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quirers into this subject, some more, some Scripture is of more worth than ten thousand less, that have been of our own nation. worlds. If any thing of good or mitigation is
GERARD WINSTANLEY, in his book of the intended to them, it will come in upon this Mystery of God, &c. p. 9, printed 1649, de. account; that they are the creatures of God clares thus : “ Therefore I say the mystery and his workmanship: The Lord shall rejoice of God is thus: God will bruise this serpent's in his works, and they shall reciprocally rehead, and cast the murtherer out of heaven, joice in the Lord their God. It those very (i. e. of) the human nature where it dwells in creatures who seem rejected, can but call part.-And he will dwell in that whole crea- upon him by the name of the Lord, and lay tion in time, and so deliver whole mankind hold on him as Esau did when he cried with out of their fall."
a great and exceeding bilier cry, · Bless me, There is another treatise called The Church even me, () my father! Hast thou but one Triumphant : or, A comfortable Treatise of the blessing, O my father? (still putting in mind Amplitude und Lurgeness of Christ's Kingdom; of the relation] bless me, even me also, O my wherein is proved by Scripture and reason, father! So it may be conceived of those that the number of the dained is inferior to condemned forlorn and miserable creaturesthat of the elect. By Joseph Alford, M. A. that after they have been long in wailing and sometime sellow of Oriel Coll ge, Oxford. gnashing of teeth-if they can but call upon Printed An. 1644. The title-page of which him by the name of Creator, and remember being so full, I shall omit any further quota- and lay it before him,that they are the works of tion from the book.
his hands :-God hath more than one blessing There is also a book written by R. Stafford, to saints and angels; he may make derils and entitled, Some Thoughts of the Life to come, &c. condemned sinners hewers of wood and draw. Printed Anno 1693, in which this doctrine is ers of water. For I will not contend forever notably asserted. We find here, p. 52, &c.- (saith the Lord), neither will I be always “So that let satan do his worst, as it is pro- wroth, for the spirit would fail before ine, verbially and truly said, God is above the devil; and the souls which I have make.' Isa. lvii. so his knowledge doth as much exceed the 18.–For God hath concluded all in unbelief, other, (who is a creature and by him made) that he might have mercy upon all. Rom. as the whole ocean a single drop of water. xi. 32." In the 1st and 2d chapters of Job, and the 2d The learned Dr. Henry More, in his D. of Zechariah, and in Rev. xii. 10; we see and vine Dialogues, printed Anno 1668, especially understand God's superlative and over-ruling that part which relates and pursues the goodness and equity; how he doth moderate vision of Bathynous's silver and golden keys the matter, and affirm it by the way of favour (the keys of Providence,) speaks very favourand mercy on the side of mankind. And this ably of this, yea covertly and at a distance but as talking a little before the day of assize, involves it; not only in his direct maintainan emblem and forerunner, how he will de- ing the doctrine of pre-existence, which goes termine it eternally on their side, at the last hand in hand with it; but laying down the and great day of judgment, notwithstanding more general principles from whence it all the informations, accusations and aggra- Rows. vations of Satan. And now if there should be We find, p. 479, BATAINOUS speaking thus : any- -who draw up more heavy and —"I was not content to think of God in the false inditement than the true and very nature gross only, but began to consider bis nature of the thing doth require and will bear: or if more distinctly and accurately, and to conthe conscience itself (which is yet more) template and compare his attributes.-And I pressed with sin and guilt, should forecast did confidently conclude, that infinite power, too grievous things : all this will not do one wisdom, and goodness, these three, were the jot of harm in the day of the Lord; for He chiefest and most comprehensive attributes of who hath prepared his throne for judgment the divine nature; and that the sovereign of knows all things :-“With righteousness will these was his goodness, the summity and he judge the world, and the people with equi- flower, as I may so speak, of the Divinity; ty. Psalm lxxxix. 9. Now equity is a mild and that particularly whereby the souls of thing, which doth state, moderate, and adjust men become divine: whereas the largest
Aud then after all, God doth re- communication of the other without this serve mercy, even after judgment and con- would not make them divine, but devils. In demnation : for that is its proper place." the mean time being versed in no other natural
And afterwards, p. 55.—“But God only philosophy nor metaphysics but the vulgar; knows what may succeed after all this, when and expecting the laws of the external creation, those miserable creatures have lain under 'either visible or invisible should be suitable condemnation and punishment, a much longer to that excellent and lovely idea of the God. space of duration than six or seven thousand head, which with the most serious devotion years, (the ages or evers of this lower crea- and affection I entertained in my own breast; tion) now God will look down from the my mind was for a long time charged with heighth of his Sanctuary : – From heaven inextricable puzzles and difficulties, to make will the Lord behold the earth,' (yea, and the phenomena of the world and the vulgar who knows whether he will behold yet opinions of men in any tolerable way to lower: •If I make my bed in hell, behold, comfort or suit with these two chiesesi attriThou art there!')—to hear the groaning of butes of God, his wisdom and his goodness." the prisoners, to loose them that are appoint- This is a like plunge with that in which ed to death.' Psa. cii. 19, 20; (in the margin our author was found, as before-mentioned, there, it is the children of death.] This one viz. To make out that God was good : and
for the extricating of Bathynous for the deep pence, and suspicion of the possibility of the contemplator) out of his labyrinth, the vision truth of it, p. 164: of the iwo keys of Providence is ingenuously “ The case then in short stands thus : Whenfeigned: and the first sentence in the scroll ever we break the laws of God, we fall into discovered by the golden key, written in let- his hands and lie at his mercy, and he may ters of gold, is this:
without injustice inflict what punishment * The measure of Providence is the divine upon us he pleaseth: and consequently to goodness : which has no bounds but itself; secure his law from violation, he may before. which is infinite." And another of the sen- hand threaten what penalties he thinks fit tences asserts, the pre-existence of souls. Ano- and necessary to deter men from the transther, viz. 5, is, “ In infinite myriads of free gression of it. And this is not esteemed unagents which were the framers of their own just among men, to punish crimes that are fortunes, it had been a wonder if they all of committed in an instant, with the perpetual them had taken the same path; and therefore loss of estate, or liberty, or life. Secondiy, sin at the long run shook hands with opa- this will appear yet more reasonable, when city (or, the abyss of darkness)." And the we consider, that after all, He that threatens 6th, is ;-“As much as the light exceeds the hath still the power of execution in his shadows, so much do the regions of happi- hands. For there is this remarkable differness exceed those of sin and misery.” ence between promises and threatenings,
The author of these dialogues would not that he who promiseth, passeth over a right go to the other six sentences, towards which to another, and thereby stands obliged to him he prepares the way, but makes Bathynous in justice and faithfulness to make good his to be suddenly waked out of his dream by the promise; and if he do not, the party to whoin braying of two asses; wittily hinting the rea- the promise is made is not only disappointed, son why he concealed the other part of what but injuriously dealt withal. But in threatmight serve to clear up the providence of enings it is quite otherwise. He that threatGod, viz. the rudeness and clamour of narrow ens keeps the right of punishing in his own and ignorant spirits.
hand, and is not obliged to execute what he But lastly we find him asserting, p. 515. hath threatened any further than the reasons “You acknowledge then his goodness the and ends of government do require : and he leading attribute in the creation of the world, may without injury to the party threatened, aud his wisdom and power, to contrive and remit and abate as much as he pleaseth of execute what his will actuated by his good- the punishment that he hath threatened: ness did intend.-But this is a marvel of and because in so doing he is not worse but marvels to me, that the goodness of God better than his word, nobody can find fault, or being infinite, the effects thereof should be complain of any wrong or injustice thereby so narrow and finite as commonly men con- done to him. ceit; if there be no incapacity in the things “Nor is this any impeachment of God's themselves that thus straitens them. That one truth and faithfulness, any more than is small share of the divine goodness should be esteemed among men a piece of falsehood not active, but that the infinite remainder thereof, to do what they have threatened. God did as I may so speak, silent and unactive, is a absolutely threaten the destruction of Nineveh, riddle, a miracle that does infinitely amaze and his peevish prophet did understand the
threatenings to be absolute, and was very This is indeed larger than what may be angry with God for employing him in a mesapplied to the particular occasion, viz. of the sage that was not made good. But God untime and manner of the creation of the derstood his own right, and did what he world; but here the braying comes in again, pleased, notwithstanding the threatening he expressed by Sophronius: “O Bathynous, my had denounced; and for all Jonah was so very heart-strings are fretted with fear and touched in honour that he had rather himself anxiety, when you plunge into such profound had died than that Nineveh should not have disquisitions as these!” And so Bathynous been destroyed, only to have verified his keeps still to the first part of the scrol), in message.” which he asserts pre-existence; but lays the Also p. 179, he says :-“ Origen, I know ground for its sister tenet or doctrine, viz. not for what good reason, is said to be of opithe restitution of those spirits which had nion, that the punishment of the devils and their descent into regions of punishment, for wicked men, after the day of judgment, will their defect and lapse from their pre-existent continue but for a thousand years; and that state; which, if not prevented by the weak- after that time they shall all be finally saved. ness and incapacity of the hearer, had been I can hardly persuade myself that so wise discovered as the grand point of the second and learned a man as Origen was, should be part of the scroll; and without which ward, positive in an opinion for which there can be as I may say, of the golden key, the greatest no certain ground in reason, especially for, objections against Providence are yet in the punctual and precise term of a thousand force, and the goodness of God, which he un- years. But upon the whole matter, however dertakes to vindicate, remains unasserted it be; be it for a thousand years, or be it for and almost as dark as before. But he here a longer and unknown term, or be it for ever, thought a word to the wise was sufficient. which is plainly threatened in the gospel; I
That great and good man, Dr. John Til- say, however it be, this is certain, thai it is Lotson, late Archbishop of Canterbury, in his infinitely wiser to take care to avoid it, than 4th volume of sermons, preached 1694, writes to dispute it, and to run the final hazard of it. thus favourably upon the case, as with sus. Put it which way we will, especially if we
pnt it at the worst, as in all prudence we there are such reserves in his most wise and ought to do, it is by all possible means to be gracious providence, as will both vindicate provided against. So terrible, so intolerable , his sovereign goodness and wisdom from all is the thought, yea, the very least suspicion just disparagement, and take such course of being miserable for ever."
with, and so dispose of all his creatures, as This has been looked upon as so open an they shall never be but in such a condition, intimation of this great man, that on this ac- which, all things considered, will be more count he has been written against, in vindi- eligible than never to have been." cation of the eternity of hell-torments.
Again, speaking of hell torments, he adds:But the most full and pregnant testimony "A sad and pityable state, and torture insufto this doctrine, we shall collect, and that prei- ferable! But no doubt as just as great. ty largely, from that ingenious letter of resolu- Just, I say, not only according the estimation tion cmcerning the opinions of Origen, printed of modern theology, (which, from an excess Anno 1661, known among the learned to have of compliment to the justice of God, becomes been written by a Bishop of the Church of almost as rude and troublesome as the ass in England, tamous for his excellent traci, De the fable, who did not fawn upon but invade Veritate. We find him declaring, p. 71,- his master; and which tragically pronounces
“I come now to the Father's filih opinion, that the least peccadillo highly deserves the which is this; “That after long periods of greatest punishment conceivable;) but also time the damned shall be delivered from their in the compule and judgment of that All. torments, and try their fortunes again in such righteous mind, which judges and orders all regions of the world as their nature and pre- things by the living law of equity. But sent disposition fits them for.'— There are in what, though it be so great and just;-is it some men's minds wonderful high reaches at therefore so different from the reasun of all great and unusual objects. That disposition other punishments inflicted by God or man, of soul whence such extraordinary offers pro- that there is nothing in it of that end for ceed, you may no: improperly call, the mag- which they are inflicted? They are curative, nificence of the intellect, which often hath for the emendation of the party suffering; something of temerity in it; as the moral but this, if it be eternal in the scholastic sense virtue of that name not seldom hath some of the word, leaves no place for the bettering touch of ambition. But as we are very fa. of the sufferers, who are never to get out of vourable to this, and apt to pardon its smaller this inexplicable labyrinth of woe and miextravagancies for the sake of those high de- serysigns and eminent works to which they ad- “Now to think these miserable souls are so here: so by the same reason and justice far amiss, as to be beyond the power of all ought that other to be candidiy sentenced hy redress and restitution, is to suppose God us, when it seems to slip, because of those made some of his creatures very untowardly; raised and important discoveries it makes, and that when he pronounced ihem all very where it lights right and happily; especially good, he looked only upon their primitive where it seems to have been betrayed by a state: for, certainly, if he had cast his eyes forward and pious endeavour of doing honour to all possible conditions they might afterto God. Which is Origen's case here; of wards fall into, and seen this never-to-bewhom his greatest adversaries cannot in rea- ended doom of intolerable pain and anguish son bul confess, that, the error they con- of body and mind, the infinite compassionaleceive him fallen into in this opinion, proceed- ness of his blessed nature would scarcely ed from his over great solicitude of rendering have given so cheerful an approbation to the the ways of Providence clear, and righteous, works of his hands.—But then, to think they and benign. Yet this, as strange as it looks, are not beyond the power of redress and rehas its probabilities too as well as the former.covery, and that that great punishment they For he looked upon God as making all things shall undergo in the end of this world may for their good and benefit; with this gracious contribute thereto, and yet to imagine they design that they might be happy, according shall, for all this their disposition, be still to their place and order in the infinite orb of kept in it for ever and ever, is to fix so harsh beings."
a note upon the mercy and equity of the And afterwards, p. 72, we read,—“That righteous Judge of all the world, that the eternal inind, therefore, making all things out same temper in a man we should execrate of a principle of infinite love, and for the and abominate.” good and happiness of the things themselves, And that the damned are in a probability, and seeing what he had made, and how he and even in a way of being bettered or dishad made them, and what was likely to he posed for grace, this learned bishop proceeds the lot of some of them, from the necessary to shew from the father, viz., “ Thai though un perfectness of their natures, if their future the divine life is extinguished in them, their ill-hap was like to be infinitely more sharp reason and consideration remain; and that and dolorous, than all the good they should their brutish desires being slacked by the enjoy from him, till that calamity befel them, tormenting pains, and the ideas of their joys grateful and pleasant; his great compassion in sin consumed or become disgustful to certainly would have persuaded him quickly them, any offer of release would be welcome to annihilate them ; or rather his wisdom to them.” And then he adds: “What is it would have judged it more decorous never to then that should make the merciful Governor have made them. But we see such mutable of heaven and earth, and hell too, the comcreatures made, and hear nothing of their passionate Father of spirits, either forcibly annihilation :-Therefore we may be assured, 'to keep off and prevent this natural course of
things, or which is worse, suffer those offers | any remarkable period of duration, whether or preparations which it induces for the it be of life, or dispensation, or polity. Any bettering the present condition of so great and of which periods, if plainly computable by a so considerable a part of his creation, and for known time, they do then define it by a set the putting of them into a way of return to number of years; but others which are not what he at first made them, to come to so known, they simply express by Gnolam, nought?-So that whithersoever we look, and araw leaving the length of them to be de. whether to the gracious Providence of God, or termined according to the subject matter; the necessity of the nature of things, we find which, where it is such as comprehends more some probable hope, that the punishment of than a single determinable aim they express the damned, as it implies the sense of pain, it in Hebrew by the phrase of Lagnolam should not be eternal in the highest sense of vagned, in Greek by sis a cv amava xx iri or us the word. --But whether their release be by Tos auaite, and
But any change wrought in the dispositions of by none of these do they mean a scholastic their spirits, but without death; or whether eternity ; unless the nature of the thing then by an escape, as it were, by dying, to ihe expressed require such interminable duration. body so tortured: there is no doubt to be And hence the period of this world is called made, but that both ways they may come into 2:CY OTOS, when yet there is another to sucplay again, and try their fortunes once more ceed, a'wixsiev. And as these autoves differ, in such regions of the world as Providence so would also the meaning of arwyly be dif. judges fit for them.”
ferent according as it was applied to the one And towards the end of the book, p. 130, or the other of them. And so in the plural, we have upon this head, something further, Christ is said to appear and suffer, szi TUNTIAvery considerable: viz. Against the fifth siz Tay distilley, when yet the longest tic of (supposed error of the futher] Epiphanius says all was not then come. And he of whom it nor a syllable; I think he does not so much is said, Thy throne, O God is, is tcy aiara ti as barely name it; and I remember nothing amoyon (for ever and ever) yet to deliver up in St. Jerome about it, but such admirations as the kingdom to God the Father, and to be these" That the devils should become an- subject himself to him, who did subject all gels again! and Judas a saint !"-And since things to him. So that here is plainly an he has been pleased to say no more ; I shall end to that reign which is said to be for ever not say much, but only, what difference is and ever. And as at' o!?!ly does not in there between a devil made an angel, and an Scripture signify from all elernity, in the angel made a devil? I am sure the advan. sense of the schools, so by the same reason tage lies on the ascending part, rather than on ought not ris above to signify to all elernily, the descending; for the mercy and compas- in the same notion : and is not be alare, and sion of God to all other works of his hands, clicvecv all one? Every lexicographer and may reasonably be supposed to help them up, expositor will furnish you with authorities though undeserving; but there is nothing in enough to confirm what I have said: and I his most righteous nature, which would cast leave you to judge, whether the whole subject them down with their high deinerit. But if matter in this periodical doom, the nature of St. Jerome wondered at this restitution, as that fire and its fuel, the power of a spirit incertain, or easy, or of short despatch, tis his corporate, be not such as will enforce us to own mistake he wondered at, not Origen's make it shorter than some men do; who havopinion, at least in the two last particulars. ing got easy ways of assuring themselves it
"What Methodius disputes from the nature shall not be their portion, do as liule pity and reason of punishment, against Origen's those calamitous souls whose lot it may be, making the terrestrial body desude uz1 Tidas, as they darkly fancy God himself does. But (the bond or confinement of the soul ] if it be though we from the reason of things and applied to the final punishment which God right use of the words, do make it shorter wili inflict upon all the obdurately wicked in than they do; yet according to our hypothesis, the end of this world, will as much confirm the whole punishment of pain and death will this fifth opinion, as he imagined through necessarily be so long, as may justly be mistake of the father's doctrines, and a pe- called almi@v, in a very high sense of the dantic accuracy in the use of a word, it word. would weaken the third; and so he really “But if out of filial respect lo the authogives the father as much with one hand as he rity of our dear mother the Church of Engbat thinks he takes from him with the other. land, you are yet something backward to give For he very largely disputes in his Socratical assent to the probability of Origen's doctrine, way, that all punishment is curative, and for I would have you first to consider, that all the emendation of the suffering party." those that write and preach in this nation,
"Some there are that think those phrases are not her sons, no more than they of Geneva, of 7 på:cry, and rindois &:cov!c[i. e. everlasting Scotland, or New England are. Secondly, I fire, and everlasting punishment) and the like, would fain know why she, who in her rxxix cannot be reconciled with Origen's opinion. articles does so punctually follow the articles But these objectors seem to take the word agreed upon in King Edward's days, or with a 17:00 (rendered everlasting) from scholastic little variation, should wholly omit that article definitions, rather than from the true and which condemns the restorers of this opinion, lawful masters of language, or the authentic if she had thought it ought to have been conrule of its popular use. For 'is notoriously demned.”-Thus far this excellent and ingeknown, that the Jews, whether writing in nious author. Yebrew or Greek, do by Gnolam and oion mean This doctrine has been cultivated by several others: as, BADLER, in his Olbia; PETER ground in Scripture, so great strength in STERRY, author of The Freedom of the will ; reason, and such a cloud of witnesses to the the author of the Enochian walks with GOD, truth of this doctrine, the design and endeaand the Revelation of the everlasting Gospel vours of the editor of this work may yet meet Messuge, to which an excellent preface is with a more favourable reception, as in a prefixed, running very deep into the rationale time when the broken state of the Church of it; as also by a Scotch gentleman, author obliges all to be looking towards the first of the Cabalistical epistle, printed in the foundation of it; and the revival of apostolical Theosophical Transactions, No. 5, where he truths as well as practice, is so highly needful. brings in the testimonies of the Jewish Rabbis And lastly, if there be any thing siipi in the conspiring also to the truth of this great edition that may be complained of, he hopes point, with several others. But I must con- it will be candidly censured, not having entain myself; and hope what is advanced may joyed his health for some time, during the be sufficient to show, that this opinion is not attendance upon the press; so that it has neso strange and unusual, nor counted so ab- cessarily been subject to various interrupsurd a tenet by the pious and learned, both tions, and also changes from one hand io of elder and later times, as it is by the gene another; and so I shall no longer detain the rality imagined to be.
reader from the body of the work itself; And it may be further hoped, that seeing wishing him the satisfaction and benefit that upon examination 'there appears so good l it designs, and is also capable of giving him.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD LONDON EDITION.
Tre first edition of this work was printed “Mr. JEREMIAH White, had with a great for Cliffe & Jackson, at the Three Crowns in deal of pains and charge made a collection the Poultry, 1712. Another edition was of the sufferings of the dissenters by the penal printed for J. Woodword, in Scalding Alley laws, after the restoration in 1660, which near Stocks-market, and J. Morphew near contained an account of the ruin of many Stationer's Hall, to which no date was pre- thousand families in the several parts of the fixed: the present* is printed from that of kingdom. by the severities of those times; 1712.-The writer of the preceding preface when King James the second came to the (for some particular reason) thought proper, crown and gave the dissenters liberty, he was at the publishing the book, to conceal the very much importuned by several to print name of the author.
this account. Some agents of King James Neither in Bayle's nor in the Biographical were with him, and made him very considerDictionary, is there any mention made of able offers if he would publish it; but as JEREMIAE WHITE;—the principal particulars circumstances then stood, he was not to be I have read concerning him, are to be found prevailed upon, for fear of strengthening the in Dr. Calamy's account of ejected ministers, Popish interest, which I mention in honour to printed in 1713. Page 5, he says,
his memory. “ Mr. JEREMIAH Wurte, M. A. was fellow “A book of his has been published since of Trinity College in Cambridge, and after his death, entitled, “The restoration of all wards preacher to the Council of State, and things;' orA vindication of the goodness household chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. He and grace of God,to be manifested at last in the lived privately after the Restoration, preaching recovery of his whole creation out of their occasionally, without ever undertaking any fall,' octavo, 1712; but this is perfect Origenpastoral charge. His conversation was very ism, which is too unscriptural, too venturefacetious, and much valued by some persons some an hypothesis, to be depended on with of rank and figure: he died anno 1707, Æl, safety."—So far Dr. Calamy's account. 78_I know not of any thing of his writing But there was a book in quarto, printed being printed in his life-time, besides a fune- 1683, entitled, The rise, race, and royalty of ral sermon for Mr. Francis Fuller, and since the kingdom of God in the sout, by PETER his death, a treatise of his has been published STERRY; to which a most excellent preface in octavo, entitled, A Persuasive to moderation was wrote by JEREMIAH Wute. and forbearance in love, among the divided forms The author of the preceding preface having of Christians, in which more of his works are inserted some quotations, both ancient and promised.”
modern, in support of the doctrine of the In Dr. Calamy's Ist volume of the Continu. Restoration, I shall take the liberty to mention Ation, page 85, is as follows:
a few other authors, who have written upon [* This edition was printed in London, in the
the same subject. year 1779; for John Denis & Son, Booksellers,
Anno 1658, a small book, entitled, “Of the No. 2 Bridge street, near the Obelisk, Fleet torments of hell, the foundation shaken and street.)
removed; with many infallible proofs that