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Ps. 115. 448; “Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have mouths, but they speak not: eyes have they, but they see not : they have ears, but they hear not : noses have they, but they smell not : they have hands, but they handle not : feet have they, but they walk not: neither speak they through their throat. They that make them are like unto them; so is every one that trusteth in them.” They are metal, stone, and wood; and, though generally made in the form of man, they can neither see, hear, smell, feel, walk, nor speak! Even the wiser heathen made them the objects of their jests. Thus Juvenal, (Sat. xxii. 113.) • Dost thou hear, Jupiter, these things ? nor move thy lips when thou shouldest speak out, whether thou art of marble or of bronze? Or why do we put the sacred incense on thy altar from the opened paper, and the extracted liver of a calf, and the white caul of a hog? As far as I can discern, there is no difference between thy statue and that of Bathyllus :'-a fiddler and player, whose image, by the order of Polycrates, was erected in the temple of Juno at Samos. * In the succeeding verses (13 —18.) we are presented with a beautiful contrast between the God of Israel and heathen idols. He made every thing; they are themselves made by men : He is in heaven; they are upon the earth : He doeth whatsoever He pleaseth ; they can do nothing : He seeth the distresses, heareth and answereth the prayers, accepteth the offerings, cometh to the assistance, effecteth the salvation, and blesseth His servants; they are blind, deaf and dumb, senseless, motionless, and impotent.—135. 15; Is. 44. 9. The Sacred Writers, observes Bp. Lowth, are generally large and eloquent upon the subject of idolatry: they treat it with great severity, and set forth the absurdity of it in the strongest light. But this passage of Isaiah, ver. 12—20, far exceeds any thing ever written upon the subject, in force of argument, energy of expression, and elegance of composition. One or two of the apocryphal writers have attempted to imitate the prophet, but with very ill success: Wisd. xiii. 11—19. xv. 7, &c. Baruch, ch. vi., especially the latter ; who, injudiciously dilating his matter, and introducing a number of minute circumstances, has very much weakened the force and effect of his invective. On the contrary, a heathen author, in the ludicrous way, has, in a line or two, given idolatry one of the severest strokes it ever received :-Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, Cum faber incertus faceretne Priapum, Maluit esse deum: deus inde ego, furum aviumque Marima formido. “Formerly I was the stump of a fig-tree, a useless log ; when the carpenter, hesitating whether to make me a Priapus or a stool, at last determined to make me a god : thus I became a god, and a great terror to thieves and birds.'*_46. 1; Jer. 2. 26; 10. 3;—the punishment of it death, Deut. 13. 9; 17.2 ;—the Canaanites extirpated on account of it, Deut. 21. 29;—the monuments of it to be destroyed, Ex. 23. 24; 34. 13; Deut. 7. 5, 25; 12. 1, &c. 29;— all communications with idolaters forbidden, Deut. 5. 1, &c. ;-examples

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of it, of the Israelites in the golden calf, Ex. 32. 1, &c.;-in the worship of Baal-peor, Num. 25. 1, &c.;-after the death of Joshua, Judg. 2. 12; 3. 7 ;-after the death of Gideon, 8. 33 ;-by the Danites, 18. 30 ;-of Solomon, 1 Kings 11. 4;-by Jeroboam, 12. 28;-in the time of Ahab, 18. 22;—of Ahaz, 2 Kings 16. 3 ;-of the Samaritans, 17. 29 ;-of Amaziah, 2 Chr. 22. 14 ;-of Manasseh, 33. 2 ;-covetousness so called, Col. 3. 5.

(47.) Of Sacrilege-forbidden and censured, Pr. 20. 25; Mal. 3. 8; Rom. 2. 22. *

(48.) Of Blasphemy.—Blasphemy, Blaophura, either from Blattely TNV onunv, to hurt or blast the reputation, or from Ballav tais onpais, to smite with words, or reports, when applied to men denotes injurious speaking, or calumny, and when used in reference to God signifies speaking impiously of his nature, attributes, and works. t- Against God punishable with death, Lev. 24. 15, 16, 23;-blasphemer executed, 23;-of Sennacherib, 2 Kings 18. 17; 2 Chr. 32. 9; Is. 36. 1, &c.; of the Pharisees in ascribing the miracles of Christ to Beelzebub, Matt. 9. 34 ; 12. 24; Mark 3. 22; Luke 11. 15; John 10. 20;-against the Holy Spirit not to be forgiven, Matt. 12. 31; Mark 3. 28; Luke 12. 10. *

(49.) Of Aflictions—the appointment of God, Job 5. 6,7; 14. 1; Ps. 75. 6, 7; 1 Thess. 3. 3 ; John 16. 33; 2 Tim. 3. 12 ;-no proof of guilt, Job 5. 7; Ecc. 2. 14; Luke 13. 1, &c.; John 9. 2 ;-though sometimes the consequence of sin, and the punishment of guilt, Gen. 3. 17; 4. 12; 2 Sam. 24. 13; 2 Kings 5. 27; Prov. 10. 4; 20. 4; 23. 29, &c.; Acts 28. 4, &c.;—the effect of man's sin and folly, Prov. 19. 3 ; 22. 8; Lam. 3. 39; Hos. 10. 13;-suffered in consequence of the discharge of duty, Gen. 39. 20; Ps. 69. 5, 7; Matt. 10. 17, 18, 22; 24. 9 ;-why permitted, Mich. 7. 9; John 9. 2, 3; 1 Cor. 11. 32; Heb. 12. 6;—not a mark of God's anger, but of his love, Prov. 3. 12; Rev. 3. 19 ;—for the improvement of virtue and the trial of faith, Deut. 8. 5; Job 5. 17; Ps. 66. 10 ; 78. 34 ; 94. 12; 119. 67, 71, 75; Prov. 3. 11; Ecc. 7.3; Is. 26. 9, 16; 48. 10; Jer. 2. 30; Zeph. 3. 7; Rom. 5. 3; Heb. 12. 5, 10; 1 Pet. 1. 6;—are sometimes the means of bringing transgressors to a sense of duty, Deut. 8. 5; 2 Chron. 33. 11; Job 5. 17; 36. 8; Ps. 78. 34 ; 104. 12; 119. 67, 71, 75; Prov. 3. 11; Ecc. 7. 3; Is. 26. 9, 16; Jer. 2. 30; Zeph. 3. 7; Rom. 5. 3 ; Heb. 12.5;—to be borne with patience, Prov. 24. 10; 2 Tim. 2. 3; 4. 5.;—instances of such behaviour, 1 Sam. 3. 18; Job 1. 21, 22 ; Acts 5. 41 ; 16. 25 ; 2 Cor. 7. 4; Heb. 10. 34 ; afflictions of persons better than we have been greater than ours, 1 Cor. 4. 9; 2 Cor. 4. 11; Jam. 5. 10; 1 Pet. 5.9 ;-especially those of Jesus Christ, Rom. 8. 17; 2 Cor. 4. 10; 2 Tim. 2. 12; Heb. 12. 3; 1 Pet. 2. 21; 4. 13;—God supports the righteous under them, Ps. 9. 1; 34. 19; 37. 24; 41. 3; 55. 22 ; Prov. 24. 16; Lam. 3. 31, &c.; 1 Cor. 10. 13; 2 Cor. 12. 8; 2 Tim. 3. 11; 2 Pet. 2. 9. This David experienced, Ps. 31. “I will be glad and rejoice in thy mercy: for thou hast considered my trouble; thou hast known my soul in adversities.” In the deepest adversities, when all forsook me, then I found Thee to be my Friend and Supporter. Cicero says, “Amicus certus in re incertâ cernitur:' equivalent to, ' A friend in need is a friend indeed;' and such a Friend is God : human friendships may fail ; but the friend of sinners never.*-An abundant recompense will be made for them, Matt. 5. 10; Luke 6. 22; Rom. 8. 18; 2 Cor. 4. 17; Jam. 1. 12; 1 Pet. 1.7; 21. 9; 3. 15; 4. 13; Rev. 2. 10; 7. 13—17;—we may desire, and pray for deliverance out of them, 2 Kings 20. 1; 2 Chron. 33. 12; Ps. 6. 1; 7.1 ; 18. 3, &c.; Matt. 26. 39; 2 Cor. 12. 8 ; Jam. 5.13 ;-how to behave to those who suffer them, 2 Kings 8. 2,9; Job 2. 11; 6. 14; 16. 5; 30.25 ; Ps. 35. 13; Is. 58. 7, &c.; Matt. 25. 35; Rom. 12. 15; 2 Tim. 1. 16—18; Heb. 13. 3; Jam. 1. 27.7

(50.) Of Resignation to the Divine will,—in Aaron, Lev. 10. 3 ;-in Eli, 1 Sam. 3. 18;—in Job, Job 1. 20;-in David, 2 Sam. 15. 26; Ps. 39. 9; -in Hezekiah, 2 Kings 20. 29;—in Mary, Luke 1.38 ;-in Jesus, Matt. 26. 42; Mark 14. 36; Luke 22.42; John 18. 11 ;-in Paul, Phil. 4.11; -recommended to the church, Jam. 4. 10.1 (51.) Of Trust in God,-a duty, and motives to it, Job 38. 41;

Ps. 22. 4; 31. 19; 37. 3; 56. 3 ; 91. 2; 104. 27; 115. 9; 118. 8; 125. 1; 147. 9; Prov. 16. 20; 28. 25; 29. 25; 30. 5; Jer. 17.5, 7; 39. 18; 1 Pet. 5. 7 ;-declarations of it, by Hezekiah, 2 Kings, 18. 5;—by Asa, 2 Chr. 14. 11 ;-by David, Ps. 3. 6; 27. 3; 57. 1; 61. 4;—by Isaiah, Is. 12. 2 ;- by Paul, 2 Tim. 1. 12; 4. 18;—in any thing besides God censured, Job 31. 24; Ps. 33. 16; 44, 6; 49. 6; 52. 7; 62. 10; 118.8; 146.3; Is. 30. 1; 31. 1; Jer. 17.5; 1 Tim. 6. 17.4 (52.) Of the Fear of God-recommended, Deut 6. 13; 10. 12; Josh. 24.

1 Sam. 12. 24; 1 Chr. 16. 25; Ps. 2. 11; 33.8; Prov. 3. 7 ; 23. 17; Ecc. 12. 13; Mal. 1. 6; Heb. 12. 28; 1 Pet. 2. 17;—motives to it, Deut. 32. 39 ; 1 Sam. 2. 6; Job 13. 11; 28, 28; Ps. 34. 7, 9; 76. 7; 103. 13, 17; 111. 10; 130. 4; Prov. 1.7 ; 14. 26; Matt. 10. 28; Luke 1. 50 ;-opposed to presumption, Prov. 28. 14; Rom. 11. 20; 1 Cor. 10. 12; Phil. 2. 12; Heb. 4. 1; 12. 28; 1 Pet. 1. 17 ;-happy effects of it, Ps. 25. 12; 112. 1; Prov. 9. 10; 16. 6; 19. 23; 22. 4; Ecc. 8. 12; -marks of it, Prov. 8. 13;-of punishment, a motive to obedience, Job 31. 23; Luke 12.5; 2 Cor. 5. 11 ;—the effect of guilt, Gen. 3.8; 4. 14; 32. 7 ; Acts 16. 38 ; 24. 25; James 2. 19;-of man, the bounds of it, Deut. 7. 17, &c.; Ps. 56. 4; 118. 6; Prov. 29. 25; Is. 8. 12; 51. 7; Matt. 10. 26; Heb. 12.7

(53.) Of the Love of men to God, Deut. 6. 5; 10. 12; Josh. 23. 11; Ps. 31. 23; Matt. 22, 37 ;-how to be expressed, 1 John 2. 5 ; 4. 21; 5. 3.+

(54.) Of the Hope of eternal lifeis founded on the promises and merits

14;

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of Christ, Col. 1. 27; 1 Thess. 1. 3; 2 Thess. 2. 16; Tit. 1. 2 ;—said to be saved by it, Rom. 8. 24;—rejoicing in it, 12. 12 ;-a motive to virtue, Rom. 15. 4, 13; Heb. 3. 6; 1 Pet. 1. 13.*

(55.) Of Despairto be guarded against, Ps. 34. 19; 37. 24 ; 113. 7; 140. 12; 145. 14; Luke 18. 1: 2 Cor. 4. 8; Gal. 6.9; 2 Thess. 3. 13; Heb. 12. 3.*

(56.) Of Contentment—recommended, Prov. 30. 8, 9; Heb. 13. 5; 1 Tim. 6. 6; 1 Cor. 7. 20;-of Esau, Gen. 33.9;-of Barzillai, 2 Sam. 19. 35;—of the Shunamite, 2 Kings 4. 13;—of Paul, Phil. 4. 11.*

(57.) Of Anriety, about worldly things, to be avoided, Matt. 6. 25; 13. 22; Luke 12. 22; John 6. 27 ; 1 Cor. 7.32; Phil. 4. 6; 1 Tim. 6.8.*

(58.) Of Conversion-of sinners acceptable to God, Matt. 18. 14 ; Luke 15. 7, 10 ;-—will ensure salvation, Ezek. 18. 27; Luke 15. 18, &c. ;beneficial to those that promote it, Dan. 14. 3 ; 1 Tim. 4. 16; James 5. 19;—the signs of it, Is. 1. 16; Joel 2. 13; James 4. 8.*

(59.) Of Salvation, or deliverance,—is from God only, Ps. 3.8; Is. 43. 11; Hos. 13. 4; Jon. 2. 9;—or Divine favour, offered to all, Ezek. 18. 32; 33. 11; John 1. 9, 29; 1 Tim. 2. 4; Tit. 2. 11; 2 Pet. 3.9; 1 John 2. 2 ;—through the mediation of Christ, John 3. 17; 12. 32 ; 14. 6 ; Acts 4. 12.*

(60.) Of Confession-of Christ, a necessary duty, Matt. 10. 32; Mark 8. 38; Luke 9. 26 ; 12. 8; Rom. 10. 9; 2 Tim. 2. 12; 1 John 23; 4. 15;—to God, Judg. 10. 10, 15; Ezr. 9. 5; Neh. 1. 6; Ps. 32. 5; 38. 18; 41. 4 ; 51. 3 ; 119. 67, 176; Prov. 28. 13; Jer. 3. 13; Dan. 9. 5, 20; 1 John 1. 8, 9;-to one another, Lev. 5.5; Num. 5.7; Matt. 3. 6; Mark 1. 5; Acts 19. 18; James 5. 16.*

(61.) Of the Gospel.-The word Gospel, from the Anglo-Saxon god, good, and spell, a message or tidings, denotes good tidings, exactly corresponding to the original term EYASTEAION, from ev, good, and ayyedia, a message or tidings; which is evidently intended to point out the good message, or 'glad tidings of great joy, to all people, peace and reconciliation by Christ Jesus, which God by them proclaims to the world.t-The blessings of it, Rom. 1. 16; 1 Cor. 1. 18; Eph. 2. 1, &c.; 1 Pet. 1. 1, &c.;-superior to the law of Moses, John 1. 17; 2 Cor. 3.7;—the danger of rejecting it, Mark 16. 16; Luke 10. 16; John 3. 36; 12. 48; Heb. 2.3; 10. 28; 12. 25;--to whom it is hidden, 2 Cor. 4. 3, 4;no other to be preached, Gal. 1. 8, 9;—the remarkable propagation of it, Mark 4. 30; John 12. 32 ; Acts 2. 41 ; 4. 4; 6.7 ; 12. 24 ; 13. 49; 19. 20; 1 Cor. 16. 9.*

(62.) Of the Commandments,—the ten delivered by God from Mount Sinai, Ex. 20. 1, &c.; Deut. 5. 6, &c.;—not abrogated by Christ, Matt. 5. 17; Mark 10. 17; Luke 18. 18;—keeping them not a condition of life, Matt. 19. 17; Mark 10. 19; Luke 18. 20.*

(63.) Of Moral duties,—exhortation to them, Rom. 22.2, &c.; Eph. 4. 2;

5. 1, &c.; Phil. 4. 8; Col. 3. 1; 1 Thess. 4. 1; 5. 4; Tit. 3. 8; Heb. 13. 1, &c.; 1 Pet. 1. 15; 2 Pet. 1. 5 ;-comprised in a small compass, Mic. 6.8; Matt. 7. 12; 22. 37; Gal. 5. 14.*

(64.) Of the Duty of man-in general, Deut. 10. 12; Josh. 22.5; Ps. 1. 1, &c.; Ezek. 18. 5; Hos. 12.6 ; Mic. 6. 8; Zech. 7. 9; 8. 16; Matt. 19. 16; 22. 37; 1 Tim. 6. 11; 2 Tim. 2. 22; Til. 2. 11, &c.; James 1. 27;—a difference in its value, 1 Sam. 15. 22; Hos. 6. 6; Matt. 9. 13; 12. 7 ; 23. 23; Luke 11. 42.*

(65.) Of Perseverance in duty-enjoined, Matt. 10. 22; 24. 13; Luke 9. 62; Acts 13. 43; 1 Cor. 15. 58 ; 16. 13; Col. 1. 23; 2 Thess. 3. 13; 1 Tim. 6. 14; Ileb. 3. 6, 14; 10, 38; 2 Pet. 3. 17; Rev, 2. 10, 25.*

(66.) Of Instabilitycensured, 1 Kings 18. 21; Hos. 6. 4; Eph. 4. 14; Col 1, 23; James 1. 6.*

(67.) Of Marriage,—its institution, Gen, 2. 21;-indissoluble, Matt. 19. 5, “And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?" cleave, a pookolAn@noetai, “shall be cemented to his wife,' as the Hebrew pan, davak, implies; a beautiful metaphor forcibly intimating that nothing but death can separate them.t “Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder;" joined together, ovvesevčev, "hath yoked together,' as oxen in the plough, where each must pull equally in order to bring it on. Among the ancients, they put a yoke upon the necks of a new married couple, or chains on their arms, to shew that they were to be one, closely united, and pulling equally together in all the concerns of life.t-1 Cor. 6. 16; Eph. 5. 31; -unlawful ones, Lev. 18. 1, &c. ; — with strangers forbidden to the Jews, Ez. 10.1; Neh. 13. 23;-lawful for all Christians, 1 Cor. 7.38; 1 Tim. 5. 14; Heb. 13. 4;-when prudent, 1 Tim. 5. 14; 1 Cor. 7. 2, 9. “ Let every man have his own wise, and let every woman have her own husband.” In strictness, as Dr. Campbell observes, I have no right to call that idov, own, which I enjoy in common with others; and no woman can call any man lõiov avnp, “ her own husband,' whom she has in common with other women. In the New Testament we have always ιδιος ανηρ, never ιδια γυνη,

his own wife;' which is the more remarkable, as no such an expression occurs in the Septuagint. For, during that dispensation, things were on a different footing. The words rendered his own wife,' are, tnv savrov yuvn; for there was not the same reason for the explicitly strong restriction, on that side, which is contained in the word côlos. This is absolutely decisive against polygamy; and places the husband and the wife entirely on the same ground; and as much forbids him to take another woman, as it does her to cohabit with another man.t-Not prudent in time of persecution, 1 Co. 7. 1, 7, 26.—St. Paul evidently gave this advice in reference to the necessities of the church, or what he calls, (ver. 26.) the present distress; for it would be perfectly absurd to imagine, that an in

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