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Hath he in anger shut up his tender mercies? | Deuteronomy, viii. 5, Thou shalt also con And I said, This is my infirmily!

sider in thine heart, that, as a man chastenThese words ought to be engraven on the eth his son, so the Lord thy God chastenetto heart. To say that they relate solely to offen- thee.'-Job, v. 17, · Happy is the man whom ders in the present life is to take for granted God correcteth; therefore, despise not thou the the point in dispute, and to affirm what can chastening of the Almighty. —Psalm xciv. not be proved. "Is not this language as appli- 12, · Blessed, O Lord, is the man whom thou cable to future as it is to present punishment chastenest.'—Hebrews, xii. 5–11, “My son,

- to the chastisement of the wicked, as to the despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, correction of him who has fallen from recti- nor faint when thou art rebuked of him ; for tude? With regard to the former, does it not whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and equally put to us the affecting questions, scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. If • Will he be favourable no more ? Is his mer- ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you cy clean gone for ever ? Doth his promise as with sons; for what son is he whom the sail for evermore ? No; it is impossible. father chasteneth not? But if ye be withWhoever shall attempt 10 persuade me that out chastisement, whereof all are partakers, there can come a period when he will eternal. then are ye bastards, and not sons. Furtherly shut up in anger his tender mercies, I will more, we have had fathers of our flesh who repeat to him this passage: I will say, 'It is corrected us, and we gave them reverence: your infirmity!

shall we not rather be in subjection to the 5th, The final restoration of all mankind to father of Spirits, and live ? For they verily, purity and happiness is favoured by those pas- for a few days, chasteneth us after their own sages which represent God as declaring that pleasure ; but he for our profit, that we might he takes no pleasure in the punishment of the be partakers of his holiness. Now, no chaswicked.

tening for the present seemeth to be joyous, Ezekiel, xviii. 23, •Have I any pleasure at but grievous; nevertheless, afterward it yieldall that the wicked should die, saith the Lord eth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto God, and not that he should return from his them which are exercised thereby.' ways and live?'—Chronicles, xxxiii. 11, 'As These passages declare, in the strongest I live, saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure and plainest language, that God chastens bis in the death of the wicked, but that the wick- creatures in the same manner as a wise and ed should turn from his ways and live.'—2 benevolent parent corrects his child. Those Peter, iii. 9, The Lord is long-suffering to- who maintain that this is true only of the virwards us, not willing that any should perish, tuous, or that he treats the wicked in this manbut that all should come to repentance.' ner in the present life alone, must eonceive

The doctrine of Endless Misery teaches that he is the Father only of a part of manthat, from all eternity God, for the praise of kind, or that a period will arrive when his his glorious justice, decreed the great majori- treatment of his children will be unworthy of ty of his creatures to irremediable and eternal a good parent. death; yet the scriptures represent him as And why should either of these suppositions contradicting this in the most express terms, be entertained ? We are too apt to exclude and in the most solemn manner: 13 I live, the vicious from our benevolent regard, and saith the Lord, I have no pleasure in the death to consider and treat them as utterly worthof the wicked, but that the wicked should turn less. This pernicious feeling is even transfrom his ways and live.

ferred to the great Parent of the human race. Revelation, iv. 11, “Thou art worthy, 0 But the vicious can never become utterly Lord, to receive glory, and honour, and pow-worthless, because they always retain their er, for thou hast created all things, and by moral capacity and their sentient nature. So thy will, or for thy pleasure, they are and long as they are capable of knowledge and were created.'

virtue, they are fit objects of moral discipline; What cause can there be for an ascription so long as they retain the power of feeling, of praise to their Creator, on the part of the and can suffer pain or enjoy happiness, they greater number of his ereatures, if, millions of are proper objects of benevolence. A false ages before their existence, he doomed them system of philosophy, a selfish and exclusive to intolerable and endless misery? Could system of theology, may make us forgetful of any one who believed such a doctrine speak these unalterable and imperishable claims in this rapturous manner of the work of upon our best affections, which all of human creation ? But what a delightful meaning is kind possesses; but he cannot overlook them, there in this language, and what abundant who is the Creator of all, and who cares alike cause is there for praise, if all intelligent beings for every individual of his large family. It is are ultimately to be restored to purity and the faculty of reason that renders a creature a happiness! Then, indeed, may it be said of proper object of moral discipline; it is the cathe Author of this glorious scheme, Thou art pacity of suffering and of enjoying that renders worthy to receive glory, and honor and power.' him a proper object of benevolence; and these

6th, The final restoration of all mankind to even vice itself cannot destroy. However, purity and happiness is favoured by those pas- therefore, the condition of the wicked may be sages which represent the Deity as chastising changed in the future state, it cannot be changhis children with the disposition of a parent, ed to this extent-to the extent, that is, of

by those which affirm or imply that future rendering them no longer the objects of moral punishment will be corrective.

discipline, which must be the case, if their punishment be not corrective, or to the extent could devise proper ones, and secure success of excluding them from the care of benevo- in the use of them. Now, with respect to lence, since they must retain their sentient the Supreme Lord and Parent of all, there is nature. To suppose, therefore, that a period unerring wisdom to contrive infallible means, can ever come, when the punishment of the boundless goodness to incline him to employ erring creatures of humanity will not be cor- them, and Almighty power to accomplish rective, and when the benevolent Father of every end that infinite perfection proposes.' those creatures will cease to regard them with 7th, The final purity and happiness of all a Father's tenderness, is both without reason mankind is favoured by those passages which and contrary to reason.

represent the benefits resulting from the obeMatthew, xxv. 46, These shall go away dience and death of Christ as co-extensive into lasting chastisement, but the righteous with, and even exceeding, the evils produced into lite eternal.'

by the disobedience and fall of Adam. The word translated punishment, in the re- 1 Corinthians, xv. 22,'• As through Adam ceived version, is kolasis, a term which is uni- all die, so likewise through Christ shall all be versally allowed to signify chastisement or made alive. In this passage, the evil procorrective punishment. It is used in this duced by sin is compared with the benefit resense by the heathen philosophers: • Dicemus ceived by Christ, and it supposes that the ergo in pænis respiciant utilitatem ejus qui life imparted by him is a blessing; but, if the peccarit, aut ejus cujus intererat non peccatum wicked are to be raised from the slumber of esse, aut indistincte quorumlibet. Ad horum the tomb, only to be visited with severe and trium finum primum pertinet pæna quæ philo- protracted punishment, and then destroyed, sophosis modo, nouthesia, modo kolasis, modo or to be kept in endless misery, the restoraparainesis, dicitur. Paulo jurisconsulto, pæna tion of their existence, instead of a benefit, is quæ constituitur in emendationem, sophroniseos an unspeakable disadvantage. eneka, Platone, Plutarcho iatreia psuches, ani. Romans, v. 15, . That as the offence, so is mi medicatrix, quæ hoc agit ut eum qui pec- the free gift; for if, through the offence of one, cavit reddat meliorem medendi modo qui est oi polloi, the many (that is, the great body of per contraria.'*-Grotius de Jure Belli el Pacis, mankind-Newcome,)have died, much more the lib. ij. cap. xx. sect. 6.

favour of God, and ihe gift which is through Simpson observes on this word, 'Our Lord, the favour of one man, Jesus Christ, hath in the awful and impressive description of the abounded, eis tous pollous, unto the many. If, proceedings of the last judgment of mankind, by the offence of the one, death reigned by has selected the term kolasis, in no other place this one, much more those who receive the in the New Testament applied to the future abounding of favour, and of the gift of justifistate, in order to explain with the greater pre- cation, shall reign in life by the one man Je cision the final recompense of the sinner. sus Christ. So then, as by the offence of one, There seems, in Matthew, xxv. 46, to be an judgment came upon all men to condemnation, evident allusion to the Septuagint translation su likewise, by the righteousness of one, the of Daniel, xii. 2, which was commonly used free gift hath come upon all men to justificain Judea, when our Lord appeared. The ex- tion of life. For as, by the disobedience of pression zoen aionion, is literally adopted in one man, the many were made sinners, (or order to express the recompense of the righte- treated as such, by undergoing death,) so like ous. But, instead of aischunen aionion, the wise, by the obedience of one, the many will expression, kolasin aionion, appears to have be made righteous; that, where sin abounded, been purposely substituted, as comprehending the favour of God has much more abounded; that variety of painful chastisement, both in that, as sin reigned unto death, so favour kind, and degree, and duration, which the likewise might reign by justification to everhighest ideas of the perfections of the Supreme lasting life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.' Parent and Ruler naturally lead us to suppose Nothing can be more evident, than that it is he will inflict upon his children and subjects, the apostle's intention, in this passage, to reaccording to the nature and magnitude of their present all mankind, without exception, as deoffences. Even in human governments, a riving greater benefit from the death of Christ, wise and good magistrate would employ tem- than they suffer injury from the fall of Adam. porary corrective chastisement for the refor- The universality of the apostle's expressions mation of criminals, that they might be re- is very remarkable. The same many, who stored to usefulness and happiness in society, were made sinners by the disobedience of the in preference to capital punishments, if he one, are made righteous by the obedience

of the other. If all men are condemned by the We observe, then, that punishment regards the offence of the one, the same all are justified by benefit either of the offender, or, of the offended, the righteousness of the other. or indeed, of any other persons. The punishment which respects the first of these three purposes is

These universal terms, so frequently recalled by philosophers sometimes nouthesia, some peated and so variously diversified, cannot times kolasis, and sometimes perainesis. According possibly be reconciled to the limitation of the to Paulus, a lawyer, the punishment designed for blessings of the gospel to the elect alone, or amendment is by Plato said to be sophroniseos to a part only of the human race. eneka, for the sake of making wiser. And it is wicked are reformed by their punishment,

Unless the called by Plutarch, ialreia psuches, the healer of the mind; because according to the art of healing, can there be any truth in the declaration, that it renders him who has sinned better by means of the favour of God by Christ abounds much contraries.

more than sin and death? If the great majori




ty of mankind are to continue in sin and for the sake of him that is his beloved, in misery through all eternity, or at some remote whom we have redemption by his blood, viz., period to be blotted out of existence, it is the forgiveness of transgressions, according to they that triumph. They are infinitely more the greatness of his grace and favour, which extensive than the abounding of favour. Ac- he has overflowed in towards us, in bestowing cording to both of these doctrines, therefore, on us so full a knowledge and comprehension the reasoning of the apostle in this passage is of the extent and design of the gospel, and totally inconclusive.

prudence to comply with it, as it becomes The passages which have been quoted ap- you, in that he hath made known to you the pear decidedly to favour the doctrine of the good pleasure of his will and purpose, which ultimate restoration of all mankind to purity was a mystery that he hath purposed in him. and happiness, since in every case a denial of selt, until the coming of the due time of that this opinion is a contradiction of the declara- dispensation wherein he hath predetermined tions they contain. There are passages, how- to reduce all things again, both in heaven and ever, which seem still more expressly to con

on earth, under one head in Christ.' By the firm the truth of this hypothesis.

phrase, things in heaven, and things on earth,' he understands the Jewish and Gentile world, observing, “That St. Paul should use

heaven and earth for Jews and Gentiles, will CHAPTER II.

not be thoughtso very strange, if we consider OF THE PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE WHICH APPEAR that Daniel himself expresses the nation of

the Jews by the name of heaven. Daniel WILL BE ULTIMATELY RESTORED TO PURITY viii. 10. Nor does he want an example of

it in our Saviour himself, who, Luke, xxi. In the former editions of this work, some the great men of the Jewish nation; nor is

27, by "powers of heaven," plainly signified passages were arranged under this head; the only place, in this epistle of St. Paul to which, on further examination, I am satisfied the Ephesians, which will bear this interpres cannot be justly adduced as express affirma- tation of heaven and earth. He who shall tions of the doctrine, that the whole human carefully read the fifteen first verses of chap: race will finally be restored to virtue and hap. iii., and carefully weigh the expressions, and piness. I consider the celebrated passage in observe the dritt of the apostle in them, will Ephesians, i. 8-10, as probably, though not

not find that he does manifest violence to St. certainly, asserting it: • Having made known Paul's sense, if he understands by the fami. unto us the mystery of his will, according to his ly in heaven and earth,” verse 15, the united good pleasure which he purposed in himself, body of Christians, made up of Jews and Genconcerning the dispensation of the fulness of tiles, living still promiscuously among those times, that he would gather together to him- two sorts of people who continued in their unself in one all things through Christ, which belief. However, this interpretation I am not are in the heavens and which are on the earth, positive in, but offer it as a matter of inquiry even through him.'. At first view, this pas- to such who think an impartial search into the sage seems exceedingly favourable to this true meaning of the sacred scripture the best opinion, and appears, indeed, expressly to af

employment of all the time they have.' firm, that it is the great object of the divine

Mr. Belsham says, • Perhaps the sense of dispensations to unite together, in one holy this intricate period may be thus expressed : and happy state, all intelligent beings under which riches of his goodness he has abunJesus Christ. But many learned and en- dantly exhibited to us, having enriched our lightened men propose a different interpreta- understanding with a clear knowledge of that tion. They suppose that this

passage relates to God's predetermination to comprehend Gen- and eternal purpose, and which relates to that

mystery which was the object of his gracious tiles as well as Jews in the blessings of the dispensation which has now at the fulness of gospel dispensation. "The interpretation of the time taken place, namely, that he would reo ancient fathers,' says Whitby, - seems to give unite under one head, even Jesus Christ, all this sense, that God hath, by this dispensation, descriptions of mankind, whether Jews of gathered, under one head, víz., Christ, the head Gentiles.' of the church, all things on earth that is, Jews

Although, if the above interpretation be and Gentiles—and all things in heaven, Christ just, this passage cannot be considered as being the head over principalities and powers. bearing that positive and decided testimony Locke's paraphrase of this and of the four pre- to the truth, that all mankind will be ultimateceding verses, is as follows : Having pre- ly restored to purity and happiness, which determined to take us Gentiles, by Jesus some learned men have supposed, yet it does Christ, to be his sons and people, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the end, that

The primary signification of the word anake. the Gentiles too might praise him for his phalio, which the apostle here uses, is to sum up grace and mercy to them and all mankind, an account or to reduce many sums to one. magnifying his glory for his abundant good-Schleusner.-And the phrase, all things,' signiness to them, by receiving them freely into fits all persons, the neuter being put for the mas the kingdom of the Messiah, to be his people turæ intelligentes in calo et in terra, per

culine, as in John, vi. 39. Ut nempe omnes credo

Christum again, in a state of peace with him, harely in unam societalem adducerentur.- Rosenmuller. not weaken that testimony so much as might things in heaven,' signifies Gentiles and Jews. at first be apprehended ; for, even admitting But, since Gentiles and Jews comprehend all that the apostle meant by the phrase, 'things mankind, it seems just to take this passage in heaven and things on earth,' Jews and in its most extensive sense, and to consider Gentiles, yet it deserves to be borne in it as affirming, that it has pleased the Father mind, that these expressions include all man- to appoint Jesus Christ to be the great instru. kind, since, in the apostle's view, Jews and ment of reconciling to himself the whole hus Gentiles would comprehend the whole of man race. And, if this be so, how can the the human race, there being no description of intention of the Father be accomplished, if the persons which would not be classed by him greater number of human beings remain for under one or other of these divisions. Mr. ever at enmity with him, and execrate his Locke's own paraphrase of the 6th verse is, name through all eternity, or if they are blot•To the end that all mankind might magnify ted out of existence because a reconciliation his glory for his abundant goodness to them.' could not be effected between them? If the Jews and Gentiles include all mankind, That remarkable passage in Romans, v. 12how far does the interpretation suggested by 21, has already been considered in the last Mr. Locke limit the sense of the passage ? chapter; but it must be again brought under May it not still be understood to declare, not review in this. • As by one man sin entered only that under the gospel dispensation Jews into the world, and death by sin ; and thus and Gentiles are admitted to equal privileges, death hath passed upon all men, in as much but also that it is the gracious purpose of as'all have sinned : (for until the law, sin God to restore all mankind to a state of perfect was in the world; but sin is not imputed when virtue and happiness, and thus to unite all there is no law; nevertheless, death reigned under one head, namely, Jesus Christ ? from Adam to Moses, even over those that had Tbis passage must be understood to refer not sinned after the likeness of Adam's translo some future change, universal in its gression, who is a resemblance (a type) of extent, and happy in its consequences; for at him that was to come: yet the free gift like no period since the advent of the Messiah wise is not so, as was the offence; for if have these been united together in one under through the offence of one, many have died, him. All do not, and never have acknow-, much more the favour of God, and the gist ledged his mild and benevolent sway. Sin which is through the favour of one man, Je and misery still dispute and always have dis- sus Christ, hath abounded unto many. Neiputed the government of the world with him. ther is the gift so, as it was by one who sin. Bat are we not by this passage encouraged to ned; for the judgment was of one offence to believe that, in the dispensation of the fulness condemnation, but the free gift is of many

of times, every disposition which opposes offences to justification. For if, by the of • him shall be destroyed, and that, different as fence of one, death reigned by one, much

men's character and condition may be at pre- more those who receive the abounding of fasent, they shall all then become his willing your and of the gift of justification will reign subjects, and be rendered holy and happy? in life by one, even Jesus Christ.) So then, And, as Christ will be the means of effecting as by the offence of one, judgment came upon this glorious work, may not all mankind in this all men to condemnation; so, likewise, by the sense, be said to be gathered together in one righteousness of one, the free gift hath come under him! If there be no reason for restrict- upon all men to justification of life. For as ing this passage to a more limited signification, by the disobedience of one many were made does not this sense best accord with the diffu- sinners, so, likewise, by the obedience of sively-benevolent spirit of the gospel, with one many will be made just. Now the law the character of God as the kind Father and entered in privily, so that offences abounded. wise Governor of mankind, and with many But where sin abounded, the favour of God other passages of scripture? However, in the hath much more abounded ; that as sin hath language of that great man and excellent reigned through death, só favour likewise Christian, whose words on a similar occasion might reign by justification to everlasting life have just been cited, and, I trust, with some- by Jesus Christ our Lord.' thing of the spirit with which he wrote them, In this passage, all menare said to have I would say, that of this interpretation I been made mortal by the offence of Adam, would not be positive, but offer it as a matter and here the phrase, "all men,' must necessaof inquiry lo sach who think an impartial search rily be understood to signify every individual into ihe true meaning of the sacred scripture of the human race. Though the style of the the best employment of all the time they have.' apostle in this passage is remakably intricate

The same observations I would apply to the and perplexed, yet his meaning is clear, and similar passage, Colossians, i. 19, 20, It hath can scarcely be misunderstood. He affirms pleased the Father, that in him all fulness that sin entered into the world by Adam, and should dwell, and, having made peace through that, in consequence of his offence, death his blood shed on the cross, that by him he passed upon all men, or all men became morwould RECONCILE ALL THINGS TO HIMSELF; tal. Thus many were made sinful or mortal by that is, all intelligent creatures.'—Newcome. one. In this sense, Adam was a type of Jesus —By him, I say, whether they be things on Christ; for, as all mankind became subject to earth or things in heaven. It is highly pro- great privation and suffering, in consequence pable that the phrase, “things on earth or of the offence of one, namely, Adam, so the

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greatest privileges and blessings are bestowed piness. By one passage of scripture, then,
apon all mankind in consequence of the obe- at least, the doctrine which it is the object of
dienee of one, namely, Jesus Christ. But it this work to establish is positively and ex-
is only in this single circumstance, that all pressly affirmed, and this is decisive.
Buffer and all are benefited by one, that there is But this passage is of great importance in
any analogy between them; for in every other another view. It may be justly considered as
respect there is the greatest possible difference confirming, in no inconsiderable degree, the
between Adam and Christ. The act entailing interpretation which has been suggested of
such important consequences upon the whole the passages in Ephesians and Colossians;
human race was on the part of Adam an act of for in this passage it cannot be doubted, that,
transgression-on the part of Christ an act of while it is the object of the apostle's reasoning
obedience. And there is a still further dis- to show that all mankind, whether Jews or
parity between them; for the calamities result- Gentiles, are alike participators of the divine
ing from the act of transgression were the favour, and included in the gospel dispensa.
legal punishment of the offence; but the tion, it likewise follows, from his argument,
blessings accruing from the act of obedience that it is equally the intention of the benevo-
were not such as could be claimed by law, but lent Author of this dispensation, to bestow
were the free, unpurchased, unmerited gift of immortality upon the whole human race, and
God. And the consequences of the act of to advance them to a state of pure and perfect
transgression and the act of obedience may be virtue and happiness.
placed in still more striking contrast; for the I omit 1 Timothy, iv. 10, ii. 3, 4–1 John,
act of transgression was but one, and yet ii. 2-Philippians, ii. 9-11—Hebrews, ii. 8–
death, with all the calamities connected with which were formerly adduced as proofs, that
it, passed upon the whole human race, 'while all mankind will ultimately be placed in a
the act of obedience provides justification for state of virtue and happiness. All these pas-
many offences. Nor is this all; for the bless- sages, indeed, seem perfectly to harmonize
ings procured for mankind by the obedience with this opinion, but some of them I now
of Christ are unspeakably greater than the think too obscure to be alleged in proof of any
calamitios brought upon them by the offence controverted doctrine; and all of them, it is
of Adam.

probable, relate to a different subject than
This is undoubtedly the argument of the ihat of the future condition of mankind.
apostle. Notwithstanding all the obscurity There is, however, another passage, which
and perplexity of his language, whoever reads still appears to me expressly to the point, and
the passage with attention must perceive that decisive of it, namely, 1 Corinthians, xv.
these are the ideas which were in his mind. 21-29: •For since by man came death, by
And in the whole compass of Christian truth man also cometh the resurrection of the dead.
there is no doctrine more important or more For as through Adam all die, so likewise
glorious than that which is thus disclosed. It through Christ all will be made alive.
is a direct and positive declaration, that the every one in his own order: Christ the first-
blessings provided by the obedience of Christ fruits ; afterwards those that are Christ's at
shall, in the number of persons who partake his appearance. Then will be the end, when
of them, be co-extensive with the calamities Christ shall have delivered up the kingdom to
produced by the offence of Adam, and in their God, even the Father; when he shall have put
magnitude and value shall greatly exceed down all rule, and all authority and power:
them. This is sufficient ; this is decisive. for he must reign till he have put all ene.
'These ideas were in the mind of the apostle. mies under his feet. The last enemy shall
This is the doctrine which he plainly and in- be destroyed, even death. For " he hath sub-
disputably teaches, and nothing more is ne-jected all things under his feet.” But when
cessary; for, even though it should be proved it is said, “ All things are subjected,” it is
that he illustrates his doctrine by a fanciful manifest that he is excepted who subjected all
allusion to what was in itself only an allegory things to him. And when all things shall
-that his reasoning is not in every respect be subjected to him, then the Son himself also
complete, and even that he did not himself will be subjected to him who subjected all
fully comprehend all the glorious conse- things to him, that God may be all among all.'
quences of the sublime truth he disclosed, Although it may be difficult to ascertain the
that truth would be neither the less important, exact meaning of certain parts of this pas-
nor the less certain.

sage, yet it appears to me to contain a clear The great fact itself—the fact which it was and positive annunciation of the sublime and his object and his office to teach, and in which glorious truth, that the consummation of the he could not be mistaken, was, that the bless-divine dispensations will be the extinction of ings produced by the obedience of Christ death, and sin, and misery, and the universal shall be as extensive as the evils occasioned and eternal prevalence of immortality, virtue, by the offence of Adam-that all who suffer and happiness. For since by man came from the one shall partake of the benefits of death, by man also cometh the resurrection the other, while these benefits themselves of the dead. For as through Adam all die, shall infinitely exceed and overbalance the so likewise through Christ all will be made calamities entailed upon mankind by the first alive.'—* It is evident,' as Mr. Belsham obtransgression. The conclusion is inevitable, serves, that the apostle here assumes, as the that the whole human race, without exception, foundation of his analogy, the account of the shall ultimately be restored to virtue and hap- ' fall of man, as recorded in the book of Gene


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