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fect. Even if it could be done, the Delaware and Raritan canal company would not be safe in being at the expense of making an out-let from their feeder, without an assurance that a connection would be kept open into the Pennsylvania canal.

To obtain a supply of water for the use of the Pennsylvania canal, at Wells' Falls, Mr. Gay proposes to extend the present wing dam upwards about two hundred feet, and construct a dam entirely across the river, TWO FEET HIGH ABOVE LOW WATER AT THE HEAD OF THE FALLS, leaving a sluice sixty feet wide and three hundred feet long, for the passage of the descending trade. The proposed location of the dam is about five hundred and fifty feet below the head of the falls: In that distance, there is a descent of 1.25 feet, which will made a dam 3.25 feet high. On examination, I found that extreme low water mark at the head of the falls, was 2.83 feet below the top water line in the Pennsylvania canal; consequently. they will want a dam of that height, above low water at the head of the falls, instead of two feet, as reported by Mr. Gay, which, added to the descent to the location of the dam, will give a dam four feet in height. At all events, I do not think that they can get a sufficient supply of water, with a dam of less height than 3.75.

My present opinion is that the descending navigation will be less liable to be injured if this dam should be constructed about two hundred feet nearer to the head of the falls, and make the sluice walls one hundred and fifty feet above and extend them five hundred feet below the dam, to prevent the boats and rafts descending the river from running on to some rocks which crowd both sides of the channel, and are partially covered with water when the river is at a navigable height. I would also recommend that some rocks be removed and the channel straightened below the dam.

My limited time would not allow me to make a thorough examination of Scudder's Falls; but I am of the opinion that the navigation of the river never can be restored or the channel kept open, so long as the work is in its present unfinished state. The bank forming the head of the Trenton water company's works

terminates too near the head of the falls: it should be extended upwards at least three hundred feet, and raised so high that the floods cannot pass over it. It would be best to make a pier of timber crib work, filled with stone. The bank is now so low that the floods

It will be observed that the difference between forming a connection at Black's Eddy and New Hope is fourteen thousand one hundred and eighty dollars; and the difference to the Delaware and Raritan canal company will be eighteen thousand two hundred and eighty dollars. Pennsylvania gains by the New Hope connec tion four thousand one hundred dollars. If the connection is made at Black's Eddy, the Delaware and Raritan canal company will receive the trade on eight miles more of their feeder, than if the connection is made at New Hope, which may be considered a low estimate at five thousand dollars per annnum.

There will also be twenty feet more lockage, and two miles more canal navigation by New Hope, than Black's Eddy. Respectfully submitted, by your obedient servant, (Signed,) E. A. DOUGLASS, Engineer.

water, (which I doubt the propriety of doing other If there is to be any restriction as to the use of the than so far as not to obstruct the channel of the river,) I think it would be well to stipulate that each State can take and use the water for canal navigation, at any place above or between tide and State line.

COMMUNICATION FROM S. D. INGHAM, ESQ. tation as much as possible on her own canals, but those It is the interest of each State to retain the transporwho have products to sell will seek the best market; Easton will either pass through the Morris canal, or by when this happens to be at New York, produce at vania canal at Black's Eddy, opposite the head of the unloading, leave the Delaware division of the PennsylDelaware and Raritan feeder; or descend to Bristol, and thence by way of Bordentown to the Delaware and Raritan canal.

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sweep over it, and is not protected by walls sufficient No. 2. From Easton to Black's eddy,

to prevent the earth, gravel and stones, from being car. ried into the channel. The sudden termination of this bank gives a check to the current, and gives it a direction diagonally across the channel. This might be counteracted in a measure by constructing a wing dam from the Pennsylvania shore to near the channel.

Estimated expenses of forming a connection at Black's Eddy:

twenty-five miles freight,

Toll,

Boat,

Unloading,

Delaware and Raritan to New Brunswick, fifty seven miles toll,

Freight,

To New York, forty-five miles,

$1 23

90

25

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Two lift locks, eight feet each,

$16,000

Excavating foundation and pumping,

3,500

Pier, slope wall and wharfing around locks,

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miles freight,

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$200

$2.39

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15,300 The cheapest route will then be by Black's Eddy 8,900 and Delaware and Raritan feeder: and the amount of toll received by Pennsylvania on it will be but fifteen $61,380 and a half cents per ton: the question then presents at what other point can a connection be formed between

the two canals which will be more acceptable to Pennsylvania, and not objectionable to New Jersey.

Both canals lie within one lift of the water in the Delaware, immediat ly above the head of Wells' Falls, from thence downward the Delaware and Raritan rises above the water so rapidly as soon to require several locks to let down into the river; so it is in some degree with the Delaware division, and if a connection were formed below Wells' Falls, all the river boats which would incline to pass into either canal must pass the falls going to, and returning from, the point of entrance of the canals. An entrance at the head of these falls would avoid this danger and difficulty, and invite those boats into the canals, whose owners if they were obliged to pass the falls might find it their interest to keep on the river: a connection at a lower point would also be more objectionable to New Jersey. There is another reason for a connection at this point. The trade from the borders of the Delaware on both sides will seek the Philadel phia or New York market, as either may suit best, this trade Concentrates at the two villages of New Hope and Lambertsville, and unless that from each place can get into the opposite canal by water connection, it will be charged with the expense of crossing the river by bridge or ferry.

There are also an abundant means for the supply of lime on the Pennsylvania side, which is greatly wanted on the route of the Delaware and Raritan canal. The expense of hauling lime across the river in waggons adds about twenty-five per cent to its cost at the Kilns.

With respect to the coal trade it should be observed that Philadelphia can be supplied rather cheaper from the Schuylkill than from the Lehigh, and the coal from the latter mines can be taken cheaper to New York than the former, hence the greater part of the coal from the Lehigh will be taken to the New York market, it will of course take the cheapest route, which as has been shown is that by Black's Eddy to the Delaware and Raritan feeder, now if it be supposed that two hundred and fifty thousand tons of coal go to New York, from the Lehigh, the difference to Pennsylvania, between its leaving ber canal at Black's Eddy and at the head of Wells' Falls, will be as follows:

Two hundred and fifty thousand tons from Easton to Wells' Falls, thirty-six miles one half cent toll,

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In favour of cr ssing at the head of Wells'
Fall, yearly,

the same toll on the produce that leaves her canal, which are charged upon that which passes through it, but this policy, however just, if carried far enough to answer the purpose in this case would be odious to the community interested, and whenever resorted to, would probably stimulate great exertion to avoid its effects, for which there are various means. First, A reduction of tolls on the Morris canal. Second, An extension of the Delaware and Raritan feeder up the river with a tow path on the Jer-ey side, where the water suited.— And Third, A resort to a larger class of river boats, which as there are no rapids of any magnitude between the head of the Delaware and Raritan feeder, and Easton, could with an improvement of the channel be used for a considerable part of the year with advantage. These facts show the danger of attempting a rigid countervailing policy and the greater value of any arrangement which would be reasonable and acceptable to the rival canal interest, as well as those who may be obliged to use them.

If Pennsylvania should attempt the countervailing system, all those of her own citizens who may be affected injuriously by it will continually struggle to have it abandoned, and when the trade of the North Branch of the Susquehanna, and the lake country, shall, as it certainly will, be brought down the Lehigh, the interests opposed to the system will embrace a great extent of territory and population.

It has already been strenuously urged upon the canal commissioners, and before the Pennsylvania Legisla ture, to make outlet locks at Black's Eddy, although it would cost Pennsylvania, exclusive of the locks, about forty or fiity thousand dollars to make a new feeder to supply the loss of water which these locks would occasion, while the whole expense of an outlet at the head of Wells', with an increased supply of water for the lower division of the canal, and lockage round the falls, would probably not cost half the sum necessary to make the feeder and locks at Black's Eddy, and the probable additional tolls on coal alone, received by Pennsylvania, would be, as shown above, upwards of sixteen thousand dollars a year. These additional tolls must be greatly increased whenever the North Branch trade shall be added, for this also will go wherever there may be the best market, which, before the opening of the ice on the Erie canal, will generally be in $45,000 New York. The route from Ithica, in New York, by 10,500 way of the Lehigh, will become, in fact, an earlier spring route for that fertile region to the New York $55,500 market, with a choice of Philadelphia in its range: ten miles of tollage on the products and merchandise will be of no small consequence; but a satisfactory arrangement of a question affecting rival interests, and a com. 39,000 plete avoidance of a countervailing struggle between neighboring States, is an object of perhaps even more importance.

$16,500 It is true there will be a corresponding difference against the Delaware and Raritan canal, but this may be compensated in another way as will be presently shown. There is one more reason for making a connection at this place; the Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canal is now fed from the Delaware river by an expensive machinery which at a low time is not sufficient to supply water; some other mode of feeding will necessarily be resorted to, none can be so effective and cheap as a low dam across the river, which, could be constructed without any injury to the river navigation, and at comparatively small expense, about one third of the work being now completed such a dam wou'd facilitate the crossing of boats, improve the landings at the villages above, and furnish an abundant supply of water for the canal, and if a lock were put in from the Pennsylvania canal to the river at the foot of the falls, it would satisfy every reasonable desire as to the river navigation. Pennsylvania may indeed as has been proposed, equalize her advantages by mposing 4

VOL XV.

The inhabitants of New Jersey bordering on the Delaware above Wells' falls, have been long in the habit of dealing alternately for produce and goods with New York and Philadelphia; and they are aware of the same practice on the Pennsylvania side of the river; it is im portant to both interests to have access to each canal without the expense of crossing the bridge or a ferry, which amounts to about one dollar per ton. They are aware that the use of lime is highly important to the lands in New Jersey, which would be increased to a great extent if the present expense of getting it over the river can be avoided, which is about three cents per bushel. If the lime were relieved from this charge, it could be taken to New Brunswick for about the same sum it now costs in Lambertsville, and there is little doubt but that ten thousand tons of it might be sold annually between Lambertsville and New Brunswick.— No other connection than that at the head of Wells' falls will answer this purpose, as all the convenient bodies of the best limestone on the Pennsylvania side, are within three or four miles of that place and above

it. The importance of this article to the agriculture of this part of New Jersey can scarcely be imagined, and the amount of tolls and value of the trade and transportation, as it were thus called, is well worthy of attention. It is improbable that even the New York market may be ere long supplied with a considerable portion of its lime through this channel, as by the use of coal for fuel, it can be afforded much cheaper than when it is burnt with wood. In that case one hundred thousand tons would not be an unreasonable estimate of the additional demand.

If the dam already commenced at the head of Wells' falls, be extended across the river and locks made into it, the expense will be the same to pass into the Delaware and Raritan canal at this place that it now is at Black's eddy, but if the Delaware and Raritan company make a corresponding connection it will reduce the expense on coal the amount paid for unloading, viz: ten cents per ton, and the Delaware and Raritan canal company will be more than compensated for the toll on the ten miles of their feeder by the introduction of the limestone from the adjacent quarries in Pennsylvania, which will pass a much greater distance on their canal. They also will be relieved from the unprofitable strife of counteraction and violent competition and every reasonable desire, as well of the State of Pennsylvania as of the Delaware and Raritan company, and of the people interested in transportation on these canals cannot fail to be satisfied.

From Poulson's American Daily Advertiser.

STATEMENT

Of the quantity of Rain which has fullen in each year, from 1810 to 1834, inclusive,—the first fourteen years by the guage of P. Legoux, at Spring Mill, and the following eleven years by that kept at the Pennsylva nia Hospital:

From the Commercial Herald.

NEW TONNAGE.

The following statement exhibits the number as well as the class of vessels built at the Port of Philadelphia. for the last five years.

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inches.

Total 2.483.79-95ths.

1811

1823 34,968 1824

41,815

38,740

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Last Sunday night was the coldest weather we have had this season, and the Schuylkill navigation was suddenly closed. We heard the note of the boatman's horn that was wont to peal so merrily, on Saturday evening, but the music like that of Baron Munchausen's seemed Rolled Iron exclusive of R. R. Iron frozen in the horn. On Monday morning the Schuylkill | Pig Iron was completely frozen over.

Iron Chairs for Rails
Pins, Wedges and Plates

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We acknowledge ourselves indebted to Col. RILEY, ed cost of the engraving alone of this immense collecfor the following statement:

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INSPECTION OF SALTED PROVISIONS.
Inspected from January 1st 1834, to Dec. 31st inclu-
sive, at the Port of Philadelphia-
BEEF... 2,792 bbls.

525 half do.

PORK....7,026 bbls.
16 half do.

From the National Gazette. GEOGRAPHICAL ESTABLISHMENT.

tion of copperplates, we are informed, exceeds one hundred thousand dollars.

On the same floor with, and immediately adjoining the Depository, is the "Drawing Room," so called, where most of the drafting, projecting and other preliminary operations connected with the construction of maps, are carried on. All the apparatus and appliances pertaining to this department are of the most perfect description. The number and value of the foreign and domestic maps and other works of reference with which it is supplied, afford the means of rectifying whatever errors may have been committed in the engraving or otherwise. By the aid of these and an extensive correspondence with every part of the United States, the maps issued from this establishment seldom fail to exhibit the most recent information regarding the countries delineated by them. In the extensive collection of geographical works composing the library, are several atlasses and maps, which have been presented to Mr. Tanner by some of the learned societies and scientific individuals of Europe. Among these we noticed a Universal Atlas consisting of six folio volumes, containing upwards of four hundred imperial sheet maps; a map of Europe, comprehended in one hundred and sixty-four large sheets; an eight sheet map of Sweden, presented by the Academy of Science of Stockholm, through Professor Berselins; together with many valuable works from Vandermaelen of Brussels; from Professor Berghaus of Berlin; from the Geographical Society of Paris, the Royal Geographical Society of London, &c., forming altogether one of the most complete and extensive collections of geographical works in this country.

From the Library we passed into the engraving room, also on the first floor and fronting on Chesnut street. It is a large and commodious apartment, suitably furnished, and having five windows, each occupied by an engraver. These, in conjunction with several other engravers, not permanently attached to the establishment, execute the engraving. The process of map engraving, as practised here, differs essentially from the ordinary method. Instead of finished paper drawings, which were uniformly used not long since, We have recently had an opportunity of inspecting the projections or lines of latitude and longitude, are the Map Publication Establishment of Mr. H. S. Tan- drawn directly upon the copperplate, which is thu ner, situated in the four story building at the north- prepared for the insertion of the topographical details west corner of Chesnut and Sixth streets, in this city, consisting of the natural features of the country about It occupies the first, second and third floors of that to be delineated; these being adjusted in conformity extensive range known as the Shakspeare Buildings, to the geographical points previously fixed, are followwhich extends about eighty feet along Sixth street,ed by the location of the cities, towns, roads, bounda fronting on Chesnut street, and immediately adjoining ries, &c. All this is effected by a small steel point, rethe Theatre. The exterior of the buildings, having resembling a sewing needle, inserted in a wooden or cently been subjected to a thorough repair, presents quite an imposing appearance when viewed in connection with the public offices in the vicinity.

ivory handle; which bears the same relation to, and performs the same office upon the copperplate, as does the lead pencil to the paper, by the old method. The principal entrance is on Sixth street, by a large All the leading parts constituting the representation of doorway which opens upon a staircase leading to the both the civil divisions and physical features of the Depository of the Establishment, on the north end of country, having been thus transferred to the plate, it the first floor. In this apartment, which is very exten- passes into the hands of the engraver, by whom the sive and appropriately fitted for its object, the various "plan work," so called, is cut by a small steel instrumaps and other works prepared and published by Mr. ment termed the graver. When the plan work, Tanner, are arranged in geographical order, by which (which includes nearly all the work, except the ar ference to any map may be had with the utmost fa- shading of the mountains, water, and the lettering,) is cility. Here also the commercial business of the con- engraved, the names of the larger districts are inserted, cern is conducted, and the finished maps exposed to then the names of towns, rivers, mountains, &c., and sale or prepared for exportation and supply of orders the whole completed by shading the water, mounfrom abroad, which are numerous and constantly aug: tains, marshes, &c. The engraving department is di menting, An idea of the amount of business transacted vided iuto various branches, each of which is assigned in this establishment may be conceived from the fact to a different individual, who rarely undertakes any that nearly six thousand copies of the large Map of the thing belonging to another brauch-thus for example: United States, alone, have been disposed of since it the projections of all maps executed here, and the was first issued, together with a large number of the adjustment of the leading geographical points, are cal other maps enumerated in the catalogue, which includ-culated aud fixed by the proprietor of the establishing other recent publications, comprehends upwards of ment, under whose immediate direction the drawings two hundred maps of various descriptions, some being are made by one of his assistants. six, and several of them four sheet maps. The estimat

The plates are then transferred to a third person,

sized paper, which is afterwards tested by passing a damp sponge over the face of each, when if any defects in the sizing exists, they instantly appear in small spots of a circular form. By this operation, a useless waste of time and materials in the vain attempt to color such maps is thus avoided. This simple contrivance may afford a useful practical hint to young artists and amateurs in water color drawing.

who engraves the plan work, then to others who successively execute the lettering, the shading of the water and mountains, and the last completes the map by inserting the title and embellishments. We observed several maps in the various stages of engraving. One was shown us which had been just commenced; It presented to our view little else than a confused mass of reticulated lines and figures, apparently without form or feature: this, we were told, was an embryo Liquid colors are employed altogether in this branch map of Venezuela and New Grenada, intended for of colouring. It consists of three varieties, viz: "washMr. Tanner's New Universal Atlas, now nearly coming," "shading," and "lining," sometimes called pleted.

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"narrow lining.' By the first mode, the color is This branch of the establishment is highly interest- spread over the entire surface of a portion of the map, ing, and deserves the particular notice of all visiters. with a large camel's hair brush; much practice is reAscending the stairway leading to the second floor of quired to produce a uniform tint in all its parts which the building, we entered the printing office, an exten- constitutes the chief beauty of this style of coloring.sive range of apartments situated in the rear of, and The second variety (shading) is commenced with a adjoining the coloring room, which we shall describe brush similar to that used in the foregoing method; and presently. These rooms contain three or four large completed by the application of a wet sponge, resemcopper plate presses, which are kept in a constant bling, in form, a port crayon; with this are produced state of activity, and are capable of throwing off from those nice graduations of tints from the strongest to five hundred to seven hundred impressions per day. those almost imperceptible shades which serve, not As this may appear to persons who are only familiar only to mark the sub-divisions, but also to beautify, a with the common letter printing, to be a small number, map. These modes of coloring are almost peculiar to we shall notice, briefly, the process of copper plate this country. With the exception of some English printing as witnessed by us. The copper plate press maps of a recent date, nearly all European maps, with differs altogether from that used in printing from me- which we are acquainted, are colored by a single faint tal types. It is composed of two planks placed verti-line extending along the engraved boundaries. This cally, and (in the larger presses) about two feet apart. mode, which Tanner prefers over all others, and which These planks are joined by a substantial frame work, he has endeavored to introduce into more general use. having a small roller at each end, on which a stout here; serves every useful purpose for which coloring moveable plank traverses horizontally. is designed; and is free from the objection which is In the centre of the frame and equi-distant from the justly urged against the others, from their liability to transversing rollers, are placed two larger rollers one impair in some measure,that clearness in the engraving, above the other, but not in immediate contact. Be- which is so desirable. The public taste, however, was tween these rollers, the plank just mentioned, which found to be decidedly in favor of full coloring, and in corresponds in width with the length of the two princi- consequence, the lining system is scarcely ever employ. pal rollers, is inserted. By the aid of cross bars placed ed except in delineating canals, rail roads, &c. Among on one side of the machine, the upper roller is made to the various mechanical employments in which young revolve, and by this means the horizontal plank and females are engaged, there are few more attractive or lower roller are put in motion by which the impression beneficial in every point of view, than that of map cofrom the plate is obtained. The upper roller has its loring. This appears to be well understood, as appli entire surface coated with soft woolen cloth, which cations for admission of young ladies, who desire to acserves the double purpose of equalizing the pressure quire a knowledge of the art, have always been numerand of forcing the paper into contact with the ink, ons, and, of late, have become still more so. In addition which is previously rubbed into the engraved parts of to the pecuniary compensation (from three to five dolthe plate. This is the most delicate part of the pro-lars a week, each,) received by the colorers, they have cess. It is done, at pre ent, by a hand roller, which has been substituted in place of the ink ball," for merly in use. Upon the surface of this roller the ink is uniformly spread, and then rolled over the engrav- Highly gratified by our examination of this branch of ed surface of the copper plate until it is completely co- the concern, we repaired to the Bindery, a spacious vered: the ink is then pressed into the engraved lines, room on the third floor of the building, where the porwhen that portion of it which remains on the surface is table and dissected maps are prepared. The portable entirely removed from the plate which is then prepared maps are cut into small sections of the required dimenfor the press. The plate being thus made ready, is sions, (generally about 3 to 4 inches,) which are pasted placed on the moveable plank, above mentioned, with on thin muslin, sufficiently apart from each other to al its engraved face upward; the paper, which is previous low the map to fold. Great attention is necessary in ly wet for the purpose, is placed upon the plate and placing the sections on the canvass, to prevent injury to the whole is then put in motion, by turning the cross the map, which would inevitably result from an irregu bar. By this operation, the plate passes under the roll-lar arrangement of the several parts. The proportion er to the opposite side, when the paper is removed, ha of maps required in this way, is as one to twelve on rolving in its transit, received the ink that was contained lers and varnished. in the engraved portions of the plate so nicely distributed as to present an exact image in reverse of its metalic original. About five minutes are consumed in printing a map of the size of the paper used for this Gazette.

From the printing office we passed into the coloring rooms on the same floor. These are very extensive and in every respect appear to be well adapted for the purpose to which they are devoted. They are occupied excusively by respectably attired females by whom the the maps are colored. The neatness and order, apparent throughout this branch of the establishment, cannot fail to strike every beholder. To facilitate the process of coloring, the maps are printed upon highly

the opportunity of acquiring an extensive acquaintance with general geography, which the daily inspection of maps cannot fail to impress upon their minds.

Maps printed on Bank-note or silk paper for the use of travellers, are also prepared in this branch of the establishment. Large quantities of these Maps are sold here and sent off in every direction.

Immediately in front of the bindery is an extensive apartment occupied by persons employed in mounting maps. Every part of this business is performed by females. The process of mounting is commenced by stretching a sheet of canvass over a square frame, on which the several sheets composing the map (previously coloured) are joined and pasted. When sufficiently dry, two or three coats of transparent size are applied, intended to produce a uniform surface and to prevent the varnish (which is subsequently spread over its face)

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