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first, however, erroneously (again see above), substituting an 'ee for aleph at the beginning, and leaving off the nun at the end; as in the case of "Nicolaitans” also. In xvi. 16 Appareoùy is likewise transliterated; naturally because the Syrian translator would not recognize the Hebrew “Har Megiddo.” These, with a double form for “Thyatira,” one like the Greek dative, are, if I mistake not, all the cases in which the Syriac genius is not strictly followed in the case of the proper names. It results that in this matter the Syriac Apocalypse is very widely different from the Harklensian genius as shown in White's edition, though not altogether different from that of some of the Harklensian MSS. My own judgment is that the handling of the proper names shows first a copyist, of a grade much inferior to the original translator; and next, as far as the translator can be discerned, it shows a procedure rather different from the extreme Harklensian method. 2. Next, as to Greek words not proper names.

Here the Harklensian genius is approached, but by no means fully reached. The word most frequently accurring is Opóvos; but it is not uniformly transliterated, being sometimes translated by the Syriac Linie At first it would seem that the translator intended to observe a distinction between the throne of the Almighty and the lesser thrones, by translating for the first and transliterating for the second. But as one reads the book through, that distinction breaks down, and no other appears to take its place. The word is translated in i. 4; iv. 2, 3, 4; xvi. 17; xx. 4; and, if I mistake not, transliterated in all the other cases.

Other words are ποδήρη, ζώνην and ζώνας (keeping the acc. sing. and pl. forms); reiðas and theiða (likewise keeping the Greek terminations); apóownov (but this is familiar in the Peshitto); the names of the several precious stones, and also zpúrtailos; z:Odpas (acc. pl. form); x0apwowy and zapwòai (gen. and nom. pl.); φιάλας and φιάλην (acc. sing. and pl. ); καύμα; στολάς (acc. pl.); γωνία; στάδια; άκρατων; ευαγγέλιον (but this is naturalized in Syriac); μουσικοί, ναύται; κυβερνήτης; λίβανον; άμωμον; κιννάμωμον; βύσσος; στρηνία (or στρήνος), with a verbal form from the same; y évos (but this word is naturalized in all the Orient); tempúywnos; δόμησις; χοίνιξ. Besides there are others where the Greek has been naturalized, but not transliterated, as the words for ovviola, òaleóvca, together with a few doubtful cases; which would of themselves lead to the conclusion that the book was translated from the Greek, even if we did not know the fact otherwise. Thus ovai appears to be transliterated, wo to be translated; yaixodißávo is partly translated and partly not, in the phrase hua hands; "in Sardis” is once (ii. 7) rendered “in Paradise” by a scribe's error; and 'Andoóta is pretty surely taken from the Greek form. To the same class may belong such cases as a Syriac participle for ú zatyropôv, formed anew from an adopted Greek word; the distorted form for apyapitai; and the possibly coincident law for gászos. To the usual Greek particles (ráp, 0, &c.) is to be added also ply.

The list here given covers nearly all the cases in kind. It shows plainly a coincidence with the Harklensian method in one respect, viz., in representing Greek case-endings* now and then; and the transliterated by looks in the same direction. But this matter is not to be judged altogether by what it shows affirmatively. It is to be compared with the general Harklensian usage, especially in its extent; a thing to be properly treated of in another connection. For the present it is enough to say that in respect to Greek words, the divergence of the Apocalypse from the Peshitto is not so great as from the Harklensian, but apparently greater (though the basis of comparison here is inadequate) than from the Pococke Epistles. The testimony of the Greek words, positive and negative, apparently tends on the whole to show that the Apocalypse is not a piece of the Harklensian as we have it; though the difference might be accounted for by remembering one very apparent fact; that it had no Peshitto basis. In some of its verbal translations it is nearer the Peshitto than to the Harklensian.

It is to be remembered, too, that the use of a Greek word where a native Syriac word might have been used, decides nothing. The only force, one way or the other, of this consideration lies in the prewiling fashion of the transliterating of words from the Greek text. To me, the case stands thus: neither the proper names nor the other words retained in the Syriac Apocalypse show any real connection with the Harklensian; but only an attempt to be faithful to the Greek original. If they are to be taken as showing a dependence upon or close connection with the Harklensian, then many a secular composition must fall into the same category, including some that antedate the Harklensian.

(The remaining portions of this paper await some further verification and revision, and will appear in a future number of the Journal.)

* But discretion is needed on this point. The Peshitto itself sometimes reproduces Greek case-endings, e.. g. of otáris in Luke xxiii. 19, 25; and of otáow in Mark xv. 7.


Proceedings in June, 1882.

The Society held its fifth meeting according to appointment in the Library of the Yale Divinity School, New Haven, on Thursday, June ist, 1882, at 2:30 P. M.

There were present during the meeting Pross. Beckwith, Brown, Day, Dwight, Fisher, Gardiner, Gould, Hall, Mitchell, Prentice, Schaff, Toy, Rev. S. M. Jackson, and Rev. Drs. Chambers, Harwood, Mombert, and Todd.

In the absence of the President and Vice-President, Prof. Day was chosen President pro tem.

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved.

The Secretary read extracts from a number of letters expressing regret of various members at their unavoidable absence.

He also reported upon the printing and distribution of the Journal.

An invitation was received from Prof. Wier to attend a reception at the Yale School of the Fine Arts at 872 o'clock this evening. This invitation was accepted with thanks, and tickets were given to the members present.

Voted, That the election of officers and the transaction of the general business of the Society be made the order of the day for 7 P. M., and that a committee on the nomination of officers be appointed by the chair. The chair appointed as such committee Drs. Toy, Brown, and Todd.

At 3:20 the first paper was read by Prof. George Prentice, D. D., on “The peculiarities in the mind of Christ," and the ensuing discussion continued until 4:55.

The next paper was read by Prof. I. H. Hall, Ph. D., on "The Beirût MS.” At 6 P. M., this paper being unfinished, a recess was taken until 7 P. M.

On the reassembling of the Society at 7:15 P. M., the committee on the nomination of officers reported, recommending the reëlection of the existing officers. The report was accepted, and the following officers were duly elected: Rev. D. R. GOODWIN, D. D., LL. D.,

- President. Rev. JAMES STRONG, D. D.,

Vice-President. Rev. F. GARDINER, D. D.,

Rev. C. A. BRIGGS, D. D.,

Rev. EZRA ABBOT, D. D., LL, D.,
Rev. GEO. E. DAY, D. D.,

Additional Members
Rev. TIMOTHY Dwight, D. D.,

of the Council. Rev. C. M. MEAD, Ph. D., The Report of the Treasurer was presented by Prof. Brown, and referred to an auditing committee appointed by the President, consisting of Profs. Prentice and Gould.

After discussion, it was voted that an hour, or so much thereof as may be necessary, be set apart at each meeting for such short notes and reports in the line of our work as may be presented by members, without being entered on the programme of the meeting. The hour immediately following the completion of Prof. Hall's paper was set apart for this purpose at the present meeting.

The auditors reported that the Treasurer's report was correct and duly vouched.

Prof. Hall's paper was continued at 7:35 and discussed until 8:25. Adjourned to attend the reception at the School of Fine Arts, and meet again at 9 A. M.

Friday, June 2d. The Society reassembled at 9 A. M. In the absence of the President pro tem., the Rev. Dr. Harwood was invited to take the chair, which he gave up to Dr. Day on his return. This being the hour for short papers and notes,

A note on Lenormant's Les Origines de l'Histoire, vol. II., chapter on Ararat and Eden, was read by Dr. Toy.

A note on S. Mark xii. 10, 11, was read by Prof. Hall.

A note on a recent criticism on The text, structure and authorship of the Apocalypse, by Völter, was read by the Rev. S. M. Jackson.

Dr. Schaff spoke at some length on Weiss' Leben Jesu. Dr. Dwight spoke on the Synoptical Gospels, especially S. Mark. Dr. Mombert read a note on the place of the printing of Tyndale's version, and on his study of Hebrew.

These notes, with the discussions to which they gave rise, occupied until 10:30 A. M. The hour having thus more than expired, other notes were deferred.

The next paper was read by the Rev. J. I. Mombert, D. D., on Job xix. 15-27, and was discussed until 11:25. The Rev. Dr. Dwight then paid a tribute to the memory of our late colleague, the Rev. J. K. Burr, D. D., of Trenton, New Jersey, and was followed by Drs. Day, Schaff, and others.

On motion, Drs. Short and Dwight were appointed a committee to prepare a minute in relation to the death of Dr. Burr, to be entered on our Journal, and to be sent to his family.

The minute, as subsequently prepared, is as follows:

WHEREAS, it has pleased Almighty God to remove by death the Rev. J. K. Burr, D. D., our esteemed fellow-member, who was chosen as our associate for his learning and ability, we desire to place on record our sense of the loss which this Society has thus sustained.

Dr. Burr had won the regard of all that were associated with him, by his devoted piety, by his scholarship, of which he had given signal proof in an excellent commentary on a part of Holy Scripture, by his modesty, his calm judgment, and his entle and truly Christian spirit. Though continually suffering from ill health during the last years of his life, he was still faithful to every duty, and attended, even till their work was completed, the meetings of the Committee of Bible Revision, of which he was an esteemed member.

The devotion of his life to the highest studies, to the worthiest causes, and to the best institutions, will be kept in grateful remembrance by many who knew and honored him.

This society tenders to his family and friends its sincere sympathy in their painful bereavement.



The following minute was, on motion, unanimously adopted:

The Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis desires to express its interest in the Syriac MS., belonging to the Syrian Protestant College at Beirút, of which Prof. Hall has given an account, and its hope that this important document may be printed and published. Its early date, the fact that it includes nearly the whole of the New Testament, and the apparent priority of its text over the Harklean, make it desirable that the text should be in the hands of scholars.

Further, the Society would express the hope that the Codex itself may remain in this country, where it may be accessible to a larger number of scholars. We therefore respectfully request the present owners of the MS. to take into consideration the propriety of depositing it in some fire-proof building in this country.

The Council reported the place and time for the next meeting as New York, at the Union Theological Seminary, during the Christmas holidays, at such day and hour as may be fixed by a committee consisting of Profs. Briggs, Schaff, and Brown.

The Council recommended the following persons for election as members of the Society, all of whom have published works or articles on subjects connected with the work of the Society. They were thereupon duly elected, and have since signified their acceptance of membership:

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