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goodness; but he pleads the appearance which it would have, and the construction which the Egyptians and other neighbouring nations would put upon it; and he further pleads the name of the Lord, and the example of his former forgiveness.*-Of Samson, Judg. 16. 28;-of Hannah for a child, 1 Sam. 1. 10;—of David, 2 Sam. 7. 18; 1 Chr. 29. 10; Ps. 5. 1, &c. &c. &c. ;-of Solomon at the dedication of the temple, 1 Kings 8. 22; 2 Chr. 6. 12; Solomon having ascended the brazen scaffold, and stood up and blessed the people, he kneeled down upon his knees, and offered up a comprehensive and most excellent prayer, in which he puts seven cases, in all of which the mercy and intervention of God would be indispensably requisite; and he earnestly bespeaks that mercy and intervention, on condition that the people pray towards that holy place; and with a feeling heart, make earnest supplication to the throne of mercy.* -of Hezekiah, 2 Kings 19. 15; 20. 2;-of Manasseh in his distress, 2 Chr. 33. 12;-of Jeremiah, ch. 32. 16–25. A prayer, for weight of matter, sublimity of expression, profound veneration, just conception, Divine unction, powerful pleading, and strength of faith, seldom equalled, and never excelled. Historical, without flatness; condensed, without obscurity; confessing the greatest of crimes against the most righteous of Beings, without despairing of His mercy or presuming on His goodness; -a confession that acknowledges that God's justice should smite and destroy, had not His infinite goodness said, I will pardon ;*—of Daniel, Dan. 9. 3;-of Jonah, Jon. 2. 1, &c.;-of Habakkuk, Hab. 3. 1, &c. in which having nervously painted the desolate state of Judea during the captivity, he, in the two following verses (18, 19,) exhibits the finest display of his resignation, confidence, and holy triumph in the God of his salvation. He saw that the evil, which the Spirit of God enabled him to paint in all its calamitous circumstances, was at hand, and unavoidable; he submitted to this dispensation of Providence; and confided in His mercy and goodness.* "Although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls: yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation. The Lord God is my strength, and he will make my feet like hinds' feet, and he will make me to walk upon mine high places.”—Of Asa, 2 Chr. 14. 11;—of Jehoshaphat, 20. 6;—of Ezra, 9. 6; of the Levites, Neh. 9. 5;-of Esther, Esth. 4. 16;-of Amos, Am. 7. 2, 5;-of Zacharias for a son, Luke 1. 13;-of Jesus at the resurrection of Lazarus, John 11. 41;-for his disciples, 17. 1, &c. ;—in the garden, Mat. 26. 39;-of Cornelius, Acts 10. 1;-for others, of Abraham for Abimelech, Gen. 20. 17;-Isaac for his wife, 25. 21;— Moses for the people, Ex. 32. 11; 33. 12; Num. 11. 2;-for Miriam, 12. 13;-of Samuel for the people, 1 Sam. 12. 23;-of the Christians for Peter, Acts 12. 5;-of Jesus for his executioners, Luke 23. 34;-of

Stephen for his persecutors, Acts 7. 60 ;-of Paul for the Jews, Rom. 9; 10. 1;-of the church for him, Rom. 15. 30;-for Christians, 2 Cor. 1. 11; Eph. 1. 16; 6. 18; Col. 4. 3; 1 Thes. 5. 25; 2 Thes. 3. 1; Heb. 13. 18;-for enemies, Mat. 5. 44;-proper to precede great undertakings: of Elisha before he raised the dead child, 2 Kings 4. 33;-of Jesus before the appointment of the twelve apostles, Luke 6. 12;—of the apostles before the appointment of a successor to Judas Iscariot, Acts 1. 24.*

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(28.) Of Praise of God,-exhortation to it, &c. Ps. 22. 23; 67.3; 69. 34; 119. 164; Is. 38. 19; Acts 2. 47; 16. 25. The sacrifice of praise,' says St. Paul, is the fruit of the lips.' (Heb. 13. 15.) God creates this fruit of the lips, by giving new subject and cause of thanksgiving by His mercies conferred on His people. The great subject of thanksgiving is peace; reconciliation and pardon offered to them that are nigh, and to them that are far off; not only to the Jew, but also to the Gentile.+

(29.) Of Thanksgiving—a duty, Deut. 8. 10; Ps. 51. 14; 69. 30; 92. 1; 139. 14; 147. 1; Is. 25. 1, &c.; Col. 3. 17; 1 Thess. 5. 18; 1 Tim. 4. 4; Heb. 13. 15; 1 Pet. 2. 9, &c.

(30.) Of Worship-to be paid to God only, Ex. 20. 4; Mat. 4. 10; Luke 4. 8; Acts 10. 25; 14. 13, &c.; Rev. 19. 10; 22. 8;-public, required, Deut. 26. 10, 11; 2 Kings 17. 36; Ps. 22. 22, 25; 35. 18; 95.6; 107. 32; 116. 14; 122. 1, 4; Mat. 18. 20; Acts 1. 14; 10. 33; Heb. 10. 25;-decency to be observed in it, Ecc. 5. 1; Joel 2. 15;-rules respecting it, 1 Cor. 11. 1, &c.; 14. 1, &c.

(31.) Of the Scriptures—given by inspiration, 2 Tim. 3. 16;—their use, Rom. 15. 4;-how to be received, Jam. 1. 21;-their blessings when received, Rom. 1. 16; 1 Cor. 1. 18; Eph. 2. 1, &c.; 1 Pet. 1;-danger of rejecting them, Mark 16. 16; Luke 10. 16; John 3, 36; 12. 48; Heb. 2. 3; 10. 28; 12. 25; Luke 16. 31. "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead:" From this answer of Abraham we learn, that the Sacred Writings contain such proofs of a divine origin, that though all the dead were to rise, the proofs could not be more evident, nor the couviction greater; and that to escape eternal perdition, and obtain eternal glory, a man is to receive the testimonies of God, and to walk according to their dictates.— To be frequently meditated upon, Deut. 6. 6; 11. 18; Ps. 1. 2; 119. 97; John 5. 39; 2 Pet. 3. 2;—a privilege of the Jews, Rom. 3. 2;—designed for universal use, Rom. 15. 4; 1 Cor. 10, 11;-the advantage of the study of them, Ps. 19, 7; 119. 9, 72, 98, 103; Rom. 15. 4; Eph. 6. 17; 2 Tim. 3. 15; Jam. 1. 25.

(32.) Of the Church-holy catholic, how to be understood, John 10. 16; Rom. 12. 5; 1 Cor. 10. 17; 12. 13; Gal. 3. 28; Heb. 11.40; 12. 23;sometimes means the whole congregation of faithful people, Matt. 16. 18; Acts 2. 47; Eph. 3. 10, 21; Col. 1. 24;-sometimes a national, local, or private congregation, Acts 14. 27; 18. 22; Rom. 16. 5; 1 Cor. 14. 23;

• Comprehensive Bible, Index to Subjects, in voce. + Idem, on Is. 57. 19. Idem, Note in loco.

3 John 9;-sometimes the governors of the church, Matt. 18. 17; Acts 14. 27;—sometimes the place of worship, 1 Cor. 11. 18; 14. 19, 34.*

(33.) Of Unity-of the christian church, John 10. 16; Rom. 12. 5; 1 Cor. 10. 17; 12. 13; Gal. 3. 28; Eph. 1. 10; 2.19; 4. 13; 5. 23, 30; Col. 1. 18, 24;-among Christians, recommended, Rom. 12. 16; 15. 5; 1 Cor. 1. 10; 2 Cor. 13. 11; Eph. 4. 3; Phil. 1. 27; 2. 2; 4. 2; 1 Pet. 3. 8.*

(34.) Of Christian Ministers—in what light to be considered, 1 Cor. 4. 1 ; 2 Cor. 5. 20; 6. 1; to have a regular calling, John 10. 1; Acts 26. 16; 1 Tim. 4. 14; Tit. 1. 5;—their duty, to be diligent, Rom. 12.7; 1 Cor. 9. 16; Phil. 1. 20; Col. 4. 4; 1 Tim. 4. 6, 13; 5. 17; 2 Pet. 1. 12;— to reprove if necessary, 1 Thess. 2. 2; 1 Tim. 5. 20; 2 Tim. 4. 2; Tit. 1. 13; 2. 15;-to guard men from sin, 1 Cor. 4. 2: 1 Thess. 2. 11; 1 Tim. 4. 6; Heb. 13. 17;-to set good examples, Matt. 23. 3; Rom. 2. 21; 2 Cor. 6. 4; 1 Thess. 2. 10; 2 Thess. 3. 7; 1 Tim. 6. 11; Tit. 2. 7; 1 Pet. 5.3;-to be peaceable and patient, 1 Cor. 9. 19; 2 Cor. 6. 3; 1 Tim. 3. 3; 2 Tim. 2. 24; Tit. 1.7;-not worldly-minded, 1Cor. 10.33; 1 Tim.3.3; 2 Tim. 2.4; Tit. 1.7; 1Pet. 5. 2;-to be respected, Matt. 10.40; Luke 10. 16; John 13. 20; 1 Cor. 16. 10, 16; Phil. 2. 29; 1 Thess. 4.8; 5.12; 1 Tim. 5. 17; Heb. 13. 7, 17;-entitled to a maintenance, Matt. 10. 10; Luke 10. 7; 1 Cor. 9. 7; Gal. 6. 6; 1 Thess. 2. 6; 2 Thess. 3.9; 1 Tim. 5. 18; 2 Tim. 2. 6;—how to behave to those who oppose them, Matt. 10. 14; Luke 9.5; 10. 11; Acts 18. 6; Gal. 6. 1; 2 Tim. 2. 25.* (35.) Of the People,—their duty to God's ministers, ordinary and extraordinary, Deut. 12. 19; 14. 27; 18.6; 2 Chr. 36. 16; Matt. 10. 14; Luke 10. 16; 1 Cor. 4. 1; 9. 14; Gal. 6. 6; 1 Thess. 4. .8; 5. 12; 1 Tim. 5. 17; Heb. 13. 7, 17.*

(36.) Of Vows-not to be broken, and rules concerning them. A vow is a religious promise made to God for the most part with prayer, and paid with thanksgiving. Vows were either of abstinence (Nu. vi. xxx.), or the devoting of something to the Lord, as sacrifices (ch. 7. 16.) or the value of persons, beasts, houses, or lands, concerning which the law is here given. A man might vow or devote himself, his children, his domestics, his cattle, his goods, &c.; and respecting the redemption of all these, rules are laid down in this chapter. (Lev. xxvii.) But if after consecrating these things he refused to redeem them, they then became the Lord's property for ever. The persons continued all their lives devoted to the sanctuary; the goods were sold for the profit of the temple or the priests; and the animals, if clean, were offered in sacrifice, and if not proper for sacrifice, were sold, and the price devoted to sacred uses. This is a general view of the different laws relative to vows. The laws delivered must have been very useful, as it both prevented and annulled rash vows, and provided a proper sanction for the support and performance of those which were rationally made. Num. 30.

* Comprehensive Bible, Index to Subjects, in voce.

+ Idem, Note on Lev. 27. 2.

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1, &c.; Lev. 27. 1; Deut. 23. 21; Ps. 50. 14; 56. 12; 66, 13; 76.11; 116. 18; Ecc. 5. 4; Jer. 35. 6 ;—of a person, Lev. 27. 2;-of a beast, 9; -of a house, 14 ;-of a field, 16;—of Jacob, Gen. 28. 20;—of Jephtha, Judg. 11. 30, 35;-of the Israelites against the Benjamites, 21. 1, &c.*

(37.) Of Oaths,—to be strictly performed, Num. 30. 2; Ps. 15. 4; Matt. 5. 33;-false ones condemned, Lev. 6. 3; 19. 12; Jer. 7.9; Ezek. 17. 15; Zech. 5. 4; 8.17; Mal. 3. 5;-light ones not to be taken, Ex. 20.7; Lev. 19. 12; Zech. 5. 3; Matt. 5. 34; 23. 16; Jam. 5. 12;—taken by lifting up the hand to God, Gen. 14. 22;-putting the hand under the thigh, 24. 2; 47. 29;-by the name of God, Deut. 6. 13;-examples, of God to Abraham, Gen. 22. 16; Heb. 6. 13;-against Amalek, Ex. 17. 16;—against Moses, Deut. 4. 21;—against the house of Eli, 1 Sam. 3. 14;—to David, 2 Sam. 3.9; Ps. 89. 35; 110. 4;—against the Israelites, 95. 11;-against the Assyrians, Is. 14. 24;-for the restoration of Israel, 54.9; 62.8;—against the Jews going to Egypt, Jer. 44. 26;-imposed on Abraham's servant, Gen. 24. 3;—on Joseph by Jacob, 47. 31; 50. 5;—on the Israelites by Joseph, 50. 25;—required in case of a pledge, Ex. 22. 11;—of a wife suspected of adultery, Num. 5. 21;-of the spies by Rahab, Josh. 2. 12.*

(38.) Of Swearing-censured and forbidden, Matt. 5. 34; Jam. 5. 12.* (39.) Of Christians,—the term first used at Antioch, Acts 11. 26;-the salt of the earth, Matt. 5. 13;-the light of the world, 14;—their privileges, 1 Pet. 2. 5, &c.; Heb. 12. 22;-the sons of God, 1 John 3. 1, 2; Rom. 8. 14, &c.;-one with Christ and the Father, John 17. 11, 21;-all one body, Eph. 4. 15, 16;-the temple of God, 1 Cor. 3. 16.*

(40.) Of Heretics,- -or schismatics censured, Rom. 16. 17; 1 Cor. 1. 10; 3. 3; 11. 18; 14. 33; Gal. 5. 20; Phil. 2. 2; 4.2; 2 Thess. 3. 6, 14.* (41.) Of Opposers,-how to behave to them, Luke 9. 54; 2 Thess. 3. 14; 2 Tim. 2. 24.*

(42.) Of Apostacy,—the causes and danger of it, Matt. 12. 43; 13. 21; John 6. 60; 1 Tim. 4. 1; Heb. 6.4; 10. 26, 38; 2 Pet. 2. 20;—of men, Gen. 3; 6. 1—6;—of many of the disciples of Jesus, John 6. 66 ;—of some early Christians, 1 Tim. 1. 19.*

(43.) Of the Sabbath-appointed, Gen. 2. 2;--charge to keep it, Ex. 16. 23; 20.8, 10; 23. 12; 31. 12; 34. 21; 35. 2; Lev. 23. 3; Deut. 5. 12; Jer. 17. 21;-offerings on it, Num. 28. 9;-a breaker of it stoned, 15. 32;-how to be kept, Neh. 10. 31; Is. 58. 13; Ezek. 20. 12;—given as a sign to the Israelites.* The Apostle is here (Rom. 14. 5.) speaking of the Jewish fasts and festivals; and of course his observations do not regard the sabbath, which was instituted at the creation; and which being a type of the rest which remaineth for the people of God,' must continue in force, as all types do, till the antitype, or thing signified, takes place, that is, till the consummation of all things.†

(44.) Of Alms-giving-recommended, Deut. 15. 7; Job 22. 7; 31. 16;

* Comprehensive Bible, Index to Subjects, in voce.

+ Idem, Note in loco.

Ezek. 16. 49; Luke 3. 11; 11. 41; Eph. 4. 28; 1 Tim. 6. 18; Heb. 13. 16; 1 John 3. 17;-will be rewarded, Ps. 41. 1; 112. 9; Pro. 14. 21; 19. 17; 22.9; 28. 27; Matt. 25. 35; Luke 6. 38; 14. 14; 1 Tim. 6. 18, 19; Heb. 6. 10;-the neglect of it will be punished, Job 20. 19; Pro. 21. 13; Ezek. 18. 12; Matt. 25. 40;-to be given chiefly to the pious and deserving, Rom. 12. 13; 2 Cor. 9. 1; Gal. 6. 10;-not to the idle, 2 Thess. 3. 10;-according to men's ability, Mark 12. 43; Acts 11. 29; 1 Cor. 16. 2; 2 Cor. 8. 12; 1 Pet. 4. 11;-cheerfully and speedily, Pro. 3. 27; Rom. 12. 8; 2 Cor. 8. 11; 9.7;-not from ostentation, Pro. 20. 6; Matt. 6. 1 ;-proper to attend fasting, Is. 58. 7.*

(45.) Of Fasting,-mentioned as a general duty of all Christians, at some times, Matt. 9. 14, 15; Mark 2. 20; Luke 5. 35; 2 Cor. 6. 5;-accompanying solemn prayer, Ps. 35. 13; Dan. 9. 3; 1 Cor. 7. 5;-what kind is acceptable to God, Is. 58. 3, &c.; Joel 2. 12; Zech. 7. 9; Matt. 6. 17;—to be proclaimed in a time of public calamity, Joel 1. 14; 2. 15; -the institution of several annual ones, Zech. 7. 3, &c.; 8. 19;-of Moses, forty days, Ex. 24. 18; Deut. 9. 9;-a second time, 18;-of Daniel, 10. 2 ;—of Esther, 4. 15;—by the Ninevites, Jon. 3. 5 ;—of Jesus, Matt. 4. 2; Luke 4. 2.*

(46.) Of Idolatry,—forbidden, Ex. 20.4. This commandment includes in its studied, express, and comprehensive prohibitions, every species of idolatry; particularly that which is known to have been practised among the Egyptians. See on the plagues inflicted on the Egyptians.†-22. 20; 23. 13, 24; Lev. 26. 1; Deut. 4. 15-19. In these verses there is also an allusion to the idolatrous worship in Egypt. Among the Egyptians almost every thing in nature was the object of their idolatry; among beasts were oxen, heifers, sheep, goats, lions, dogs, monkeys, and cats; among birds, the ibis, crane, and hawk; among reptiles, the crocodile, serpents, frogs, flies, and beetles; all the fish of the Nile, and the Nile itself; besides the sun, moon, planets, stars, fire, light, air, darkness, and night. These are all included in the very circumstantial prohibition in the text, and very forcibly in the general terms of Ex. 20. 4; the reason of which prohibition becomes self-evident, when the various objects of Egyptian idolatry are considered.+-11. 16; 17. 2; 18, 9; 27. 15; Ps. 97. 7; Jer. 2. 9; 1 Cor. 10. 14; 1 John 5. 21; Rev. 21. 8; 22. 15;-the folly of it ridiculed, 1 Kings 18. 27; “And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud; for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be waked." Such were the absurd and degrading notions which the heathen entertained of their gods. Vishnoo sleeps four months in the year; and to each of the gods some particular business is assigned. Vayoo manages the winds; Vuroonu the waters, &c. According to a number of fables in the pooranus, the gods are often out on journeys or expeditions.' Ward's View of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 124. †

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