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paramount concerns of commercial intercourse, the un-proposed improvement, not only to the Monongahela dersigned, on behalf of their constituents, earnestly and region, bnt to the west and south-west at large. respectfully request of your honourable bodies, such immediate legislation thereon, as in your wisdom may appear expedient.

JOHN A. BROWN, Chairman.

DAVID S. BROWN, Secretary.

When it is considered that a business so extensive has been created and continues to exist, entirely dependent upon a precarious river navigation for indispensable supplies, and a market for its products, it is obvious that the natural advantages of the country are Nature has indeed munificently incalculably great.

Of the meeting of the Importers, Auctioneers, and endowed the Monongahela region. Our inquiries exCommission Merchants of Philadelphia.

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tend from Clarksburg, Harrison county, Virginia, over those portions of the various counties on the river to the environs of Pittsburg, which, on the completion of the proposed improvement, would employ tonnage on the river and throughout this district the climate is salu

Of the meetings of the Merchants, Traders, and Dry brious, the soil, for the most part, fertile, and in every
Good Dealers of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia, Jan. 24, 1835.

From an account kept by Henry F. R. V. Mollwitz,
keeper of the North Mountain Gate, leading from
Loudon to M'Connellsburg, on the Chambersburg and
Bedford Turnpike, it appears that from the 1st day of
January, 1834, to the 31st day of December, 1834,
there passed through said gate
Broad wheeled wagons,
Narrow do.


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6359-37,664 horses.
374- 1,483 do.
1243-1,245 do.
779- 1,557 do.
107- 214 do.
153- 153. do.


14 do.

Total number of Broad and narrow wheeled

Total number of horses,



direction are to be found inexhaustible mines of bituminous coal, few of which have yet been opened or wrought to any considerable extent, and, in many cases this coal is found closely adjacent to beds of iron ore. We cannot affix a limit beyond which the im portance of the manufacturing and agricultural interests of this region may not extend its growth, after the con templated improvement of the river shall have secured to these interests the facilities of transportation which alone are required to develope fully and bring into active employment the boundless resources of the country.

On the other hand, it is very plain that the business of manufacturing has already begun to languish in this section; and, if not yet diminished, it is clear that this interest cannot continue to flourish under present circumstances.

The manufacturer may deposit his blooms, or pig iron, or flour, or glass, upon the shore; the contractor may finish the building of his boat-up to that point, competing successfully with those located on more navigable waters; and yet the fruits of his toil may be, 6,733 month after month, awaiting the uncertain rise of 45,148 water, until contracts are violated, and he is thrown unseasonably, upon the chances of a market already chiefly supplied.

Franklin Repos.

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The very limited time allowed your committee for the discharge of this duty, has not enabled them to do full justice to the subject. They have avoided making any statements which are not confirmed either by the knowledge of Delegates present, or supported by authentic data; it is their belief, therefore, that any imperfections in this report exist in undervaluing rather than overrating the manufacturing and other interests of the Monongahela region.

On reference to the Statement annexed, it will be seen that the manufactures of flour and other grain, iron and nails, paper, glass, salt, wool, cotton and lumber-the growing of wool, the building of steam engines, steam, keel, canal, and flat boats, amount annually to the sum of two millions two hundred and forty-nine thousand four hundred dollars.

This statement may appear exaggerated, even to this convention, although composed of individuals residing at various points of the district which we are considering. We can readily imagine that very few are prepared to expect this result of our inquiries-we invite, however, a close scrutiny of the report, convinced that * more deliberate and extended inquiry into the subject will only make more apparent the vast importance of the

The report of Dr. Howard, communicated to Congress in April last, proves that the improvement in the navigation of this river, from Pittsburg to Brownsville, may be effected at a cost considerably short of a quarter of a million of dollars. A similar sum, it is believed, would continue the work as high as Harrison Co., Va. The whole sum required, then, to complete this important improvement would be less than a half million of dollars.

Your committee indulge the hope, that the great benefits which this moderate expenditure of public money promises to dispense far and wide, will insure its appropriation.

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From the Village Record. WEIGHT OF CATTLE:

We have been furnished with the following list of the weights of Cattle, by a gentleman who takes an interest in agricultural improvements. The Cattle published in the last RECORD, were acknowledged by all who examined them, to be very fine; but judging from the weights of the following, from old Kennett and the adjacent townships, we are inclined to think them more of the Crocket species-for they "Go AHEAD!" On the 7th January, we published an account of six cattle, raised by Enoch Dixon, of Kennett, the heaviest of which weighed 2562 pounds. What say our Brandywine farmers to these things?

Live weight of a part of the Cattle weighed on the platform hay-scales at Kennett Square, Chester county, from the 25th of December to the 1st of Feb. 1835.

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44 991 123 56

50 66 150 4.5



March, 49 66 67 April, 54 118 78 113 186 May, 42 121 90 121 201 June, 63 118 99 134 201 64 154 87 125 224 63 54 138 106 170 233

62 120 60



42 242




37 261

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43 244



721 58 49 75 66


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87 430



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Jan. 911 99 601 48 156 60 30 Feb. 64 111 76 59 142 64 51 March, 58 66 42 98 141 48 351 April, 60 97 77 116 155 88 40 72 129 125 132) 2251 96 46 76 104 79 150 186] 81 50 88 189 114 204 274 126 67 252 111 179 318 104 91 73 168 231 991 69 81 103 77 49 148 176! 79 72 379 Dec. 97 671 57 109 156 89 4.6 39 330 Total, 938 1371 914 1557 2335 987 608 850 4780 Tot. in

52 298



53 310

40 264 Jesse Pusey. East Marlborough,





67 350



91 458



92 409

71 124 595 Cyrus Chambers, Kennett,




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From Poulsons American Daily Advertiser, of 29th Dec. last. $40 00 53 00-75-100 cents a ton a mile, and re


I observe in your paper of 26th December, instant, that "Mifflin" is very properly calling the attention of the members of our legislature, to the vast importance of rail roads; for vast it is, when the public have spent more than $22,000,000 in canals and rail roads, and companies and individuals perhaps as much more, in our single state.

He gives the very extraordinary fact, of one locomotive called "The Arabian" running between Baltimore and the Inclined Plane, for fifty days, a distance of 82 miles, daily, with the Frederick train of passenger cars, making 4000 miles without repair, and that the expense of the locomotive was $13 25 per day, a very extraordinary performance indeed, and fully justifies the favorable opinion the Baltimore public have long entertained, of the ability and performances of the offi cers of the rail road Company that they will do all that can be done, to make their rail road to the west beat our Pennsylvania Canals.

Suppose that in the place of the passengers mentioned, which would have weighed about 12 to 15 tons at a load, we assume that the locomotive drew a full burthen say of 40 tons, this multiplied into the distance 80 miles, is 41-100 cent a ton a mile, or if the load be only one way the cost would be 82-100 cent a ton a mile, as the cost of the current expenses of the locomotive only.

I have recently obtained the following facts of the performance on a Pennsylvania canal. One of the contractors, for boating coal on the Lehigh canal, did the following work with one boat and one old mare.The boat cost about $250 and the old mare cost $25 00.

14 trips from Mauch Chunk to Bristol or back is
212 miles,+14,
1 trip from
back is


'do to Brunswick and

Total 15 loads of 50 tons each-and total distance,



I further understand that during this time, the boat required no further expense than a little caulking, which was done by the hands, and the old mare required no other repairs than food and a little shoeing. That the reason for not making more trips, was owing to the detentions at unloading from 3 to 9 days a trip, in consequence of the wharves being so full of coal, and there not being room for the boats to get up to


turn empty, including the whole cost of the old mare, and boat, whereas the cost of the locomotive only, is 82-100 cents a ton a mile, by having also no back


From the foregoing I presume our Baltimore neighbors will have to manufacture another "Arabian" for their rail road before they beat the "Old Mare" on our Canals. A PENNSYLVANIAN.

P. S. The old mare cost 25 dollars and four of them will do the work of one locomotive "The Arabian" cost 5000 to 6000 dollars.

From the Mauch Chunk Courier.


I perceive by the Governor's Message that we have all the State Improvements, that have been under con tract, either entirely finished, or sufficiently so, as to use them throughout their whole extent.

That the state has now 601 miles of canal, and 110 miles of rail road, making a grand total of 720 miles, and that the cost thereof has been 22,114,915 dollars.

I also learn that the principal part of this sum has been expended to connect our great commercial meas to secure to the tropolis with Pittsburg, so State the great thoroughfare for the trade of the Far West.

Pittsburg appears to be from Philadelphia 4354 miles, via the Schuylkill and Union canals, or 395 miles by the Columbia rail road; and from the amount of business done this season on this line, and the disposition apparent to get into this transportation business, I hope and trust the public will realize their best expectations from these splendid improvements, both commercially and politically; for mankind are generally friendly to each other when it is their interest to be so, and nothing improves this feeling better than frequent interested intercourse. I find however on looking into the Balti more and Ohio rail road company's report of last Octo ber, that they calculated on intercepting the current of the great Western trade from Pennsylvania by means of their rail road, which they say makes the Ohio river but 301 miles from Baltimore, and that as (they say) rail roads are more economical for transportation than Canals, and this added to their advantages in distance, will insure them this great western trade.

On examining their rail road report; and perceiving in it their expectations of supplanting us, I have been induced to examine other reports of the actual expen

That when there is no detention, the boats frequent-diture in transportation, both by canals and rail roads ly make a trip to Bristol and back to Mauch Chunk in nine days.

Suppose we allow a trip to be made in ten days, with the old mare, and that the cost of her ladyship, and the boat, was sunk in one season, of 250 days (those boats have now lasted several years, and none as far as we have understood are unseaworthy) yet the cost

would be as follows:

A man a day,

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The mare cost $25 00, divide in 250 days,

is a day,


Horse keeping,


The boat cost 250 dollars, divide in 250

days, is a day,


Tow lines and contingencies,

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not what they theoretically ought to spend, but what they have actually spent; for I have long since learned, that an ingenious mind, was not at a loss to spin out a pretty theory on any subject; but that practice, was a very different thing. In the pursuit of this inquiry, I have obtained all the regular reports of the justly cele. brated Manchester and Liverpool rail road Company, from their commencement, excepting one. This collection of reports must go far to settle the great question between canals and rail roads, so far as economy in transporting tons of produce, &c. is concerned, as that company is one of the oldest, operating by the modern improvements. They have had the command of abun dance of money, and left nothing that ingenuity could suggest, or money procure, to produce the very best effects. Their business has also been large, and last, not least, has been productive from the beginning.Consequently they have no object to disguise facts; and so far from disguise, they go into minute details, of all their expenses.

I give below, extracts of all that appears to affect us, and also an extract from the Baltimore report of the same heads, together with what has been paid for trans

portation the past year on the Schuylkill, Lehigh, suming as a basis that a horse or mule will travel an Delaware, and Delaware and Raritan Canals.

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The above extracts require but little comment to satisfy the good citizens of this state, that they need not fear losing the public money expended in their great improvements.


It must be recollected that on the rail roads mentioned, they have a large transportation both ways; whereas the coal by the canals goes only one way, and those prices are predicated on the boats returning empty. If the trade was like that on the rail roads, it would no doubt reduce the cost at least one third. taking things as they are, no doubt in a few years, when we have business on our canals, the State, whose interest will be that of the citizen, will come down as low with their tolls as will keep their works in repair, and pay interest on their loans-and come within a price, that toll and transportation together need not exceed the mere cost of the Locomotives on the rail road.

It is fair to presume that the cost of the locomotives in this country can never be less than on the Manchester and Liverpool rail road, after so many years experience, under circumstances not to be excelled in any country. They have coal for fuel on or by the line of their rail road. They had 22 locomotives on their road so early as 1832. Hence their experience is very great. Wages there, are not half what we have to pay, and iron there is less than half our prices; and this forms a large item of expenditure.

But let us examine a few of the items constituting

equal distance (giving them their proper gait) before
wearing out, with a locomotive engine, and that a canal
boat and rail road car will also last to go an equal
distance before wearing out.

I presume most persons will agree with me that the
animals and the boat will both go further to wear out,
than the locomotive and cars. I have been told by
persons in the employ of the Lehigh Company, that
some of their boatmen have already paid for their boats
bought of the Company, by paying ten dollars a trip to
Bristol and back, and that during this time they have
not spent ten dollars on their boat. And mules, it is
believed, will last to work from 20 to 30 years.

One horse on a canal hauls 50 tons cargo, and goes 20 miles a day, and costs $100. Hence 4 horses draw 200 tons, 20 miles a day, being equal to fifty tons, eighty miles a day.

A Locomotive draws from 30 to 50 tons cargo, and goes 80 miles a day, and costs from $5000 to $6000 each.

Then to effect equal purposes for the propelling power on a canal,

4 horses $100 each, cost


On a Rail road 1 Locomotive cost from 5 to $6,000
A boat on the Lehigh canal completely

covered in carrying 70 tons cost

23 cars for Rail road at 3 tons each, is 69 tons at $100 to 120 each (say 100)



Hence the Locomotive power on a canal is but one-
thirteenth the cost of the Locomotive on the Rail road;
and the boat on the canal but one-seventh of the cost of
burthen cars on the Rail road.

In reference to the durability of the two, the canal is
always growing better, while the Rail road (whether
used or not used) is continually getting worse.

For the Gazette and Intelligencer.


Yesterday (Sunday the 8th Feb.) was the coldest day we have had in Philadelphia this winter. The same thermometer, having a southern exposure and located near the corner of Walnut and Seventh streets, which stood on Monday the 5th of January, the coldest day of the cold week, at 3 degrees above zero, stood at 7 A. M. at one degree above. The day throughout was windy, and perhaps fewer people were seen in the streets, than on any day within recollection.

In our last paper, we stated the thermometer on Sa-
turday at 7, A. M., to have been at 18°. It rose in the
middle of the day, but fell rapidly in the afternoon.
As 11, P. M. it was at 64. Its course yesterday was
pretty much the same.

At 10, A. M. it rose to 10.]
At noon it was at 20.
At 2, P. M. it was at 23.

After that it began to fall.

At 3, P. M. it was at 20.
66 12.1


4, 66 5,


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The Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers have been clos

the cost of transportation on canals and rail roads, as-ed all this week-and are now closed, (13th)






1. XV.--NO. 8.




The following correspondence and proceedings have created considerable excitement in the west,-and being of a novel character, and rather of public than personal or private nature, we have thought best to preserve them, as a part of the judicial history of the State.


From the Genius of Liberty.

FRIDAY, Sept. 12, 1834.

You have, no doubt, long been aware that the occurrence of a variety of disagreeable circumstances in the conduct of our business in court, has rendered my situation often exceedingly painful and perplexing. It is possible I have had my full share of the causes, which have led to this state of things. I think however upon reflection, you will be satisfied that in a great degree it has been owing to the irregular manner of the bar in the trial of causes. It is unnecessary to go into particulars at this time. It has been the subject of complaint and of conflict, distressing to me and unpleasant to you. Finding a remedy hopeless without your aid, I have frequently brought my mind to the conclusion, that perhaps I ought to withdraw and give you the opportunity of getting in my room some other gentleman who would have your confidence and co operation. This determination has heretofore been yielded to the advice of friends upon whose judgment I have relied. Early in the present week I requested an interview with you, that we might talk these matters over, and perhaps agree in an united effort for reform. You were prevented from meeting as proposed. In the mean time the occurrence of a brutal attack upon me by a ruffian, growing out of a trial in court, has more and more convinced me of the necessity of coming to some conclusion, that may prevent the repetition of such outrages. On this subject I wish not to be misunderstood. The act of a brute, or bully can never drive me from the post of duty or of honor, I thank God that in the performance of my official functions, I have been preserved from the operation of fear as I hope I have been from favor or affection. I never I repeat have been deterred by an apprehension of personal danger, although I have been aware of peril. I have known that there was cause for it. The inadvertent-but as I think indiscreet indulgence of side bar remarks, indicative of dissatisfaction with the decisions of the court, and perhaps sometimes of contempt, have been calculated to make a lodgement in the public mind injurious to the authority and respectability of the court, and particularly of myself its organ, and has had a direct tendency to rouse the malignant passions of a disappointed or defeated party: I have often observed or been informed of these things, and thought they might lead to disasterous consequences. A correct judicious man, if he thinks his case had not been correctly decided, will seek redress in the legitimate mode only, or if that is not accessible will submit to it, as we all do to unavoidable misfortunes, a ruffian howVOL. XV.


No. 372.

ever, if told by his counsel that injustice had been done him in the administration of the law, may feel disposed to seek revenge on the judge. In the case referred to I think the cause and effect can be distinctly traced.The earnestness and positiveness of the counsel in this trial, and expressions thoughtlessly dropped afterwards perhaps inflamed an unprincipled fellow to make the attack. It may be however that it would not have occurred, had he not been encouraged by other persons. I have only my suspicions, and make no charge against any one, I exculpate the whole bar from the most distant idea of producing such a catastrophe. All that [ mean to say is, that the practice I have mentioned has a direct tendency to incite such outrages, and that in this particular case (in connection with other causes) it did lead to the violence. The same cause may produce the same effect. I must be always exposed to such consequences if matter of excitement continues to be furnished to wrong headed brutal suiters. If I could have the confidence and support of the bar, and the assurances of a change in their manner towards each other, the office I hold would be rendered dignified, honorable and pleasant, but otherwise it must be altogether intolerable. On my part there is no want of good feelings, and I take this occasion to declare, that there is not one of you for whom I entertained unkind sentiments. On the contrary there is no one whose interest I would not advance, or whose honor I would not maintain so far as in my power. As to myself have no right to claim your friendship though I should be glad to have it, but I think in the discharge of my official duties, I ought to have your courtesy and respect, and when I err, forbearance in manner and recourse directly to the proper remedy (which I am always disposed to facilitate) and not to inflammatory expressions, or disapprobation or contempt addressed to the public or the party. I have thus disclosed to you frankly my feelings and views. In reply I wish your sentiments and determinations as to the future in rela tion to the grievances I have presented and propose therefore that you should take a few minutes to confer together and inform me of the conclusion to which you may arrive. I am truly yours, &c.

Dear Sir:


UNIONTOWN, Pa. Oct. 3d, 1834.

We have delayed replying to your letter, under date of the 12th September, 1834, addressed to the members of the bar of Fayette county, until the present time, to afford an opportunity for consulting together, and also for mature reflection upon the matter to which you refer. We regret in common with your Honor, that we have not been able in harmony and with satisfaction to ourselves and the people of the county, to transact the business of our courts. The public confidence seems to be withdrawn alike from the bar and the court. Perhaps your Honor's retiring from the bench, as you have intimated a willingness so to do, and giving the people power to select another, would be the means of producing a better state of things, and a more cordial co-operation from all sides in the des

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