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2 Kings xxiv. 6. “So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers.” As Jehoiakim was ' buried with the burial of an ass,' (Jer. 22. 18, 19; 36. 30), the expression, slept with his fathers,' can only mean that he died, without determining what became of either body or soul.*
Ibid. “ And Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead." As this man reigned only three months, and was a mere vassal of the king of Babylon, his reign is scarcely reckoned; and therefore Jeremiah (ch. 35. 30) says of Jehoiakim,' he shall have none to sit upon the throne of David.'*
2 Kings xxiv. 8. « Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months.” In the parallel place (2 Chr. 36. 9) he is said to be only eight years old; but this must be a mistake, for we find that having reigned only three months, he was carried captive to Babylon, and there had wives ; and had he been of such a tender age, it could scarcely have been said that, as a king, he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord.” The Syriac and Arabic in Chronicles agree with the parallel place in Kings, and have eighteen years ;' which, as Scaliger observes, is no doubt the genuine reading. *
2 Kings xxv. 19. “And out of the city he took an officer that was set over the men of war, and five men of them that were in the king's presence, which were found in the city, and the principal scribe of the host, which mustered the people of the land, and threescore men of the people of the land that were found in the city,” In the parallel place of Jeremiah, (ch. lii. 25.) it is said that he took seven who were men near the king's person : the same number is found in the Arabic in this place; while the Chaldee has no less than fifty: but in Jeremiah, this, as well as all the rest of the Versions, reads seven. Probably they were no more than five at first; or, perhaps, Jeremiah reckoned with the five the officer that was set over the men of war, and the principal scribe of the host, mentioned here, as two with the five; and thus made seven in the whole.*
1 Chron. i. 36. “ The sons of Eliphaz; Teman, and Omar, Zephi, and Gatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek.” Here, according to our present text, Timna is reckoned among the sons of Eliphaz; but it appears from the parallel passage of Genesis, (ch. 36. 12.) that she was the concubine of Eliphaz, and mother of Amalek. Agreeably to this, the Arabic, and the Alexandrine copy of the Septuagint, read here, · Timna, also, who was the concubine of Eliphaz, bare him Amalek.'*
1 Chron. xi. 13. “He was with David at Pas-Dammim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, where was a parcel of ground full of barley; and the people fled from before the Philistines." In Samuel it is a piece of ground full of lentiles ;' and there is probably a mistake of gyv, seorim, barley,' for ovny, ádashim, “ lentiles,' or vice versa. Some, however, think there were both lentiles and barley in the field, which not unlikely. *
1 Chron. xix. 7. “So they hired thirty and two thousand chariots, and the king of Maachah and his people; who came and pitched before Medeba." Thirty-two thousand soldiers, exclusive of the thousand sent by the king of Maachah, are mentioned in the parallel passage, (2 Sa. 10. 6.); but of chariots or cavalry there is no mention; and the number of chariots stated here is prodigious, and beyond all credibility. But as the word 39", raichev, denotes not only a chariot, but a rider, (see Is. 21. 7.), it ought most probably to be rendered here, in a collective sense, cavalry; and then the number of troops will exactly agree with the passage of Samuel. It is probable, that they were a kind of auxiliary troops who were usually mounted on horses, or in chariots, but who occasionally served as foot soldiers.*
1 Chron. xix. 18. " But the Syrians fed before Israel; and David slew of the Syrians seven thousand men which fought in chariots, and forty thousand footmen, and killed Shophach the captain of the host." Compared with 2 Sam. X. 18. “ And the Syrians fled before Israel ; and David slew the men of seven hundred chariots of the Syrians, and forty thousand horsemen, and smote Shobach the captain of their host, who died there.” On the apparent discrepancy in the numbers of the charioteers, see p. 48, supra. Respecting the 40,000 horsemen in Samuel being termed footmen in Chronicles, it may be observed, that if these troops were, as we have supposed, a kind of dismounted cavalry, the terms footmen and horsemen might be indifferently applied to them.*
1 Chron. xxi. 11, 12. “ So Gad came to David, and said unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Choose thee either three years' famine," &c. In 2 Sam. 24. 13, it is seven years ; but the Septuagint has there tpia Etn, three years, as here; which is, no doubt, the true reading, the letter 1, zayin, seven, being mistaken for a, gimmel, three.*
1 Chron. xxi. 20. “ And Ornan turned back, and saw the angel; and his four sons with him hid themselves.” The Syriac and Arabic say, * David saw the angel,' and make no mention of Oman in this place; but the Septuagint says, Και επεστρεψεν Ορνα, και ειδε τον Βασιλεα, “ And Orna turned, and saw the king ;' and one of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. has 75200, hammelech, the king,' instead of 78500n, hammalách, the angel.' Houbigant translates it in the same manner; and vindicates his version from the parallel place, (2 Sa. 24. 40.), where it is said he saw David ; but not a word is there of his seeing the angel. It is true that the seeing of David is mentioned in ver. 21; but Houbigant supposes that this verse refers to his seeing the king while he was at a distance ; and the 21st to his seeing him when he same into his threshing-floor. In the first case, he and his sons were afraid when they saw the king coming, and hid themselves; but when he entered the threshing-floor, they were obliged to appear before him.*
1 Chron. xxiii. 1. “ Now the Levites were numbered from the age of thirty years and upward; and their number by their polls, man by man,
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was thirty and eight thousand.” Compared with ver. 24–27. « These were the sons of Levi after the house of their fathers, even the chief of the fathers, as they were counted by number of names by their polls, that did the work for the service of the house of the Lord, from the age of twenty years and upward. For David said, The Lord God of Israel hath given rest unto his people, that they may dwell in Jerusalem for ever; and also unto the Levites; they shall no more carry the tabernacle, nor any vessels of it for the service thereof. For by the last words of David the Levites were numbered from twenty years old and above.” At first David appointed the Levites to serve from thirty years old and upwards ; but considering, probably, that the temple, which was about to be built, with its courts, chambers, &c. would require a more numerous ministry, he fixed this period, by this subsequent regulation, at twenty years and upwards. In the time of Moses, the age was from thirty years to fifty; here this latter period is not mentioned, probably because the service was not so laborious now; for the ark being fixed, they had no longer any burthens to carry; and therefore even an old man might continue to serve.*
2 Chron. iv. 3. “ And under it was the similitude of oxen, which did compass it round about: ten in a cubit, compassing the sea round about. Two rows of oxen were cast, when it was cast.” In the parallel passage of Kings, (1 Kings 7. 24.) instead of dpa, bekarim, oxen,' we have D'Ypg, pekaim, 'knops,' in the form of colocynths, which last is supposed by able critics to be the reading which ought to be received here: dpa, bekarim, 'oxen,' being a mistake for døypa, pekaim, “knops.' Houbigant, however, contends that the words in both places are right; but that pa, bakar, does not signify an or here, but a large kind of grape, according to its meaning in Arabic. But Dr. A. Clarke states that vë, bakar, or jë, bakarat, has no such meaning in Arabic, though the phrase ole jövl, aino 'bikri, or "ox eye,' signifies a species of black grape, very large and of incredible sweetness; that consequently the criticism of this great man is not solid; and that the likeliest method of reconciling the two places is supposing a change in the letters as above.*
1 Chron. iv. 5. “And the thickness of it was an handbreadth, and the brim of it like the work of the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies; and it received and held three thousand baths.” In the parallel passage (1 Kings 7. 26.) it is said to hold only two thousand baths ; which some think may be reconciled by supposing that the quantity of water which was commonly in it was 2000 baths, but that, if filled up to the top, it would hold 3000. But, as the Babylonish cubit was less than that of the ancient Hebrews, it might be the same with measures of capacity; so that 2000 of the ancient Jewish baths might have been equal to 3000 of those used after the captivity. The Targum cuts the knot: “ It received 3000 baths of dry measure, and held 2000 of liquid measure.'*
2 Chron. v. 10. “ There was nothing in the ark save the two tables which Moses put therein at Horeb, when the Lord made a covenant with the children of Israel, when they came out of Egypt.” In the parallel passage in the Epistle to the Hebrews, (ch. 9. 4.), it is expressly stated that in the ark were the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant;' but it is evident that the apostle speaks there of the tabernacle erected by Moses, and of the state and contents of that tabernacle in the time of Moses ; and in the temple there were several things added, and several left out.
2 Chron. xxii. 9. The account in the parallel passage (2 Kings xi 10—14.) is somewhat different. The current of the story at large is this,' says Dr. Lightfoot, (Works, vol. i. p. 88.), “Jehu slayeth Joram in the field of Jezreel, as Abaziah and Joram were together : Ahaziah seeing this flies, and gets into Samaria, and hides himself there. Jehu marcheth to Jezreel, and makes Jezebel dog's meat: from thence sends to Samaria for the heads of Ahab's children and posterity; which are brought to him by night, and shewed to the people in the morning. Then he marcheth to Samaria, and, by the way, slayeth forty-two of Ahab's kinsmen ; and findeth Jehonadab, the father of the Rechabites. Coming into Samaria, he maketh search for Ahaziah: they find him hid, and bring him to Jehu, and he commands to carry him towards Gur, by Ibleam, and there to slay him.—They do so: smite him in his chariot, and his charioteer driveth away to Megiddo before he dies. **
Ezra xi. 11. “All the vessels of gold and of silver were five thousand and four hundred.” Instead of 5400, the enumeration of the articles in ver. 9, 10, only amounts to 2499 ; but in the parallel account, Esdras, ch. 2.13,14, the amount is 5469, as will be evident from the following statements:
IN EZRA. Gold chargers 30
1000 Silver ditto 1000
1000 Knives 29
29 Gold basons 30 Gold vials
30 Silver ditto 410 Silver vials
2410 Other vessels 1000 Other vessels
Said to be
5469 But only
2901 It is supposed that they actually amounted to 5400, but that only the chief of them were specified, the spoons, &c. being omitted. *
Ezra ï. 64. “ The whole congregation together was forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore.” Though the sum total, both here and in Nehemiah, is equal; namely, 42,360, yet the particulars
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reckoned up only make 29,818 in Ezra, and 31,089 in Nehemiah ; and we find that Nehemiah mentions 1765 persons which are not in Ezra, and Ezra has 494 not mentioned in Nehemiah. This last circumstance, which seems to render all hope of reconciling them impossible, Mr. Alting thinks is the very point by which they can be reconciled; for, if we add Ezra's surplus to the sum in Nehemiah, and Nehemiah's surplus to the number in Ezra, they will both amount to 31,583; which subtracted from 42,360, leaves a deficiency of 10,777, which are not named because they did not belong to the tribes of Judah and Benjainin, or to the priests, but to the other Israelitish tribes. *
Neh, vii. 26. “ The men of Beth-lehem and Netophah, an hundred fourscore and eight.” The Septuagint reads here the same as in the parallel place, (Ezra 2. 21, 22.) Υιοι Βαιθαλεμ, εκατον εικοσιτρεις υιοι Ατωφα [Alex. A verwpa] TEVTnkovTae— The children of Bethlehem, one hundred twenty and three ; the children of Netophah, fifty and six.' Though this reading is not found in any Hebrew MS. yet collated, it is doubtless
the true one.
Neh. vii. 33. “ The men of the other Nebo, fifty and two." The Alexandrian ΜS. adds, Υιοι Μαγαβως, εκατον πεντηκονταεξ, «The children of Magbish, an hundred fifty and six,' as in Ezr. 2. 30.
Neh. vii. 44. “ The singers: the children of Asaph, an hundred forty and eight.” One of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. (145.) reads in the parallel place of Ezra, (ch. 2. 41, where the present reading is 128,) 'an hundred and forty and eight,' as here.*
Neh. vii. 48. “ The children of Lebana, the children of Hagaba, the children of Shalmai.” After Hagaba, the Alexandrian MS. of the Septuagint inserts here, υιοι Ακουδ, υιοι Ουτα, νεοι Κηταρ, υιοι Αγαβ, « the children of Akoud, the children of Outa, the children of Ketar, the children of Agab,' or Hagab, which more nearly agrees with Ezra, 2. 45, 46; and in the latter verse, not only the Keri and Septuagint, but many of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. read abw, Shalmai, as here. A more extensive collation of MSS. would doubtless tend still more to harmonize both the names and numbers; and for a more ample reconciliation, see the_notes on these books. *
Ps. Ix. title: “ To the chief Musician upon Shushan-eduth, Michtam of David, to teach; when he strove with Aram-naharaim, and with Aramzobah, when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve thousand.” In 1 Ch. 18. 12, this victory is ascribed to Abishai, and the number is said to be 18,000; and in 2 Sam. 8. 13, it is attributed to David, and the persons slain are said to be 18,000 Syrians. But as Abishai acted under Joab, and Joab under David, it might very naturally be ascribed to the two latter : instead of oux, aram, 'Syria,' in 2 Sam. 12 MSS. and the versions have b7x, Edom; and it is probable, that dow 75x Tuy, shenayim asor aileph, 12,000, is here a mistake for 758 vy now, shemonah asor aileph, 18,000.*