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Mr. Price, from the committee on Schuylkill wharves made the following report, the resolutions attached to which were adopted:

The committee on Schuylkill wharves request leave to report-That the lease for Sassafras landing having expired, the property has been given up to the city, and an application has been received from Thomas Clyde to obtain a lease thereon, at the same rent heretofore received, and your committee would recommend its acceptance; they therefore propose the following resolution.

That the City Commissioners be and they are hereby authorised to execute a lease to 1 homas Clyde,for Sas safras landing on the Schuylkill, to expire on the first of April, 1857, at an annual rent of $200, payable quarterly.

The committee would further report, that in the necessary care and attention they have given to the property of the city, near the Schuylkill, they have been convinced that a decided advantage would be gained, if the committee were authorised to permit the City Commissioners to grant leases on the wharves and real estate, under the care of the committee, for a term, not exceeding the 1st April, 1838, and the following resolution is offered:

Resolved, That the committee on Schuylkill wharves, be and they are hereby authorised to receive proposals for such of the wharves on the Schuylkill, and such of the real estate, belonging to the city, on the east and west of said river, near thereunto, as may be deemed expedient, by the committee, for a term not exceeding the 1st of April, 1838; and that the City Commissioners are directed to execute such leases, as may be author ised by said committee. Provided, that previous to making any lease it shall be the duty of the committee to advertise for proposals.

RICH'D PRICE, Chairman.
DENNIS M'CREDY,
JOHN GILDER,
THOMAS EARP.

In Common Council the first resolution was negatived, and the second adopted.

Mr. Price called up for consideration the ordinance relating to an increase in the salaries of certain city of ficers, as published in our last report. The bill was read three times and passed. In Common Council, after the first reading, the bill was postponed.

Mr. Lippincott offered a resolution requesting the President of Councils to forward to the legislature, copies of the accounts of the Treasurer of the Girard Estates and the report of the building committee and architect of Girard College, which was agreed to.Common Council concured.

Mr. Price, in his place, asked and obtained leave to read an ordinance providing for the repeal of the ordinances for Sanitary purposes, enacted in 1832, and authorizing the Mayor to draw his warrant on the City Treasurer, for such claims, for Sanitary purposes, as have not been liquidated. Laid on the table.

COMMON COUNCIL.

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inquire into the present mode of watching the city, cffer the following Report:

The present police force of the city, exclusive of the Mayor, Recorder, and four high Constables, consists of one captain, four lieutenants, and twelve Inspectors of police; twenty-eight day policemen, four of whom are attached to the Mayor's office, and one hundred and twenty watchmen.

Of this number, forty, viz: twelve Inspectors and twenty-eight policemen, by the existing ordinance on the subject, are assigned to the performance of day duty; while but one hundred and twenty watchmen, are charged with the care of the city during the night. Or in other words, one fourth of the effective force of the present police, are employed during the day, and three fourths during the night. This is exclusive of the captain and lieutenants, whose functions are proper to both.

The committee are of opinion that the experience of the past year, during which this system has been in operation, has not shewn that any advantage was derived from the employment of so many officers during the day, while the expense of the city has been largely increased by it.

Connected with this plan, we have also a number of Section Houses, as places of rendezvous for those officers, at a heavy annual cost.

The committee therefore propose that the Section Houses be dispensed with; and that the twenty four day policemen, who are assigned to the care of the sections, be discontinued, and that hereafter, the supervision of those sections shall devolve on the Inspectors. They also recommend that the four policemen attached to the Mayor's office be discontinued. and their duties be discharged by the High Constables, as formerly.

If the plan now proposed shall be adopted by Conncils, it will reduce the amount of salaries nine thousand dollars per annum, besides saving the expense of the section houses; thus making a yearly reduction of the expense of the city, in the police department, of more than ten thousand dollars.

In conformity with these views, the committee have prepared the accompanying ordinance, which they submit as a part of this report.

R. M. HUSTON,
JOHN P. WETHERILL,
JOS. LIPPINCOTT,
JAMES ROWLAND,
B. H. YARNALL,
MANUEL EYRE

Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1834.

The ordinance was taken up in committee of the whole, Mr. Dunlap in the chair, and after various amendments, agreed to, and reported to Council. The bill was then read a third time and adopted. In Select Council the subject was postponed until the next meeting.

Mr. Gilder, from the building committee of the Gi. rard College, presented a report in relation to the proceedings of the committee during the past year, accompanied with a statement from homas U. Walter, Mr. Chandler presented a petition from James Bar-architect, detailing the present situation of the College. ber, one of the city watch, who was seriously injured Ordered to be printed. These reports will be noticed on the night of the Ward Election, in a scuffle with a hereafter. gang of ruffians, by which two of his ribs were broken, praying for relief as an equivalent for his loss of time while prevented from attending to his duties Mr. Lewis, in Select Council, presented an application of a like nature. Referred to committee on lighting and watching.

On motion of Mr. Chandler, it was resolved, that so much of the report of the building committee of Girard College, as recommends an appropriation of $8,500, for repairs upon the College farm, be referred to the commissioners of the Girard Estates-Select Council concurred.

Dr. Huston, from the committee on lighting and Dr. Huston, from the committee on lighting and watching, made a report in relation to a re-organization watching, made the annexed report on the subject of of the police systein, accompanied with a bill for car-lighting the city with gas, accompanied with an ordirying the same into effect. The report is as follows: nance for that purpose, which was ordered to be printThe committee on lighting and watching, in obe-ed for the use of the members. dience to the resolution of Councils instructing them to

The committee on lighting and watching, to whom

was referred the item of unfinished business in relation to lighting the city with gas, present the following as their final report on that subject:

REPORT.

The committee have not been able, after all their inquiries and reflections on this subject, to arrive at any other conclusion than that contained in the report of all former committees that have been charged by Councils with the consideration of this subject, viz: That it is expedient for Councils to introduce this mode of lighting the city.

If any thing could be necessary, in addition to the facts formerly reported to Councils on this subject, to satisfy the minds of the timed and sceptical, abundance is found in the able report of the agent lately returned from Europe. So universal is the practice of lighting by gas becoming on the continent of Europe, but more particularly in England and Scotland, that not only are the large cities, but many of the villages and even some And of the turnpike roads, illuminated by this means. in our country, nearly all the principal cities are pur suing the same course.

Philadelphia, confessedly the best adapted, having every possible advantage that nature and art could confer for the purpose; and owning too, all the materials for its manufacture-she who possessed every induce ment to take the lead in this great modern improvement; doubts and fears even to follow her sister cities. Believing as the committee do, that Councils cannot long hesitate on this subject, they now present an ordinance for the erection of Gas works to light the city, to be constructed on a limited and economical plan, embracing the most modern improvements in the art.

R. M. HUSTON,
JOS. LIPPINCOTT,
JOHN P. WETHERILL,
JAMES ROWLAND,
B. H. YARNALL,
MANUEL EYRE.

Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1834.

MEETING OF DRY GOODS DEALERS. At a meeting of Dry Goods Dealers, held pursuant to a call, at the Exchange on Tuesday evening, 30th instant, the meeting was called to order by Moses Kempton, on whose motion Matthew Newkirk was called to the Chair, and Richard D. Wood, and Abr. R. Perkins, appointed Secretaries.

The Chair having stated that the object of the meeting was to take into consideration an agreement of certain Importers and Commission Merchants to alter the present mode of measuring Dry Goods.—

The following preamble and resolutions were offered by John Welsh, jr. Richard Price, with some appro priate remarks, moved their adoption-and having been seconded by Jno. M. Atwood, in a lucid, argumenta. tive and serious address, were unanimously adopted. Whereas, by an advertisement published in the daily papers, it is made known to this meeting that a number of Importers and Commission Merchants have pledged themselves to alter the usual standard of measuring Dry Goods:

And whereas, the adoption of the plan they recommend in lieu of the present long established custom, both of this country and Great Britain, a usage valua ble alike for its uniformity and justice― would be detrimental to the best interests of the community.

Therefore be it resolved, That we entirely disapprove of the proposed change in the established custom of measurement,

Because, it is not in accordance with the custom which at this time is acknowledged by the national government, and by the instrctions of the Secretary of the Treasury dated Sept. 9, 1828, is made the rule by

which all duties on Dry Goods are estimated in each port of entry in the United States.

And, That in accordance with the existing custom of measurement, the purchaser does not receive more than 36 inches to the yard, with very few exceptions, in consequence of the elasticity of that part of the Goods to which the measure is usually applied

And because, it will render it extremely difficult for the retail vender of goods to realize by his sales the lengths for which he has paid

And because, it will offer continual temptations to vary from the honest practice of giving full measureAnd because, it will be the occasion of frequent dissatisfaction on the part of the consumers

And because, it is calculated to depreciate the present high moral standard of the merchants of this community.

Resolved, That from our long and intimate intercourse with the great interior, we feel it to be our duty as citizens of Philadelphia, to protect the merchants of the South and West, from the effects of a change which we are well persuaded would injuriously affect their interests, and meet their most decided disappro bation.

Resolved, That we deem it of great importance to all dealers that there should be a national standard, and principle of measure, to prevail throughout the United States.

Resolved, That a committee of twelve be appointed to wait on the importers and commission merchants who have entered into an agreement to introduce the new mode of measurement to express our objections to the attitude they have assumed, and respectfully to request them to abandon or postpone their project-and also to confer with them for the purpose of producing a joint memorial to Congress to pass such acts as will secure an uniform standard of measure, and the mode of its application.

Resolved, That in the event of a refusal on the part of those Importers and Commission Merchants, who have signed the pledge; to accede to the propositions of this meeting. That the committee be empowered to call a meeting of the merchants in this place, on Friday evening at 7 o'clock, to carry into effect, their de termination to resist the proposed alteration.

On motion of John Welsh, jr.

Resolved, That the chair appoint the committee of 12, under the 4th resolution.

The following gentlemen were appointed.
Moses Kempton,
Alex. Ferguson,
Lewis Brown,

John Welsh, jr.
John M. Atwood,
Richard Price,
James Fassitt,

Isaac Barton,

David Williamson,

Daniel Bray,

William Musgrave,
George W. Edwards.

On motion of George W. Edwards,
Resolved, That the chairman and secretaries of this
meeting be added to the above committee.
On motion of Richard Price,
Resolved, That the chairman of this meeting, be
chairman of the committee of 12.

On motion of George W. Edwards,
Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be
published in all the daily papers of this city.
On motion adjourned

MATTHEW NEWKIRK, Chairman.
Secretaries.

Richard D. Wood,
Abraham R. Perkins,

PENNSYLVANIA AND OHIO CANALS. Extract from the Message af Gov. Lucas, of Ohio. "Viewing a communication between the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canals to be a subject of great interest, it is with peculiar satisfaction I communicate to you the intelligence, that the Sandy and Beaver Canal Company was organized during the last summer, un

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der the liberal provision of the original charter, and
the munificent grant of the Legislature in an amenda-
tory act of the last session. $240,000 of the stock has
been taken, and five sections, on the Summit; contain-
ing two miles and a half of its length, were let to con-
tractors on the 19th of November last, and the work
is now in the full tide of successful operation. By the
report of two able and experienced Engineers, all
doubts have been removed from the public mind, as to
the supply of water on the Summit, and is conclusive
as to the question of an abundant supply of water for
all the demands of an extensive commerce. The length
of the Sandy and Beaver Canal is 76 miles, connecting
the Ohio Canal at Bolivar with the Ohio River and
Pennsylvania Canal, near the mouth of little Beaver.
It passes through a rich and fertile part of the State of
Ohio, and will form the connecting link between the
Pennsylvania Canals and the Ohio Canal.

Such a connection has long been a desideratum to the people of the interior and southern parts of Ohio; as it will open to them a new and short route to the eastern markets for their abundant produce, and will enable the Eastern and Western merchants to transport goods from the East at a much earlier period of the spring, than by the N. York Canal.

[JANUARY

cinnati to New Orleans, would cost me $1 75 per bbl.
I ascertained by inquiry, that the freight, from Cin-
which on three barrels, is
Freight from New Orleans to Philadelphia, which
bbl.
$5 25
we have paid frequently on the same article, $1 per
not include either commissions for forwarding, dray.
ages, and other charges in New Orleans, or insurance,
Making $8 25, which, it will be perceived, does
$300
which altogether form no inconsiderable additional ex.
pense.

in Philadelphia, in 22 days, and the whole cost of trans-
Whereas, these three barrels were safely delivered
portation, including every charge for forwarding, was
but
$5.91

60 to 90 days, by way of N. Orleans, for delays will
The same article has generally reached us at from
almost invariably occur by that route.

instances is high on the above, for the amount being I would remark that the cost of transportation in both so small, there was no inducement to bargain for the same, besides the river was very low, but as these af. fect both ways alike, the difference is still the same.

This work, together with the Mahoning Canal, I have always viewed with deep interest. ACCOMMODATION LINE OF STAGES.-By reference them both closely connected with our general canal I have considered to our advertising columns it will be observed that policy and would have been glad to have seen them commodation Line of Stages between this place and Messrs. Allen & Co. have commenced running an Acboth embraced in that policy as part of our public Canals. The Sandy Canal will open the most direct com.encouragement.—Minors' Journal. Reading, by day-light. munication between the Pennsylvania Canal and the Such enterprise deserves interior and southern parts of the State, and the Mahoning Canal with the Pennsylvania Canal, the northern portion of the State and the great northern Lake. These works, together with the Mad River and Sandusky Rail Road (the work on which it is expected will be commenced by the company next spring,) are works that recommend themselves, by their public importance. to the peculiar attention and patronage of the General Assembly."

COAL TRADE: While the exportation of coal from the eastern section of this state is becoming a matter of immense importance, the same business is rapidly in creasing in the western section of the state. lately called upon Mr. George Ledle, who is largely We have engaged in that business, who furnished the following information:

During the week which followed the rise of the river, in the middle of November last, there were sent from the landings on the opposite side of the Monongahela river, from Jones' ferry to Saw Mill Run, about 75 boats, carrying about 245,000 bushels or 6,187 tons of coal--boats and cargoes valued at about $18,000. About the same quantity passed down from the country along the Monongahela, around Pittsburgh.

The total value of coal annually shipped from the Monongahela, and from the banks opposite Pittsburg, may be estimated at about $100,000-is rapidly in creasing in amount, and must continue to increase, as the use of coal is becoming more general below.

Pittsburg. Gaz.

From the U. S. Gazette. Being at Cincinati, I was desirous to send a small lot of freight (three barrels) to Philadelphia, and was about despatching it by the usual way, down the river to New Orleans, and thence round by sea. to save time, I thought that I could do so by way of Wishing Pittsburg, expecting, however, that the cost of transportation would be somewhat greater. But, to my surprise and gratification, I found that not only would time, but a considerable amount of expense, be saved, by forwarding the articles to Pittsburgh, thence by our canal to this place.

INSURANCE dividends,
FOR THE LAST SIX MONTHS.

United States Insurance Company,
and an extra dividend of
Philadelphia Insurance Company,
Pœniz
Delaware

do. do.

6 per cent.

6 per cent.

3 per cent.

per cent.

3 per cent.

VALUABLE CARGO.-The canal boat Lafayette, of the upwards of one million pounds of merchandize.-Pittsburg Gazette, Dec. 16, 1834. Western Transportation Line, arrived yesterday, with

says: "The Canal at this place was frozen up on the
CANAL CLOSED.The Miltonian of the 20th Dec.
closed on the evening following.”
night of the 14th inst. and the river below this town

THE REGISTER.

PHILADELPHIA, JANUARY 3, 1835.

snow storm which continued all Monday. The snow On Sunday evening last commenced a considerable fell to the depth of several inches, so as to furnish pretty good sleighing for several days. The ground is still covered with snow. The storm seems to have road, who left here on Monday morning, did not reach been extensive. The passengers by the Amboy rail New York till Tuesday about 2 o'clock; having been ington City the snow fell to an unusual depth. For a compelled to remain in the cars all night. At Washshort time the navigation of the Delaware was obstructed by floating ice-it is now, however, free.

Printed every Saturday morning by WILLIAM F.
GEDDES, No. 9 Library street.

HAZARD'S

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

VOL. XV.-NO. 2.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD.

PHILADELPHIA, JANUARY 10, 1835.

NO.366.

other substance.

MERRICK'S REPORT ON GAS MANUFACTORIES. capital of near eleven millions of dollars, and whose Report, upon an examination of some of the Gas Manu-arrangements are not now sufficient to supply the grow factories in Great Britain, France, and Belgium, ing demand, it appeared too late to inquire, whether under a resolution passed by the Select and Common gas as a means of illumination, was preferable to any Council of the City of Philadelphia, January 2d, 1834, authorizing the Gas Committee to engage a competent person to proceed to Europe for the purpose of examining Gas Works, with a view of obtaining the best information as to the construction of works, the manner of manufacturing Gas, and in general make such observations as may be useful, in the event of Councils determining to adopt a plan for lighting the city with

Gas-Br S. V. MERRICK.

To the Select and Common Councils of the City
Philadelphia.
GENTLEMEN:-

of

In pursuance of a resolution of your body, passed on the 2d of January, 1834, and of instructions from the Committee charged with an inquiry into the expediency of lighting the city with gas, received on the 18th of March last, the undersigned immediately embarked on his destined mission, and during the course of the passed summer has made a careful examination into the various plans and processes, employed in manufacturing carburetted hydrogen gas, for private and public illumination, now in use in the principal establishments of Great Britain, as well as a cursory view of the works in Paris, Brussels and Ghent,

of that metropolis, and of high public function aries, as If I add to this, the universal testimony of the citizens to the moral effect experienced by the facility of producing, at a moderate expense, a brilliant light in the streets and narrow passages, with which that city ence of society, it will not be expected that much time abounds, adding to the safety, comfort, and conveni will be occupied in demonstrating what is thus forced

upon our attention.

If other evidence is wanting to prove the consideration, in which this system is held in Great Britain, I may instance the fact, that during five months travelling in that country, I scarce ever passed a town or village to which the material was accessible, that was not provid ed with this indispensable means of obtaining light, or was in preparation for it;-and so great has been the extension during the past year, that all the foundries which came under my notice were full of contracts for the delivery of pipes and retorts.

As far as I have been enabled to collect the history of these small works, they have generally been erected by the owners of real estate, as an improvement to their property; and when completed, leased to any individual who would keep them in repair, and pay the best In conducting these investigations, I have to acknow-interest on the cost. ledge the friendly reception I met with from gentlemen Believing as I do, that the formidable objections, connected with gas manufactories, either as engineers raised when this subject came under discussion during or managers, in most places which came under exami-the past year, were entirely refuted by the Report of nation, to whose liberality I am indebted in general for the Committee, who examined into their truth, and opportunities granted for a free inspection of their being confirmed in the opinion as to the correctness of - works, and in many cases for the entire confidence with the statements made by that committee, it is sufficient which their modes of operation and results were com- to refer to that document, in case such evidence should municated. now be deemed requisite.*

The gas works which I visited on the continent, In considering the kind of gas works best suited to being all of English origin, and under English control, the wants of Philadelphia, it will be necessary to take I was unable to obtain from them any information of a general view of the systems now practised in Great material value, not already derived from original Britain, the materials employed and the mode of consources which had been brought under previous notice. structing the apparatus for distillation, giving a compa In the course of this communication, therefore, my ob-rison of the advantages of each plan. servations will be confined to comparisons between systems used in England or Scotland, believing that the purposes of the mission will be fully attained by such comparisons as may there be made.

In preparing this report, I have deemed it my duty, upon reviewing the instructions, rather to take a general view of the arrangements and machinery best adapted to the wants of the city, and to point out the system which appears most conducive to its interests, than at this late day to enter into any laboured argument, to prove the general expediency of a measure, which has received the sanction of so many years experi

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As regards the materials which may be used in the manufacture of gas, to the best advantage, enough has been said in the report of the committee, made to Councils in March, 1832, who carefully investigated this part of the subject, to show how much will be gained by the use of bituminous coal, in stead of the more costly material heretofore partially adopted in this country and in Europe:-and I deem it an argument of no small moment in favour of this mode of lighting, that every material used in the fabrication of gas, will be the product of Pennsylvania labour. The bituminous coal from which it is to be made, may be drawn from the rich mines now open in the interior of this state; the fuel from the exhaustless beds of anthracite, and the lime for purifaction, from our own vicinity; and not a lamp will shed its rays over our streets, which has not paid a tribute to the internal improvements of the state.

If any evidence be required in confirmation of their

* See Register Vol. XIV. page 414.

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opinion, it is to be found in the fact, that the use of oil as a material for the production of gas, has long since been abandoned in both countries, and the works used for making rosin gas; even this material has failed to make a successful competition against the cheaper substance, having finally given way after a long struggle.

The rosin gas works of Great Britain, have been, or are about to be converted, at a heavy expense, into coal gas works, and in New York the company who are now erecting their works for supplying the upper part of the city, have been compelled in part to change their plan, and adapt them to the use of both materials.

Believing, therefore, that coal in great abundance and of good quality, may be had for the supply of the works, my attention will be confined to it as a gas making material, and to the plans now in use for its manufacture.

The coals used in Great Britain for this purpose, are various in their properties and values, but for our present purpose may be divided into two general classes, viz. the Cannel or the Parrot coal of Scotland; and the soft or bituminous coal, more abundant in England.

be mere approximations, except where coal from the same mines affords the basis.

To seek, therefore, a series of works, in which the same coals were used, appeared to me essential for definite purposes, while I continued to confirm my resultsby observations elsewhere.

The coal I found in most general use, was that already alluded to, from Newcastle on Tyne, being preferred in London, and on the eastern and south coast of England, to any other within reach; and as some of these works varied in their modes of distillation, it be came, for all practical purposes, a standard material by which to compare the respective operations of each, diminishing the difficulty of selecting a plan best adapted to our purpose..

The system upon which gas is to be made, at the least cost, first claims our attention, and resolves itself into three points. 1. The expense of fuel and material for carboniza

tion.

2. The expense, in wear and tear of apparatus. 3. The labour attendant upon its manufacture. This is a subject on which much diversity of opinion exists among gas engineers:-the plan of retort, the du ration of the charge, and the temperature at which the The former of these ranks the highest for the pur-process of carbonization is to be conducted with best pose, containing a larger proportion of carbon and vola-advantage, are points of controversy among them at this tile matters, with less bitumen than the soft coal; pro-day. ducing a gas highly charged with olefiant gas, and possessing an illuminating power superior to any other known in the kingdom.

This material is in use in Manchester, Stockport, and some other towns in England, and almost universally in Scotland, yielding gas, having a specific gravity varying from 550 to 650, being nearly equal to rosin gas.

The coke from this coal is of but little value in comparison with that produced from the soft coal, being of less bulk than the material from which it is made, and furnishing but a small quantity for sale, after deducting that required for fuel to heat the retorts.

From this material, therefore, but little profit is derived from any product except the gas; but the superior quality of that gas, in connection with the low price of the material, warrants its use in those works which have adopted it, and the proprietors have been compelled to pay undivided attention to increase the quantity of gas, without reference to profit from the residuums.

As in America there is no coal yet discovered bearing any resemblance to this material, it would be useless to dwell here upon the systems used in its carbonization, except as showing the experience of several works, having used precisely the same material, on different systems, and in apparatus varying in construction from each other, but bearing a comparison with those used for the carbonization of the fat or soft coals.

To describe all the plans would be quite useless. I shall therefore confine all observations to those which appear most deserving of merit, and necessary to our present purpose.

The first plan claiming attention is the oven of Mr. King, with which we are familiar at the coal gas works of America. The dimension beiug five and a half feet wide by six feet long, eighteen inches high at the crown of the arch, and twelve inches at the spring, carbonizing about ten bushels of coal at a heat, or a ton in twenty-four hours.

These ovens are made of thick boiler iron, firmly rivetted together, with the bottom of the same material, set in an arch of brick work, heated by one fire, the bottom being shielded with fire tiles, to protect it from the direct action of the flame, with longitudinal flues under it; the draft, passing over the top of the oven, makes its exit in the crown near the front. Some ovens of this description are in use in Liverpool, with cast iron bottoms, but their value has not been determined on by practice. This plan of carbonization I found nowhere in extensive use, except at the Liverpool works, constructed by the inventor.

Of the cast iron retort, there are many modifications, varying in dimension and shape with the caprice of the constructor, and in many cases without any definite idea of the principle to be aimed at.

They may be divided into three general classes:

1st. The circular retort, from twelve to twenty I shall advert, therefore, to the Cannel coal works, inches in diameter, and from six to nine feet in length. after treating of the plans adopted in England for the This retort is used in Manchester, and same other places, carbonization of the soft coal, among which the New-in general for the distillation of Cannel, or Scotch castle, yielding about thirty five per cent. of volatile matters, seems to stand pre-eminent in reputation, producing in the usual mode of operating, from ten to twelve thousand feet of gas per chaldron. Specific gravity, from 4.10 to 4.30.

It may be proper here to remark, that although the specific gravity of gas will not give precisely its value or power of illumination, still, as a general rule, the approximation is so near, that I adopt it as an indicator of the value of the gas, for want of a more accurate standard, which may be referred to in general terms.

The various proportions in which the component parts are found incorporated in the bituminous coals of Great Britain, yielding gas of different qualities, and more or less in quantity, and much to the difficulty of comparing the several systems of working with each other. The results of all comparisons must therefore

Parrot coal. It answers for the distillation of a coal which retains its form in lumps, and is advantageous only from the facility with which its position is changed, when partially destroyed by the action of fire on the under side.

2d. The small or London D retort, so called, in consequence of its having first been used by the chartered company in London, being still in use at their works, and recommended by their engineer. This retort is twelve inches broad on the base, eleven inches high, and seven feet long, carbonizing one and a half to two bushels at a charge.

Sd. The York D retort, (so called, in consequence of its having been introduced by Mr. Outhit, of York,) and the modifications of it, among which I should include the elliptic retort, as having the same general purpose in view. The difference between the London

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