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the faith of the righteous Jehovah, who might be worshipped with sacrifices only in Jerusalem, was strong enough, after seventy years probation, to return and establish once more the theocracy, in which the Law of Jehovah was at once, as the poet sang, "a lantern unto their feet and a light unto their paths.” Towards this consummation the prophet Zephaniah performed his allotted part, delivered his message, and has, in his recorded prophecy, left it as a graphic picture of the condition of his country and countrymen.

In his day, even those who worshipped Jehovah had not learned the lesson of righteousness and morality; and, in spite of their wickedness, yet rejoiced in the pride of the city, and were haughty because of the holy mountain of God. He looked forward, by faith, to the change that would come in time, after God's judgment had been executed upon the guilty land; when, though the people should be poor and afflicted, and but a remnant of the old glory, they should trust in the name of Jehovah.

The contrast between Zephaniah and the annalists, which is a contrast only, and not a contradiction, is as marked as liis exact correspondence and agreement with Jeremiah in almost every point. Any study of the history of the times that will simply follow the annalists and neglect the prophetic testimony, must necessarily be incomplete and convey an incorrect impression of the condition of affairs.


Modern Chapters and Verses.



N the matter of the Modern Chapters and Verses, one point seems

to have escaped modern notice. (See generally my article Chapters and Verses, Modern, in Schaff's Herzog's Cyclopædia.) That is, the fact that, although the Arabic numerals were first printed in the margin of a Hebrew Bible in 1660, at the instance of John Leusden, an attempt was begun at the same thing in the Hebrew Bible of Plantinus, small 8vo, Antwerp, 1574. In this volume, every fifth verse is marked with Hebrew numerals, after the fashion already long in vogue; but the first 16 pages (that is, the first sheet) has also the Arabic numerals in the margin, opposite the beginning of each verse, like the modern Hebrew Bibles. The last verse thus numbered is Genesis xxxi. 4, verse 5 beginning the next page.

After I had discovered this fact for myself, I found that it was noted in Masch's Le Long, Pars i., Cap. i., Sect. i., $ xxxvi. 1., as follows: “ Capita et versus Judæorum more sunt distincti; at in prima codicis plagula singulis commatibus numerus arabicus in margine est adscriptus.” Whether the other Plantin Bible of the same date (also 1573), in smaller form, has the same phenomenon or not I am unable to say ; though Masch

says, “ Altera editio in forma minori ab hac non nisi forma differt." The only copy of that edition, which is ordinarily accessible to me, is at present boxed up. But the Plantin Peshitto Syriac New Testament of both forms, the first, (about) 1573 ; the second, 1575, --- have the Arabic verse-numbers in the margin.

Also, though in the New Testament the modern verses were made by Robert Stephen for his Latin Concordance of 1555, and are commonly reported to have been first used for reference in that book, the fact is that the first references made by the modern verse-numbers appear in the marginal references of his first New Testament divided into verses (1551), in the “ Index ” of the same, and in the “ Harmonia Evangelica ” which forms a part of the second volume of the same.

The caption of the "Index" is worth quoting as the first literary record on the subject : "Index eorum quae in Novo Testamento docentur. Primus numerus, caput : alter, versum significat.”

Alórios, II. Cor. iv, 17 and v. I.


THESE three consecutive verses refute the theory that giúvios is not a time-word, as distinctly as though they were written with that object in view. In iv. 17 we find the following contrasts : θλίψεως

δόξης ελαφρόν

βάρος παραυτίκα

αιώνιον. . The A. V. renders rapavtika“ but for a moment.” Similarly the R. V. " for the moment." The contrast holds aióvlov strictly to the sense “ everlasting." The next verse gives two more oppositions :τα βλεπόμενα

τα μη βλεπόμενα πρόσκαιρα

αιώνια. . Both versions render "temporal” and “eternal.” Alford brings out the contrast still more sharply: "not 'temporal,' belonging to time,' but "fleeting,' only for a time.'"

Following the etymology of mpóo kalpos, I should translate thus : "the things that are seen are for a season, but the things that are not seen are for ever." The apostle still pursues his contrasts in the verse that follows,

οικία του σκήνους οικίαν αχειροποίητον

εν τους ουρανούς

αιώνιον. . Both versions render “dissolved” and “eternal.” Alóvlov therefore = åkarálvtov, indestructible, i.e. never-ending. There is no important variation in the Greek authorities for the above verses. Either of them singly witnesses for the temporal sense of aiúvios; as combined in immediate succession, the testimony has great force. No doubt it is possible to evade this force; and, indeed, if the Bible had said, in so many words, “ eternal punishment is endless," the obvious comment would be: “that is, it has nothing to do with end; it pertains to a sphere where the terms beginning' and 'end' have no meaning."

V. 1:

Matt. xii. 43–45.


The form of this statement, in both Matthew and Luke (xi. 24-26), makes our Lord say that the disastrous result takes place whenever the unclean spirit leaves a man. The condition of all that follows is found in that one act of leaving. This is manifestly absurd, and the only way to get rid of the absurdity is to extend the conditional part of the statement through verse 44, so that it will read, “Whenever the unclean spirit has gone out from the man, and goes through waterless places, seeking rest and finding it not; and it says, I will return into my house, whence I came out; and having come, it finds it empty, swept and garnished; then it goes and takes with it seven other spirits, more evil than itself, and having entered, they dwell there, and that man's last condition becomes worse than the first." That is, the thing which determines the spirit's return is that he finds the house unoccupied, and the lesson is that a man must not only expel his evil spirits, but fill himself with good ones. But it does not follow that the house is left empty whenever the evil spirit departs. Or the statement may be left as it is, simply introducing a conditional particle before cupioke in verse 44, so that it will read, "and having come, if it finds it empty." What is wanted is to make this one thing, on which evidently the result depends, contingent.

It has occurred to the writer that the evident misplacing of the connectives in the Greek gospels may have arisen from the use of the simple connectives in the Aramaic speech of Jesus. There, the simple copulative conjunctions being used, the logical connections of the several statements are not indicated, but left to be implied from the nature of the whole and the evident relations of the parts. Then, in transferring it into Greek, it is easy to see how the proper connection of the parts may have been missed.



"HE seventh meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature and

Exegesis occurred, according to appointment, in the Library of the Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Conn., at 2.30 P.M., June 5th, 1883.

There were present Profs. Beecher, Bissell, Briggs; Rev. W. H. Cobb; Profs. Dwight, Ferguson, Gardiner, Gould, Hall; Rev. Drs. Hibbard, Jewett ; Rev. R. W. Micou ; Prof. Mitchell ; Rev. Dr. Mombert; Profs. Prentice and Schaff.

In the absence of the President and Vice-President, Prof. Dwight was chosen President pro tem.

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved.

The committee of arrangements announced that they had appointed, subject to the approval of the Society, a recess from 6 to 7.30 P.M., to be followed by the transaction of the business of the Society and the election of officers, and then by the hour for short notes. Also another session at 9 A.M. the following day.

The report was accepted and the arrangement adopted.

It was voted that the President be requested to appoint a committee to nominate officers. He subsequently appointed as such committee, Profs. Beecher, Bissell, and Gardiner.

At 3.10 the first paper was read by Prof. C. A. Briggs, D.D., on The Argument E Silentio.It occupied until 4.07, and was discussed until the recess.

On assembling at 7.30, in the absence of Prof. Dwight, Prof. Beecher was chosen President pro tem.

Letters of regret at unavoidable absence from many members were read.

The Council reported that they had fixed upon New York as the place, and the Christmas holidays as the time, of the next meeting ; the day and room to be determined by a Committee, consisting of Drs. Short, Briggs, and Schaff.

The Council recommended that the price of the Journal for 1881 be fixed at $1 to members elected since its publication. This recommendation was adopted by vote of the Society.

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