalsock, with the above named stream, constitute it is supposed, the limit of bituminous coal in Pennsylvania, to the north and east. The varieties are said to be adapted to the various purposes of manufactures, steam engines, coking, iron smelting, and domestic use. In addition to the demand of the seaboard, it would find a ready market by the projected road, through channels already opened, in the interior, where the diminution of wood as a fuel is already sensibly felt. The salt works alone of that state would require a large quantity in the process of manufacture.And, should the experiments now making in the immediate vicinity of the Lycoming mines, for the production of coke, be successful, another source of profit would accrue to a line of easy communication passing through this valley, by the supply of distant demands for this desirable fuel, and in a greater production of iron from the ore, which is said to abound in the hills. The formation of branch rail roads, authorised by the charter, by penetrating the iron and coal region at various points, would swell considerably the amount of these products, and give additional importance to the main line. Among the valleys affording facilities for such undertakings are those of Trout river, Red run, Roaring branch, Sugar-work run, and others, tributaries of Lycoming, and of the Middle fork, and lesser branches of the Sugar creek.

In enumerating the advantages which would be likely to follow the execution of the Williamsport and Elmira rail road, the furnishing a market for the surplus wheat, flour, pork, butter, whiskey, lumber, and other products of the country, must not be overlooked.— These, with the tolls upon merchandise going inland, and the fare of passengers, would furnish constant and abundant sources of revenue.

The act of incorporation from the State of Pennsyl vania defines the route as "beginning at Williamsport, in the county of Lycoming; thence, by the way of Lycoming creek, to the northern line of Pennsylvania, in the direction of Elmira, in the State of New York.". The route thus vaguely indicated was followed by pursuing the valley of the Lycoming to its head; thence, across the country, to a depression formed by the north

mit level,
summit,
creek summit,
South creek summit to El-
Summit level to the south
Lycoming summit to the sum-
Williamsport to the Lycoming

mira,

15351 743 574

00

408.500 333.045

ml's. feet. ml's feet.

feet.

feet.

feet.

33 403 33 403 709.92

709.925

11 222 45 625 230.335

00

940.60

00

198.715 741.545

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NOTE." Previous surveys give the height of the

Susquehanna, at Williamsport, above the tide, at 458.640 feet. The rise thence to the Chemung, at Elmira, is 347.085 feet, (the plane of Williamsport to that point 315.165 feet-31.290 feet, the elevation of said plane above the river,) making a total of 825.725, feet as the fall of the Susquehanna from Elmira to the tide."

FIRST DIVISION.

From Williamsport, by the Lycoming Valley, to the
Lycoming Summits. (Lycoming and Towanda
Creeks.)

Subdivision 1st. From Williamsport to the point near
the site of an old bridge across the Lycoming, just
below Robbins's, 26 3 4 miles and 170 feet-ascent
374.795 feet.

will affect the formation of the road. In doing this, portions of the survey will be taken most convenient for a distance. The grades are assumed to the same end; as proper illustration of the subject, without reference to details of the ground, will not only increase the numa final location, by adapting the road to the minute ber, but materially change them.

I. Williamsport, Pa. 2 miles and 251 feet-ascent 2.010 feet, or 0.925 feet per mile.-Commencing at Williamsport, the route pursues nearly a west course, over high and cultivated bottoms, to the Lycoming, which it crosses just below the bridge, to avoid the steep and rocky hills which, for a mile and a half, impinge upon the stream. The profile upon the ground upon the line run, exhibits a cut at an average depth of 9.5 feet for three-fourths of a mile, which may be lessened by inclining the trace more to the south, to avoid the last swells of the high grounds just referred to. II. 18 miles and 412 feet-ascent 17.350 feet, or 11.941 feet per mile.-The line now takes up, by a curve of large radius, a direction a little east of north, and, baving passed round the base of subsiding slopes of the hills, which bound the valley upon that side, inclines again to the west, and, near J. Bennet's, a second vated, and of the most favorable character for the for mation of the road-bed. The inducements for crossing the stream below are equally strong in the present instance, on account of the high and rocky margin of the creek for nearly a mile and a half upon the west side.

The valley of the Lycoming, for the distance included in this subdivision, is from one-eighth to threefourths of a mile wide. Its general direction for the first three miles is about N. 20° W., when it assumes a course of N. 40° E., and, although circuitous, is not serpentine. The stream, like most others of mountain regions, altering from side to side, skirts the bases of the hills and mountains which bound the valley. These elevated grounds, presenting various aspects, from gradual and cultivated slopes to rocky and precipitous faces, are, at the mouth of the Lycoming, barely one or two hundred feet above the valley; but, upon approaching the sources of the stream, they attain a height of upwards of a thousand feet. The bottoms are generally high, and for the most part cultivated. There are portions, however, which bear the marks of fresh-time passes the creek. The ground is high and cultiets, which, once or twice a year, overflow the banks of the stream, forming new and temporary channels in discharging the surplus waters The bottoms, as the country becomes more thickly settled, will, every successive season, be less subject to these inundations by the clearing of the timber from the immediate banks of the stream, and the removal of the large quantity of drift wood, now the main impediment to a free discharge of the floods. To provide, however, against accidents from freshets, it would be proper in every instance, to place the road bed entirely above their reach.

The nature of the ground renders it impracticable to follow either side of the stream throughout for the trace of a road, without encountering the expensive and difficult plan of forming its bed upon the face of the hills, which, at intervals, approach the stream. Hence, it is frequently to be determined whether it is better to meet and overcome these difficulties, or to incur the expense of crossing the stream. In one case, the cost of construction would be greatly augmented by the increased distance and frequent recurrence of high and rocky hills, rising at various angles up to 45°, to conform to which, the trace would be necessarily indirect and circuitous; whereas, by crossing from bank to bank, the trace is not only more direct, having fewer curves, and those of greater radii, but is drawn upon ground more favorable in profile and for construction. To these advantages are opposed the necessity of twice crossing a stream of small capacity. As the Lycoming, however, is very variable in size, the proper points for these crossings must be determined by the width, in connection with the character of the banks and course, with reference to the trace of the road.

Adopting the latter alternative, the survey was conducted upon either side of the stream, as the ground appeared more favorable. It is not pretended, nor could it be expected from the nature of the operations, that the selections made in every instance were always the best. These points must be decided by future surveys. In the subdivision, however, under consideration, the alternative, with the exception of the 4th and 5th crossings from Williamsport, was in such strong contrast, that the selections will probably be confined. The excepted one may, upon further investigation be avoided.

Having given the main features of a portion of the route comprised in any of the principal divisions, and the reasons generally which governed the course of the experimental line, it becomes necessary to describe more minutely the characteristics of the ground which

III. 14 miles and 168 feet-ascent 14.365 feet, or 11.207 feet per mile.-This distance, traced upon equally favorable ground with the last, has a direction west of north, when the Lycoming is crossed again, to avoid the many rocky and precipitous hills which, for five-eights of a mile, make down close to the water above McKinney's forge.

IV. 14 miles and 637 feet-ascent 14.05 feet, or 10.801 feet per mile.-Resuming the same general direction, after passing the stream for about half this distance, the line is then deflected upon a north course, at the close of which, by the selection of the east side, for the reasons governing in the former cases, the creek is again crossed at Thompson's ford. This is one of the instances where a final location,by combining the two last sections in one straight line, may remove the trace to ground of more favorable profile, and shorten the distance.

V. 2 miles and 296 feet-ascent 31.424 feet, or 11.721 per mile.-It is a question for future decision, whether, from the close of the last section, the line should continue upon the west, or return to the east side. In one case, the road would of necessity be car. ried along the face of two very steep hills for 3,500 feet or at an equal expense be carried across to the low islands (Hay's) which lie at the base. In the other, it would have to cross at the east side, with the prospect of returning to the west at the close of the section, and traverse the bottoms, which with the exception of a hill of moderate slope for half a mile, are there found throughout.

The cursory surveys made at the time, led to the adoption of the latter alternative; the line of levels being carried on the east side of the stream, passing through the grounds of the widow Thompson, S. Thompson, and T. Hayes. The general direction of this portion of the route is N. 30° W.; the bottoms high and cultivated.

VI. mile and 516 feet-ascent 9.936 feet, or 11.721 feet per mile.-The question here recurs as to the selection between the banks of the stream. To avoid a very steep and rocky hill, which bounds the east margin of the creek for half a mile, it was decided to carry the line upon the bottoms opposite, although the indications of the character of the ground, a short distance above, seemed to offer equally strong reasons

for soon returning to it. The banks at the crossings, at the extremities of this distance, are very favorable, and, although made obliquely to the direction of the stream, only 140 and 120 feet respectively. The gene. ral direction of this section is about north. The grade assumed the natural inclination of the ground, which is of the most favorable character.

VII. miles and 412 feet-ascent 9.690 feet, or 21.389 feet per mile.-Direction N. 30° W. round to N. 58° E. Upon regaining the east bank, the trace of the survey is through a bottom, somewhat cut up by freshets for 1,600 feet, and then for 625 feet upon the face of the hill, which extends to the stream, near the second bridge, and presents along its margin, for nearly one and a quarter miles, a steep and rocky face. The course of the valley, which heretofore, had been some 15° or 20° west of north, here turns suddenly to the right, and assumes a direction about N, E. To in crease the radius of the curve over the trace described by the survey, it will be necessary to cross the stream lower down, where it forms two channels by the interposition of Reid's island. By this means the route will avoid the short portion of hill side mentioned above, and the curve be increased to a radius of about 800 feet, with which it will, even then, be necessary to describe an arch of one-third the circumference, to enable the line to take up the new direction which the valley

here assumes.

The difficulties of the ground upon the margin of the stream, the character of the stream itself, and the ne,cessity of carrying the trace upon an admissible curve, to conform to the new direction of the valley, tend to make this section of the route the most expensive of any equal distance yet described.

Thus far, in a distance of little more than 104 miles, the route crosses the Lycoming seven times; the 4th and 5th (from Williamsport) being those only, the propriety of which may not be sustained by further

surveys.

VIII. 4 miles and 538 feet-ascent 56.520 feet, or 12,779 feet per mile for 2 miles and 636 feet, and 10.818 feet per mile for 13 miles and 562 feet.-The trace of the line is now found on the west side, having a general direction of N. 40° E. passing Hepburn's forge, Glendennin's, and Allan's. It pursues a very direct course over elevated and cultivated bottoms, with a single exception of a side slope of 400 feet, of moderate inclination, and constitutes, probably, the greatest extent of consecutive favorable ground throughout the whole route. Wolf and Trout runs are crossed in this section; the latter, in consequence of having the same general direction as the survey, four times in five-eights of a mile, but which, if not avoided in the final location, is considered, from the size of the stream, of little importance.

To show how strongly contrasted is the character of the ground upon the opposite side of the stream, and the propriety of the selection in the present action, the following description is given: one mile and 1,020 feet, very steep and rocky hills to the water's edge, which, after an interval of narrow bottom for 4,300 feet, are again found for 1,500 feet. Bottoms then skirt the stream for 3,800 feet, followed by 3,600 feet of hills, close to the water. The remaining distance, with the exception of a single spur of 1,000 feet, is bottom.Thus the line, if continued on the east side, would, besides involving a curvature of small radius, encounter steep and rocky hills for two miles and 1,840 feet, and increase the distance almost 1,000 feet. Whereas the west side presents throughout, saving the two crossings, no obstacle to a cheap and direct location.

IX. 1 miles and 302 feet-ascent 21 feet, or 17.764 feet per mile.-Crossing the stream near R. Glendennin's, at the close of the last section, to avoid the hills, which, for a mile and a quarter, rise from the Lycom ing, at various angles up to 50°, the line runs upon

highly favorable ground, in the direction of about N. 20° E.

X. 14 miles and 228 feet-ascent 17.865 feet, or 13.815 feet per mile.-1 he favorable ground is then again sought upon the west margin of the stream, by crossing near the ford above J. Apkin's; the east presenting hill sides, with a short intermission for about a mile. The route, which, in this section, is in a direc tion of N. 70° E. crosses Trout spring run, a stream of small capacity, and, for a distance of 5 or 600 feet, oc. cupies a narrow strip of bottom, barely sufficient for the purposes of a road.

XI. 1 miles and 239 feet-ascent 20.505 feet, or 15.831 feet per mile.-The west side is now abandoned about one-fourth of a mile above S. Reed's, in consequence of two rocky and precipitous hills, whose united lengths upon the stream are about three-fourths of a mile, and the line carried over to the opposite shore, where, with a direction N. about 50° E., it traverses ground, which, with the exception of 800 feet of hill side, where the angles of inclination are from 15° to 30°, is of tolerably favorable character, consisting of bottoms of different elevations, the latter portions showing evidences of the effects of freshets.— These, which, for the part of the valley of the Lycom ing already passed over, have been unfrequent, and for the most part confined to the margin of the stream, because, in the ascent, from the commencement of this section, not only more frequent, but extending to every part of the bottoms. The necessity, therefore, for a proper elevation of the road, above the reach of the highest freshets, becomes a subject of more anxious solicitude.

XII. mile and 94 feet-ascent 15.305 feet, or 17.143 feet per mile.-To avoid the bad hill sides, which, for a half a mile, approach quite to the creek upon the east side, the survey now passes the stream below M. Riley's, and, upon the same general direction as the last section, traverses a high and cultivated bottom of the most favorable description throughout. 17.070 feet per mile.-By reason of the frequent recurXIII. 2 miles and 242 feet-ascent 45.590 feet, or rence, in the next two or three miles, of abrupt and rocky hills, which press upon the west margin of the the east side in a tolerably direct course of N. 10° E. stream, the route now crosses at Lusk's, and pursues upon ground of the following description; 4.651 feet bottoms, somewhat cut up by freshets of the main stream gle of 25 deg.; one mile and 820 feet, generally favora and Slack's run; 1,110 feet hill side, at an average an ble and cultivated bottoms; the remaining distance to the stream, of 2,150 feet, traversing a beach and a slightly elevated piece of ground. It is probable a fihowever, on account of the features of the ground as nal location will avoid these elevations, not so much, side below the island, near the confluence of Frozen the winding course of the route, by striking the west Branch with the Lycoming. Pleasant stream, which runs dry during the summer months, is crossed in this section..

19.051 feet per mile.-The trace of the survey is again XIV. 24 miles and 125 feet-ascent 43.215 feet, or Eben Smith's and Hall's, has a direction N. about 35° on the west side of the Lycoming, and, passing near E. to the junction of Red run with the main stream, both of which it is proposed to cross with a single viaduct. The characteristics of the ground in this section may be thus described: one mile and 3,061 feet bottoms, showing in places the effects of freshets; 1,077 feet hill side of 35 degrees, and 2,527 feet of ve ry favorable, and, for the most part, cultivated bottoms, The opposite side of the stream is in strong contrast with this, being very rocky, and very precipitous hill sides, with an exception of about 3,000 feet, to its very margin.

XV. 2 miles and 300 feet-ascent 55.155 feet, or 25.195 feet per mile.-This section, which closes the

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